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# We live in a world in which crime is rampant, children are

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VP
Joined: 18 Nov 2004
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We live in a world in which crime is rampant, children are  [#permalink]

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06 Apr 2005, 07:59
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Difficulty:

85% (hard)

Question Stats:

20% (00:56) correct 80% (01:10) wrong based on 199 sessions

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We live in a world in which crime is rampant, children are recalcitrant, change is the only constant, and uncertainty prevails.

(A) children are recalcitrant, change is the only constant, and uncertainty prevails.
(B) children are recalcitrant, change is the only constant, and uncertainty is prevalent.
(C) in which children are recalcitrant, in which change is the only constant, and in which uncertainty is prevalent.
(D) where children are recalcitrant, where change is the only constant and where uncertainty is prevalent.
(E) where children are recalcitrant, change is the only constant, and uncertainty is prevalent

OPEN DISCUSSION OF THIS QUESTION IS HERE: https://gmatclub.com/forum/we-live-in-a ... 47654.html
Director
Joined: 27 Dec 2004
Posts: 839
Re: We live in a world in which crime is rampant, children are  [#permalink]

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06 Apr 2005, 08:40
B. D and E are out

C is out because of the redundant "in which"

A is not as parallel as B thus B
Senior Manager
Joined: 19 Feb 2005
Posts: 453
Location: Milan Italy
Re: We live in a world in which crime is rampant, children are  [#permalink]

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06 Apr 2005, 09:53
m mmm
I prefer A because:
1. A) children are recalcitrant, change is the only constant, and uncertainty prevails.
That is not parallel in itself, because "the only constant" is not an adjective, so why should it be "uncertainty is prevalent"? In a certain sense, it is more parallel if you use three different constructions:
b. to be+ noun
c. verb

there is a second reason:
2. why banerjeea, who is not stupid, would have posted such a normal question, if it had not been tricky?
VP
Joined: 30 Sep 2004
Posts: 1415
Location: Germany
Re: We live in a world in which crime is rampant, children are  [#permalink]

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06 Apr 2005, 10:21
...so if it is not B) it must be C). maybe it is necessary to maintain "in which" before every phrase to avoid confusion, so its clear that every phrase refers to "world".
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Director
Joined: 25 Jan 2004
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Re: We live in a world in which crime is rampant, children are  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 06 Apr 2005, 11:44
2
good one banerjee

I think it is C here is why.

We live in a world is a noun clause followed by prepositional modifier/s

in A in addition to uncertainty prevails being not only not parallel but also lacks proper modifing structure to convey proper meaning.

in C you have a prepositional phrase "in which" to tie all non-restrictive phrases to the main clause (We live in a world).

So, what we learnt here is that when you have non essential clauses separated by commas you need to make sure non essential parts have proper modifying structure to link them to the main clause.
Hope this helps.
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Praveen

Originally posted by praveen_rao7 on 06 Apr 2005, 11:07.
Last edited by praveen_rao7 on 06 Apr 2005, 11:44, edited 2 times in total.
Director
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Re: We live in a world in which crime is rampant, children are  [#permalink]

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06 Apr 2005, 11:20
Nah
I still would have picked B on the test. The redundancy of in which throws me off and I have never seen any grammarian write like that.
With the endless pool of various practice questions out there, anything goes so I canâ€™t be bothered as to why the answer is C
Manager
Joined: 02 Dec 2004
Posts: 202
Re: We live in a world in which crime is rampant, children are  [#permalink]

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06 Apr 2005, 13:17
praveen_rao7 wrote:
good one banerjee

I think it is C here is why.

We live in a world is a noun clause followed by prepositional modifier/s

in A in addition to uncertainty prevails being not only not parallel but also lacks proper modifing structure to convey proper meaning.

in C you have a prepositional phrase "in which" to tie all non-restrictive phrases to the main clause (We live in a world).

So, what we learnt here is that when you have non essential clauses separated by commas you need to make sure non essential parts have proper modifying structure to link them to the main clause.
Hope this helps.

Praveen

I think OG has one just like this question. Can you explain how we can better identify and tackle this type of question. Thanks

P
Director
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Location: Milwaukee
Re: We live in a world in which crime is rampant, children are  [#permalink]

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06 Apr 2005, 13:48
patrickpui wrote:
praveen_rao7 wrote:
good one banerjee

I think it is C here is why.

