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Verb-ed modifiers Vs. Verb-ing modifiers

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Re: Verb-ed modifiers Vs. Verb-ing modifiers [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2013, 01:17
hi shraddha,

just a request to have your detailed analysis for below question.

Since the 1930’s aircraft manufacturers have tried to build airplanes with frictionless wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly that the air passing over them would not become turbulent.
(A) wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly
(B) wings, wings so smooth and so perfectly shaped
(C) wings that are shaped so smooth and perfect
(D) wings, shaped in such a smooth and perfect manner
(E) wings, wings having been shaped smoothly and perfectly so

since-the-1930-s-aircraft-manufacturers-have-tried-to-build-134320.html#p1095187

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Re: Verb-ed modifiers Vs. Verb-ing modifiers [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2013, 08:31
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blueseas wrote:
hi shraddha,

just a request to have your detailed analysis for below question.

Since the 1930’s aircraft manufacturers have tried to build airplanes with frictionless wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly that the air passing over them would not become turbulent.
(A) wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly
(B) wings, wings so smooth and so perfectly shaped
(C) wings that are shaped so smooth and perfect
(D) wings, shaped in such a smooth and perfect manner
(E) wings, wings having been shaped smoothly and perfectly so

since-the-1930-s-aircraft-manufacturers-have-tried-to-build-134320.html#p1095187

regards


Image


Hi blueseas,

Since the 1930’s aircraft manufacturers have tried to build airplanes with frictionless wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly that the air passing over them would not become turbulent.

Since the meaning of this sentence is pretty simple to understand, let’s move to the Error Analysis.

Error Analysis:

The verb-ed modifier “shaped” modifies the immediate preceding noun entity “”frictionless wings”. Well, this sentence does not seem to have any error. So we will hold on to this one till we get a better choice.

PoE

(A) wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly: On hold.

(B) wings, wings so smooth and so perfectly shaped: Correct. This answer choice is certainly better than Choice A because it uses the noun + noun modifier to explicitly mention that wings were shaped so smoothly and perfectly that the air over “them = wings” would not become turbulent. The reference of pronoun “them” in this answer choice has been clarified further. There is no ambiguity about the reference of this pronoun.

(C) wings that are shaped so smooth and perfect: Incorrect. Usage of “perfect” is not correct.

(D) wings, shaped in such a smooth and perfect manner: Incorrect. Adjectives “smooth” and “perfect” now modify the “manner” in which the “wings” were made and not the “wings”.

(E) wings, wings having been shaped smoothly and perfectly so: Incorrect. Use of “having been…” makes the choice wordy.

P.S: This does not seem to be an official question, is it?

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: Verb-ed modifiers Vs. Verb-ing modifiers [#permalink]

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New post 18 Feb 2014, 02:56
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Re: Verb-ed modifiers Vs. Verb-ing modifiers [#permalink]

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New post 29 Mar 2014, 20:28
egmat wrote:
Singular “that” cannot refer to plural “life-forms”.


Hi,

that in "E) Scientists have gathered evidence that suggests a much earlier emergence of complex life-forms than that" refers to "emergence of complex life-forms" & not just "life-forms" & that should be correct.
"emergence of complex life-forms" is a noun phrase, so, "that" can refer to it => Evidence suggests a much earlier emergence of life-forms than the emergence (of life-forms) they had previously thought.

No? Could you please explain why or why not? I'm not able to get my head around it. Please help.
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Re: Verb-ed modifiers Vs. Verb-ing modifiers [#permalink]

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New post 30 Mar 2014, 03:15
The level 1 for SC in egmat does states that verb-ed modifies the closest noun and there is no exception to it and all examples are given for nouns, however in explanation it states verb-ed modifies noun clause also , this creates confusion, this should be correct or should not be stated as rule with "nouns and without exception"
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Re: Verb-ed modifiers Vs. Verb-ing modifiers [#permalink]

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New post 03 Apr 2014, 17:15
sonalj17 wrote:
The level 1 for SC in egmat does states that verb-ed modifies the closest noun and there is no exception to it and all examples are given for nouns, however in explanation it states verb-ed modifies noun clause also , this creates confusion, this should be correct or should not be stated as rule with "nouns and without exception"


Hi,
Thanks for replying.
The sentence is grammatically correct but is wordy & awkward & that is as big a problem as a grammatical error itself.
For more details, please read: digging-in-sediments-in-northern-china-evidence-has-been-136456-20.html#p1351352
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Re: Verb-ed modifiers Vs. Verb-ing modifiers [#permalink]

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New post 16 May 2014, 14:22
2
hhakud wrote:
For the Stegosauraus, a dinosaur, the seventeen bony plates embedded in its back were necessary elements for survival, regulating its temperature throughout its bus-sized body and protecting it from much larger carnivores.

