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# War has escaped the battlefield and now can, with modern guidance

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War has escaped the battlefield and now can, with modern guidance  [#permalink]

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17 Nov 2019, 23:04
Question 1
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Question 5
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Question 6
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 457, Date: 17-Nov-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details

War has escaped the battlefield and now can, with modern guidance systems on missiles, touch virtually every square yard of the earth’s surface. It no longer involves only the military profession, but engulfs also entire civilian populations. Nuclear weapons have made major war unthinkable. We are forced, however, to think about the unthinkable because a thermonuclear war could come by accident or miscalculation. We must accept the paradox of maintaining a capacity to fight such a war so that we will never have to do so.

War has also lost most of its utility in achieving the traditional goals of conflict. Control of territory carries with it the obligation to provide subject peoples certain administrative, health, education, and other social services; such obligations far outweigh the benefits of control. If the ruled population is ethnically or racially different from the rulers, tensions and chronic unrest often exist which further reduce the benefits and increase the costs of domination. Large populations no longer necessarily enhance state power and, in the absence of high levels of economic development, can impose severe burdens on food supply, jobs, and the broad range of services expected of modern governments. The noneconomic security reasons for the control of territory have been progressively undermined by the advances of modern technology. The benefits of forcing another nation to surrender its wealth are vastly outweighed by the benefits of persuading that nation to produce and exchange goods and services. In brief, imperialism no longer pays.

Making war has been one of the most persistent of human activities in the 80 centuries since men and women settled in cities and became thereby “civilized,” but the modernization of the past 80 years has fundamentally changed the role and function of war. In pre-modernized societies, successful warfare brought significant material rewards, the most obvious of which were the stored wealth of the defeated. Equally important was human labor—control over people as slaves or levies for the victor’s army—and the productive capacity of agricultural lands and mines. Successful warfare also produced psychic benefits. The removal or destruction of a threat brought a sense of security, and power gained over others created pride and national self-esteem. Warfare was also the most complex, broad-scale and demanding activity of pre-modernized people. The challenges of leading men into battle, organizing, moving and supporting armies, attracted the talents of the most vigorous, enterprising, intelligent and imaginative men in the society. “Warrior” and “statesman” were usually synonymous, and the military was one of the few professions in which an able, ambitious boy of humble origin could rise to the top. In the broader cultural context, war was accepted in the premodernized society as a part of the human condition, a mechanism of change, and an unavoidable, even noble, aspect of life. The excitement and drama of war made it a vital part of literature and legends.

Spoiler: :: OA
C

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) theorize about the role of the warrior-statesman in pre-modernized society
(B) explain the effects of war on both modernized and pre-modernized societies
(C) contrast the value of war in a modernized society with its value in pre-modernized society
(D) discuss the political and economic circumstances which lead to war in pre-modernized societies
(E) examine the influence of the development of nuclear weapons on the possibility of war

Spoiler: :: OA
A

2. According to the passage, leaders of premodernized society considered war to be

(A) a valid tool of national policy
(B) an immoral act of aggression
(C) economically wasteful and socially unfeasible
(D) restricted in scope to military participants
(E) necessary to spur development of unoccupied lands

Spoiler: :: OA
C

3. The author most likely places the word “civilized” in quotation marks (Highlighted) in order to

(A) show dissatisfaction at not having found a better word
(B) acknowledge that the word was borrowed from another source
(C) express irony that war should be a part of civilization
(D) impress upon the reader the tragedy of war
(E) raise a question about the value of war in modernized society

Spoiler: :: OA
B

4. The author mentions all of the following as possible reasons for going to war in a pre-modernized society EXCEPT

(A) possibility of material gain
(B) promoting deserving young men to higher positions
(C) potential for increasing the security of the nation
(D) desire to capture productive farming lands
(E) need for workers to fill certain jobs

Spoiler: :: OA
E

5. The author is primarily concerned with discussing how

(A) political decisions are reached
(B) economic and social conditions have changed
(C) technology for making war has improved
(D) armed conflict has changed
(E) war lost its value as a policy tool

Spoiler: :: OA
B

6. Which of the following best describes the tone of the passage?

(A) Outraged and indignant
(B) Scientific and detached
(C) Humorous and wry
(D) Fearful and alarmed
(E) Concerned and optimistic

Spoiler: :: OA
D

7. With which of the following statements about a successfully completed program of nuclear disarmament would the author most likely agree?