We live in a world is a noun clause followed by prepositional modifier/s

in A in addition to uncertainty prevails being not only not parallel but also lacks proper modifing structure to convey proper meaning.

in C you have a prepositional phrase "in which" to tie all non-restrictive phrases to the main clause (We live in a world).

So, what we learnt here is that when you have non essential clauses separated by commas you need to make sure non essential parts have proper modifying structure to link them to the main clause.
Hope this helps.

Praveen

I think OG has one just like this question. Can you explain how we can better identify and tackle this type of question. Thanks

P

Let's start out with understanding what a sentence is?, how is it different from a clause. As you know sentence is used to express a complete thought. Most important characteristic of a sentence is that it needs to have an independent clause with modifiers to glorify or give more information on the thought you are trying to express. In other words an independent clause is a sentence minus all the modifiers.

Further, you also have essential modifiers and non essential modifiers. As the names suggests essential modifiers (they could appear in any of the forms mentioned above) are required to complete the meaning of the sentence and non essential modifiers just give additional information and are not necessary for the sentence to stand on its own.

While answering verbal questions you should always keep this concept in your mind. When you are split between two choices you are almost always find misplaced modifier in one of the two choices.

Now coming back to the orginal question, this question follows following pattern

<Independent Clause>, <modifying Phrase A>, <modifying Phrase B>, <modifying Phrase C>

Now remember our talk on essential and non essential modifiers?. now is the time to apply it. First you need to make sure independent clause can stand on its own, next do the same for non essential phrases. Lastly, make sure modifying phrases are modifying what they are supposed to modify.

Let's try another example, first a simple one

Joe has a red colored book in the shelf, at the house

Joe owns the house on the corner, across the blue building, near the city hall.

Birds like to fly on the mountains, above the clouds, under the sun

Does it make sense now? Thanks
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Praveen

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Re: We live in a world in which crime is rampant, children are  [#permalink]

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06 Apr 2005, 18:43
Tricky question indeed. My first hunch is for B although Praveen gave a nice example. However, I believe that his examples include prepositional phrases which require different prepositions. For example, you can't say "house on the corner, the blue building..." because the "house" cannot be "on" the building but instead will be "across" the building. In this question, all prepositions apply to "in which" so there is no need to repeat it. Thus, it is only an enumeration based on the same root "in which". B seems better than A due to parallellism in passive construction.
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Paul

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Posts: 653
Re: We live in a world in which crime is rampant, children are  [#permalink]

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06 Apr 2005, 19:03
banerjeea_98 wrote:
We live in a world in which crime is rampant, children are recalcitrant, change is the only constant, and uncertainty prevails.

(A) children are recalcitrant, change is the only constant, and uncertainty prevails.
(B) children are recalcitrant, change is the only constant, and uncertainty is prevalent.
(C) in which children are recalcitrant, in which change is the only constant, and in which uncertainty is prevalent.
(D) where children are recalcitrant, where change is the only constant and where uncertainty is prevalent.
(E) where children are recalcitrant, change is the only constant, and uncertainty is prevalent

Here is my explanation:

D, E is eliminated because you cannot use "where" in this context. Where is used to specify a location. Here we arent using "the world" to allude to a PHYSICAL location such as Chicago, or Austin or.....

C is wrong because what does the the 2nd "which" and 3rd "which" refer too? False parallelism

Independant Clause #1:

<We live in a world> --->

in which children are recalcitrant, change is the only constant ---> subordinate Clause.

Indedendant Clause #2:

UnCertainity is prevalent.

I'm torn between "A" and "B". Dunno why "A" is wrong. I cannot explain it because <uncertainty prevails> could also be an independant clause.

So my OA is B.

Although i CANNOT explain why A is wrong.
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Re: We live in a world in which crime is rampant, children are  [#permalink]

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07 Apr 2005, 05:05
Paul wrote:
Tricky question indeed. My first hunch is for B although Praveen gave a nice example. However, I believe that his examples include prepositional phrases which require different prepositions. For example, you can't say "house on the corner, the blue building..." because the "house" cannot be "on" the building but instead will be "across" the building. In this question, all prepositions apply to "in which" so there is no need to repeat it. Thus, it is only an enumeration based on the same root "in which". B seems better than A due to parallellism in passive construction.

Paul,
I agree with your explanation but Could you elaborate on "all prepositions apply to "in which" so there is no need to repeat it."

When you say "prepositions" I'm guessing you are referring to the subordinate clauses [in which] children are recalcitrant, [in which ---> this is implicit] change is the only constant.