Can we change or rewrite the above sentence in the below way? Pls explain and correct me if I am wrong. Also explain what is the difference between these two sentences. And If the answer choices contain both of these options which one we need to choose..?

For the Stegosauraus, a dinosaur, the seventeen bony plates embedded in its back were necessary elements for survival, to regulate its temperature throughout its bus-sized body and to protect it from much larger carnivores



Hi hhakud,

Sorry for getting back to the thread so late.

Well, if you remove the comma before "to regulate", there will absolutely be no problem with the sentence at all.

But yes, there is a difference in the meaning of both the sentence.

Use of "comma + regulating and protecting" presents the HOW aspect of the preceding action. They provide additional information as to how the bony plates were necessary elements for survival.

Use of "to regulate and protect" presents the purpose or the reason why the bony plates were necessary for survival.

Now, if you get both the answer choices in the same question, then take a hint from the original sentence. If the original sentence uses comma + verb-ing then go by the choice with that modifier. If the original sentence has "to verb", then make the choice accordingly.

Original sentence presents ample of basis to understand the intended meaning of the sentence whether it wants to convey how the action is done or it wants to talk about the purpose.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: Verb-ed modifiers Vs. Verb-ing modifiers [#permalink]

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New post 16 May 2014, 14:46
divineacclivity wrote:
egmat wrote:
Singular “that” cannot refer to plural “life-forms”.


Hi,

that in "E) Scientists have gathered evidence that suggests a much earlier emergence of complex life-forms than that" refers to "emergence of complex life-forms" & not just "life-forms" & that should be correct.
"emergence of complex life-forms" is a noun phrase, so, "that" can refer to it => Evidence suggests a much earlier emergence of life-forms than the emergence (of life-forms) they had previously thought.

No? Could you please explain why or why not? I'm not able to get my head around it. Please help.



Hi divineacclivity,

Sorry for replying late.

The reason "that" cannot just refer to "emergence of complex lifeforms" because this phrase is preceded by adjective "a much earlier emergence of complex lifeforms". This entire phrase is a noun phrase. We just cannot cut out he adjective before it to suit our preference per the sentence. This is the reason why use of "that" in Choice D and E leads to incorrect comparison.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: Verb-ed modifiers Vs. Verb-ing modifiers [#permalink]

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New post 16 May 2014, 14:59
sonalj17 wrote:
The level 1 for SC in egmat does states that verb-ed modifies the closest noun and there is no exception to it and all examples are given for nouns, however in explanation it states verb-ed modifies noun clause also , this creates confusion, this should be correct or should not be stated as rule with "nouns and without exception"



Hi Sonal,

I guess, we need a little correction here. There is nothing called "noun clause". Clauses are only of two types - Independent and dependent clauses. What you meant to say here is noun phrases.

When we say that verb-ed modifiers can modify preceding noun entity, that entity can be just a single noun word or it can be a noun phrase. In that case, the modifier modifies the head of the noun phrase. I know my eplanation would be sounding confusing to you right now. Read the following article, and you will know what I am talking about:

noun-modifiers-can-modify-slightly-far-away-noun-135868.html?hilit=Far%20away%20nouns

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: Verb-ed modifiers Vs. Verb-ing modifiers [#permalink]

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New post 11 May 2016, 07:12
egmat wrote:
Thanks for the praise. We are almost at the end of our cycle on modifiers. Below is one such article that you may find useful.

ed-forms-verbs-or-modifiers-134691.html?fl=similar


Hello Rajat/Payal/Shradhha/egmat Experts ! :)

Awesome article ! However I just got stuck on a question from OG which is related to this topic. Would really appreciate your help.

Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.

(A)they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.
(B) after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, they began growing again
(C) in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption, and particularly of red wine, which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused them to begin to grow again
(D) with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again
(E) a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine, started them growing again

Doubt: One of the reasons for which I rejected choice B is because "growing" was modifying the verb "began"

Can a verb-ed/verb-ing modifier modify a verb ?
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Re: Verb-ed modifiers Vs. Verb-ing modifiers [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jun 2016, 21:39
Devlikes wrote:
egmat wrote:
Thanks for the praise. We are almost at the end of our cycle on modifiers. Below is one such article that you may find useful.

ed-forms-verbs-or-modifiers-134691.html?fl=similar


Hello Rajat/Payal/Shradhha/egmat Experts ! :)

Awesome article ! However I just got stuck on a question from OG which is related to this topic. Would really appreciate your help.

Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.

(A)they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.
(B) after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, they began growing again
(C) in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption, and particularly of red wine, which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused them to begin to grow again
(D) with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again
(E) a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine, started them growing again

Doubt: One of the reasons for which I rejected choice B is because "growing" was modifying the verb "began"

Can a verb-ed/verb-ing modifier modify a verb ?


Hi Devlikes,

Every verb+ing word is not present participle, it can be GERUND too...
so do not eliminate a choice on this..
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Re: Verb-ed modifiers Vs. Verb-ing modifiers [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jul 2016, 04:21
1
ShekharKanodia wrote:
egmat wrote:
Hi,
I received a PM for this one.

rajeevrks27: John sat in the minivan carrying seven passengers.
Per the rules of verb-ing modifier, “carrying” is clearly modifying “minivan” there is no comma between the two words. When there is no comma before the verb-ing then it modifies the preceding noun.
So in the above sentence too, “carrying” is referring to “minivans”. It is giving us more information about the minivan that John sat in that minivan that had seven passengers in it.
The sentence that you have provided is also correct. There again, “carrying” is not separated with comma. Hence without any ambiguity or confusion, “carrying” is modifying “minivan”, suggesting that the minivan in which John sat carried load. “carrying” in no way can refer to John if there is no comma between “carrying” and “minibus”.

@maheshrini: For the Stegosaurus, a dinosaur, the seventeen bony plates embedded in its back were necessary elements for survival, regulating its temperature throughout its bus-sized body and protecting it from much larger carnivores.

In this sentence, both the verb-ing modifiers “regulating” and “protecting” are modifying the preceding clause. They are giving information about how “the seventeen bony plates embedded in its back were necessary elements for survival” for the Stegosaurus.
One way to identify what the modifier is modifying is that ask a question. Whatever aspect the modifier is the reply to, that is the aspect it is modifying.
For example, in the above dinosaur sentence, ask how the seventeen bony plates embedded in its back were necessary elements for survival? Both the verb-ing modifiers answer this question. Hence, the modifiers are modifying the preceding clause. They are providing additional information as to how these bony plates were essential for survival for Stegosaurus.
Hope these explanations help.
Thanks.
Shraddha


Hi Shradhha,

Thanks for explaining the concept. I have one doubt regarding application of -ing verb. The below question is from the OG:

As an actress and, more importantly, as a teacher of acting, Stella Adler was one of the most influential artists in the American theater, who trained several generations of actors including Marlon Brando and Robert De Niro.

The explanation in the OG says that including is modifying the previous clause 'generations of actors', however as per your rule it modifies actors. Can you please clarify?

Regards
Shekhar


The structure comma+ present participle modifier can refer to either the complete previous clause OR the subject of the previous clause.

Usage 1:
The crime in the region decreased, attracting many real-estate investors. (The present participle modifier refers to the whole clause - it depicts the result of the whole clause)

Usage 2:
Steffi won Wimbledon, defeating Sabatini in straight sets. (The present participle modifier refers to the subject of the previous clause Steffi)

Usage 3:
The present participle modifier may also act as any other modifier, i.e. modifying the noun it touches:
...trained several actors including Marlon Brando and Robert De Niro. (The present participle modifier modifies the noun actors)
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Re: Verb-ed modifiers Vs. Verb-ing modifiers [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jul 2016, 04:55
Hi sayantanc2k,

As per the OG, in Usage 3 the present participle modifies 'generations of actors' and not 'actors'. The OG says that instead of 'including' it should be 'whose ranks included'.

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Shekhar
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Re: Verb-ed modifiers Vs. Verb-ing modifiers [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jul 2016, 05:09
ShekharKanodia wrote:
Hi sayantanc2k,

As per the OG, in Usage 3 the present participle modifies 'generations of actors' and not 'actors'. The OG says that instead of 'including' it should be 'whose ranks included'.

Regards
Shekhar


You are right. I went through the explanation: including refers to "generations of actors", when the reference should be to "actors" only.

The usage is not accepted because the noun "actors" is the object of preposition "of", and hence there could be an ambiguity whether the present participle "including" refers to "generations" or "actors". Nonetheless, in absence of such a prepositional phrase, the usage 3 (i.e. a present participle modifier refers to the noun it touches) would be valid. Following is a different example which does not have the ambiguity as in my previous example:

The cat SLEEPING on the rug is named "Sue." (example from Manhattan SC guide)

I have modified my previous post slightly in order to remove this ambiguity.
Re: Verb-ed modifiers Vs. Verb-ing modifiers   [#permalink] 21 Jul 2016, 05:09

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