(A) Without nuclear weapons, war in modernized society would have the same value it had in pre-modernized society.
(B) In the absence of the danger of nuclear war, national leaders could use powerful conventional weapons to make great gains from war.
(C) Eliminating nuclear weapons is likely to increase the danger of an all-out, worldwide military engagement.
(D) Even without the danger of a nuclear disaster, the costs of winning a war have made armed conflict on a large scale virtually obsolete.
(E) War is caused by aggressive instincts, so if nuclear weapons were no longer available, national leaders would use conventional weapons to reach the same end.

Source: Master GMAT
Difficulty Level: 700

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Re: War has escaped the battlefield and now can, with modern guidance  [#permalink]

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18 Nov 2019, 04:39
Q7. Why not 'C'. Is it out of scope or i have some invalid assumptions?
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Re: War has escaped the battlefield and now can, with modern guidance  [#permalink]

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18 Nov 2019, 10:35
In Q7 - can someone explain the difference between C &D
(C) Eliminating nuclear weapons is likely to increase the danger of an all-out, worldwide military engagement.
(D) Even without the danger of a nuclear disaster, the costs of winning a war have made armed conflict on a large scale virtually obsolete.

(C) - seems valid given last line of first paragraph
(D) - Also sounds good given that is what the next two paragraphs are about

Answer is one of these two but I dont understand which one is a better answer
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Re: War has escaped the battlefield and now can, with modern guidance  [#permalink]

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18 Nov 2019, 22:33
shubham05 wrote:
Q7. Why not 'C'. Is it out of scope or i have some invalid assumptions?

prateeksab wrote:
In Q7 - can someone explain the difference between C &D
(C) Eliminating nuclear weapons is likely to increase the danger of an all-out, worldwide military engagement.
(D) Even without the danger of a nuclear disaster, the costs of winning a war have made armed conflict on a large scale virtually obsolete.

(C) - seems valid given last line of first paragraph
(D) - Also sounds good given that is what the next two paragraphs are about

Answer is one of these two but I dont understand which one is a better answer

Official Explanation

7. With which of the following statements about a successfully completed program of nuclear disarmament would the author most likely agree?

Explanation

This is an application question and we must take the information from the passage and apply it to a new situation. The author offers two reasons for the conclusion that war is no longer a viable policy tool: (1) the danger of world-wide destruction and (2) the costs after victory outweigh the benefits to be won.

We can conclude that even in the absence of nuclear weapons, war will still lack its traditional value, as argued by the author in the fourth paragraph. Thus, we can eliminate (A) and (B) on the grounds that they are contradicted by the author’s thinking.

(E) can be eliminated for the same reason and because no such “instincts” are discussed in the text.

A close look at (C) shows that it is not in agreement with the author’s view, since the author believes that though nuclear weapons deter nuclear war, war is obsolete for other reasons as well.

Hope it helps
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Re: War has escaped the battlefield and now can, with modern guidance  [#permalink]

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04 Feb 2020, 18:16
Hi,

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Re: War has escaped the battlefield and now can, with modern guidance  [#permalink]

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04 Feb 2020, 23:50
1
helloworldjava wrote:
Hi,

Welcome to GMAT Club!

Official Explanation

6. Which of the following best describes the tone of the passage?

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

The tone of the passage is neutral—scientific and detached. As for the remaining choices, (A) and (D) can be eliminated as overstatements. To be sure, the author seems to deplore the destruction, which might result from a nuclear war, but that concern does not rise to the status of outrage, indignation, fear, or alarm.

(E) is a closer call. While it is true that the author expresses concern about the ability of modernized society to survive war, and while there is arguably a hint of optimism or hope, it cannot be said that these are the defining features of the passage.

A better description of the prevailing tone is offered by (B).

As for (C), the one ironic reference (“civilized”) does not make the entire passage humorous.

Hope it helps
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Re: War has escaped the battlefield and now can, with modern guidance  [#permalink]

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07 Feb 2020, 23:43
2
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to :-
(C) contrast the value of war in a modernized society with its value in pre-modernized society

It can easily inferred from the first two paragraphs, that the cost of war in modern societies outweigh the benefits. Read this bit to understand better : "The benefits of forcing another nation to surrender its wealth are vastly outweighed by the benefits of persuading that nation to produce and exchange goods and services. In brief, imperialism no longer pays."