Is my explanation correct? Could you tell me if the aforementioned explanation where i "break down" the sentence is accurate.
VP
Joined: 26 Apr 2004
Posts: 1135
Location: Taiwan
Re: We live in a world in which crime is rampant, children are  [#permalink]

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07 Apr 2005, 18:23
very confused,

A, B probably need relative pronoun to connect two independent clauses.

C may be the OA.
Director
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Posts: 682
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Re: We live in a world in which crime is rampant, children are  [#permalink]

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07 Apr 2005, 18:52
1
1
Again my 2 cents,

Looking at this problem some more, this is what I think.
Let's simplify this sentence some more.
Can you tell what is wrong with following sentence?

Joe is very smart, I've learnt a lot from him

compare this to...

We live in a world in which crime is rampant, children are recalcitrant
Both these sentences uses structure

IC, IC where IC = independent clause

which is a serious breach of grammar

we can fix the first sentence in any of the following ways:

Joe is very smart; I've learnt a lot from him
Joe is very smart, and I've learnt a lot from him
Because Joe is very smart, I've learnt a lot from him

another way to make this sentence work with a slight change in meaning is by using a prepositional phrase ""in him"
Joe is very smart, in him I found a great teacher.

In essence, all we are trying here is to obtain a sentence structure that looks like this

IC, DC where DC = dependent clause

Using the same concept to our original sentece
adding in which to each clause after comma gives us a structure

IC,DC,DC and DC

Eventhough we could fix the sentence "We live in a world in which crime is rampant, children are recalcitrant" in any of the ways mentioned above (for example, We live in a world in which crime is rampant, and children are recalcitrant is grammatically correct) it fails to convey the intended meaning. Hence
"We live in a world in which crime is rampant, in which children are recalcitrant would be more appropriate"

Therefore, choice C wins

Does this makes sense?
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Praveen

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Re: We live in a world in which crime is rampant, children are  [#permalink]

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10 Apr 2005, 16:52
gmataquaguy wrote:
Paul,
I agree with your explanation but Could you elaborate on "all prepositions apply to "in which" so there is no need to repeat it."

When you say "prepositions" I'm guessing you are referring to the subordinate clauses [in which] children are recalcitrant, [in which ---> this is implicit] change is the only constant.

Is my explanation correct? Could you tell me if the aforementioned explanation where i "break down" the sentence is accurate.

What I mean is that you will not say:
A house across the Hilton valley, across the Hampstead ravine and across the Zolt mountains.
Instead, you would say: A house across the Hilton valley, the Hampstead ravine and the Zolt mountains. --> This will avoid you repeating unnecessarily the preposition "across" in the enumeration.

However, in this above example, we are talking about a relative pronoun "in which" which introduces a series of subordinate clauses(thanks for correcting me on this gmataquaguy) so it may be fair that we repeat the relative pronoun "in which" so that it links each and every dependent clauses to the independent clause. I would have to concur with Praveen's explanation because, I think, if we omit the relative pronoun, what is being enumerated after the first element "children are recalcitrant" could be considered ind. clauses in and of themselves and hence become run-on stentences.

This is something I admit is a very obscure rule that I cannot confirm with 100% certainty...
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Paul

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Re: We live in a world in which crime is rampant, children are  [#permalink]

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13 Apr 2005, 16:56
Paul wrote:

What I mean is that you will not say:
A house across the Hilton valley, across the Hampstead ravine and across the Zolt mountains.
Instead, you would say: A house across the Hilton valley, the Hampstead ravine and the Zolt mountains. --> This will avoid you repeating unnecessarily the preposition "across" in the enumeration.

However, in this above example, we are talking about a relative pronoun "in which" which introduces a series of subordinate clauses(thanks for correcting me on this gmataquaguy) so it may be fair that we repeat the relative pronoun "in which" so that it links each and every dependent clauses to the independent clause. I would have to concur with Praveen's explanation because, I think, if we omit the relative pronoun, what is being enumerated after the first element "children are recalcitrant" could be considered ind. clauses in and of themselves and hence become run-on stentences.

This is something I admit is a very obscure rule that I cannot confirm with 100% certainty...

Paul, i love the way you parse a sentence. Could you elaborate on the following:

What does the relative pronoun "which" refer to in the orginal sentence?

Another question:

For a simple case listed below:

Wanda wore the dress that she had bought on Tuesday.

IC [indepedant clause] = Blue
DC [depedant clause] = Red

"That" is the relative pronoun and here "that" = Dress [Correct??]