2. According to the passage, leaders of premodernized society considered war to be:-
(A) a valid tool of national policy

This again can easily be inferred from the lastparagraph :- "In pre-modernized societies, successful warfare brought significant material rewards, the most obvious of which were the stored wealth of the defeated.........The removal or destruction of a threat brought a sense of security, and power gained over others created pride and national self-esteem". It's quite clearly shown that in pre-modernized societies, The gains/rewards from War outweigh that of its cost.

4. The author mentions all of the following as possible reasons for going to war in a pre-modernized society EXCEPT :-

(B) promoting deserving young men to higher positions. This hasn't been mentioned anywhere in the essay; all other options have been mentioned in the last paragraph.

5. The author is primarily concerned with discussing how:-
(E) war lost its value as a policy tool

This can be, again, easily inferred. The first two paragraphs explain how War has lost its value, and global trade i.e exchange of goods, services etc is far better to improve economic standing of a nation.

6. Which of the following best describes the tone of the passage?
(B) Scientific and detached

The tone of the passage, is neutral and analytical. The author clearly elucidates why War cannot be national policy/took in these modern times. The author also explains why war was a tool to furthering national interests in pre-modern societies.

7. With which of the following statements about a successfully completed program of nuclear disarmament would the author most likely agree?

(A) Without nuclear weapons, war in modernized society would have the same value it had in pre-modernized society.
(B) In the absence of the danger of nuclear war, national leaders could use powerful conventional weapons to make great gains from war.
(C) Eliminating nuclear weapons is likely to increase the danger of an all-out, worldwide military engagement.
(D) Even without the danger of a nuclear disaster, the costs of winning a war have made armed conflict on a large scale virtually obsolete.
(E) War is caused by aggressive instincts, so if nuclear weapons were no longer available, national leaders would use conventional weapons to reach the same end.

If you carefully, look at all options A,B,C and E, they all predict about a forthcoming war, or worldwide conflict. Basically, they all these options are similar and can be eliminated! Furthermore, Option (D) has clearly been explained in the second paragraph."The benefits of forcing another nation to surrender its wealth are vastly outweighed by the benefits of persuading that nation to produce and exchange goods and services. In brief, imperialism no longer pays.

3. The author most likely places the word “civilized” in quotation marks (Highlighted) in order to

(A) show dissatisfaction at not having found a better word-------> the author is not showing any kind of dissatisfaction.
(B) acknowledge that the word was borrowed from another source--------> cannot be inferred.
(C) express irony that war should be a part of civilization----->a cheeky jibe/irony---> humans participate in war despite being "civilzed"
(D) impress upon the reader the tragedy of war----->No, the author isn't try to showcase the tragedy of war to the reader, rather its cost vs benefits.
(E) raise a question about the value of war in modernized society---->this was done in the previous paragraph.

Hope this helps!! :D
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War has escaped the battlefield and now can, with modern guidance  [#permalink]

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12 May 2020, 00:33
1
Hi everyone,
Got all correct in 12:45 minutes, including 4:30 minutes to read and 8:15 minutes to answer the questions.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

P1

In the first paragraph the author claims that war has radically changed and that there are new factors and parameters ant play and to take into consideration.

Purpose: To claim that war has radically changed and how.

P2

In this paragraph the author claims that war does not have utility anymore. In the paragraph the author makes many examples to strengthen such claim.

Purpose: To claim that war has lost its utility.

P3

In this paragraph the author lists what were considered as the positive outcomes of war.

Purpose: To present which were the positive outcomes of war.

Main point

To claim that war has radically changed and lost its utility.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

Pre-thinking

Main point question

To claim that war has radically changed and lost its utility.

(A) theorize about the role of the warrior-statesman in pre-modernized society
(B) explain the effects of war on both modernized and pre-modernized societies
(C) contrast the value of war in a modernized society with its value in pre-modernized society correct, the author focuses on the contrast throughout all the passage
(D) discuss the political and economic circumstances which lead to war in pre-modernized societies partial scope
(E) examine the influence of the development of nuclear weapons on the possibility of war partial scope

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. According to the passage, leaders of premodernized society considered war to be

Pre-thinking

Detail question

We should refer to the information of paragraph 3 to answer this question.

(A) a valid tool of national policy Mentioned in P3
(B) an immoral act of aggression opposite, from war came pride per P3
(C) economically wasteful and socially unfeasible opposite
(D) restricted in scope to military participants the scope included also other people per P3
(E) necessary to spur development of unoccupied lands not mentioned

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. The author most likely places the word “civilized” in quotation marks (Highlighted) in order to

Pre-thinking

Function question

The author clearly thinks that civilized is not the correct adjective here.

(A) show dissatisfaction at not having found a better word dissatisfaction is out of scope and we don't have elements to infer that the author was dissatisfied
(B) acknowledge that the word was borrowed from another source we don't have elements to infer this option
(C) express irony that war should be a part of civilization correct. Hence the usage of the adjective civilized is incorrect
(D) impress upon the reader the tragedy of war not in line with pre-thinking
(E) raise a question about the value of war in modernized society out of scope

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. The author mentions all of the following as possible reasons for going to war in a pre-modernized society EXCEPT

Pre-thinking

Detail question

The information that we are looking for is present in P3.

(A) possibility of material gain the most obvious of which were the stored wealth of the defeated.
(B) promoting deserving young men to higher positions This information is mentioned in P3 but it is a little bit distorted here. Logically a nation does not go to war to promote young men. Hence this option does not represent a reason to go to war and it is correct
(C) potential for increasing the security of the nation The removal or destruction of a threat brought a sense of security
(D) desire to capture productive farming lands Equally important was human labor—control over people as slaves or levies for the victor’s army—and the productive capacity of agricultural lands and mines.
(E) need for workers to fill certain jobs Couldn't really pinpoint where this information is... SajjadAhmad any idea? maybe this part: Equally important was human labor

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

5. The author is primarily concerned with discussing how

Pre-thinking

Main point question

To claim that war has radically changed and lost its utility.

(A) political decisions are reached the how aspect of this option is not discussed
(B) economic and social conditions have changed although this option is true, it is way too general for this passage
(C) technology for making war has improved mentioned in P1 but that's it
(D) armed conflict has changed again, mentioned in P1 but the rest of the passage focuses on aspects such as utility and benefits of war in the past.
(E) war lost its value as a policy tool correct and broad enough.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

6. Which of the following best describes the tone of the passage?

Pre-thinking

Tone question

The tone of this passage is quite flat. There is no optimism, skepticism, enthusiasm nor criticism...

(A) Outraged and indignant the author is not outraged
(B) Scientific and detached
(C) Humorous and wry nothing humorous in this passage
(D) Fearful and alarmed alarmed might a little bit match the first paragraph but fearful is definitely too extreme
(E) Concerned and optimistic while concerned might be okay, optimism is not present

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

7. With which of the following statements about a successfully completed program of nuclear disarmament would the author most likely agree?

Pre-thinking

Inference question

Let's evaluate the options.

(A) Without nuclear weapons, war in modernized society would have the same value it had in pre-modernized society.
Even without nuclear weapons, war still has lost its utility. Incorrect

(B) In the absence of the danger of nuclear war, national leaders could use powerful conventional weapons to make great gains from war.
Nowhere we can infer this option

(C) Eliminating nuclear weapons is likely to increase the danger of an all-out, worldwide military engagement.
Incorrect per the following lines:
The benefits of forcing another nation to surrender its wealth are vastly outweighed by the benefits of persuading that nation to produce and exchange goods and services. In brief, imperialism no longer pays.

(D) Even without the danger of a nuclear disaster, the costs of winning a war have made armed conflict on a large scale virtually obsolete.
Correct:
The benefits of forcing another nation to surrender its wealth are vastly outweighed by the benefits of persuading that nation to produce and exchange goods and services. In brief, imperialism no longer pays.

(E) War is caused by aggressive instincts, so if nuclear weapons were no longer available, national leaders would use conventional weapons to reach the same end.
The first part of this option is nowhere supported in the passage. Hence incorrect

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War has escaped the battlefield and now can, with modern guidance   [#permalink] 12 May 2020, 00:33