Questions:

1) Can a relative pronoun refer to something besides just a simple noun [simple noun = one worded noun. For e.g. name, place, animal, thing, etc, etc]? If so could you provide a good example

2) When we have a DC being introduced by a relative pronoun is it MANDATORY for the DC to ALREADY have a subject & verb or can the "relative pronoun" count as the subject for the dependent clause?

For the example above:

IC = Wanda wore the dress.

DC = That she had bought on Tuesday.

However can the relative pronoun [relative pronoun here = that] provide the "subject" for the dependant clause or should the depedent clause already have a subject BESIDES the relative pronoun? In the above sentence the clarification isnt necessary but what about other DC.....

In the above case i realize that "she" in the DC is the subject and "had bought" is the verb. But could you have a DC where the relative pronoun provides the "subject". Is this even possible?

The reason i'm asking this is because it will really help us dope out run on sentences Vs IC, DC.......
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Re: We live in a world in which crime is rampant, children are  [#permalink]

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14 Apr 2005, 17:46
This grammar page argues that you can have a series of subordinate clauses introduced by only one coordinating conjunction. It gives the example:

"My dog Floyd bolts under the bed whenever thunder booms, strangers knock on the door, or I reach for the flea shampoo."

Whether this page is correct or not, however, I don't know. Just more grist for the mill. I understand the logic of what Praveen is saying.[/url]
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Posts: 4153
Re: We live in a world in which crime is rampant, children are  [#permalink]

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14 Apr 2005, 19:40
Quote:
What does the relative pronoun "which" refer to in the orginal sentence?

"world"
Quote:
Another question:

For a simple case listed below:

Wanda wore the dress that she had bought on Tuesday.

IC [indepedant clause] = Blue
DC [depedant clause] = Red

"That" is the relative pronoun and here "that" = Dress [Correct??]

Quote:
2) When we have a DC being introduced by a relative pronoun is it MANDATORY for the DC to ALREADY have a subject & verb or can the "relative pronoun" count as the subject for the dependent clause?

eg My parents bought the house which is around the corner
"which" is the relative pronoun playing the role of the subject.

Quote:
1) Can a relative pronoun refer to something besides just a simple noun [simple noun = one worded noun. For e.g. name, place, animal, thing, etc, etc]? If so could you provide a good example

From Webster onine grammar dictionnary: http://www.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/clau ... estrictive

Some relative clauses will refer to more than a single word in the preceding text; they can modify an entire clause or even a series of clauses.
Charlie didn't get the job in administration, which really surprised his friends.
Charlie didn't get the job in administration, and he didn't even apply for the Dean's position, which really surprised his friends

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Paul

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Re: We live in a world in which crime is rampant, children are  [#permalink]

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27 Dec 2017, 19:44
banerjeea_98 wrote:
We live in a world in which crime is rampant, children are recalcitrant, change is the only constant, and uncertainty prevails.

(A) children are recalcitrant, change is the only constant, and uncertainty prevails.
(B) children are recalcitrant, change is the only constant, and uncertainty is prevalent.
(C) in which children are recalcitrant, in which change is the only constant, and in which uncertainty is prevalent.
(D) where children are recalcitrant, where change is the only constant and where uncertainty is prevalent.
(E) where children are recalcitrant, change is the only constant, and uncertainty is prevalent

OPEN DISCUSSION OF THIS QUESTION IS HERE: https://gmatclub.com/forum/we-live-in-a ... 47654.html
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We live in a world in which crime is rampant, children are  [#permalink]

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29 Dec 2017, 11:18
banerjeea_98 wrote:
We live in a world in which crime is rampant, children are recalcitrant, change is the only constant, and uncertainty prevails.

(A) children are recalcitrant, change is the only constant, and uncertainty prevails.
(B) children are recalcitrant, change is the only constant, and uncertainty is prevalent.
(C) in which children are recalcitrant, in which change is the only constant, and in which uncertainty is prevalent.
(D) where children are recalcitrant, where change is the only constant and where uncertainty is prevalent.
(E) where children are recalcitrant, change is the only constant, and uncertainty is prevalent

This question is a poor tool for practicing SC.
Its source is not official.
It creates conflict between two general rules: correct grammar and concision.
It also contravenes a few specific, subtler rules.

There are better and similar questions, for example, here, here, and here.
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Most people just exist.

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We live in a world in which crime is rampant, children are   [#permalink] 29 Dec 2017, 11:18
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