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What is patriotism? Is it love of one’s birthplace, the place of child

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What is patriotism? Is it love of one’s birthplace, the place of child  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 14 Jul 2019, 11:36
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Passage # 205, Date : 14-Jul-2019
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What is patriotism? Is it love of one’s birthplace, the place of childhood’s recollections and hopes, dreams and aspirations? Is it the place where, in childlike naivety, we would watch the fleeting clouds, and wonder why we, too, could not run so swiftly? The place where we would count the milliard glittering stars, terror-stricken lest each one “an eye should be,” piercing the very depth of our little souls? Is it the place where we would listen to the music of the birds, and long to have wings to fly, even as they, to distant lands? Or the place where we would sit at mother’s knee, enraptured by wonderful tales of great deeds and conquests? In short, is it love for the spot, every inch representing dear and precious recollections of a happy, joyous, and playful childhood?

If that were patriotism, few American men of today could be called upon to be patriotic, since the place of play has been turned into factory, mill, and mine, while deafening sounds of machinery have replaced the music of the birds. Nor can we longer hear the tales of great deeds, for the stories our mothers tell today are but those of sorrow, tears, and grief.

What, then, is patriotism? “Patriotism, sir, is the last resort of scoundrels,” said Dr. Johnson. Leo Tolstoy, the greatest anti-patriot of our times, defines patriotism as the principle that will justify the training of wholesale murderers; a trade that requires better equipment for the exercise of man-killing than the making of such necessities of life as shoes, clothing, and houses; a trade that guarantees better returns and greater glory than that of the average workingman.

Gustave Herve, another great anti-patriot, justly calls patriotism a superstition—one far more injurious, brutal, and inhumane than religion. The superstition of religion originated in man’s inability to explain natural phenomena. That is, when primitive man heard thunder or saw the lightning, he could not account for either, and therefore concluded that back of them must be a force greater than himself. Similarly he saw a supernatural force in the rain, and in the various other changes in nature. Patriotism, on the other hand, is a superstition artificially created and maintained through a network of lies and falsehoods; a superstition that robs man of his self-respect and dignity and increases his arrogance and conceit.


1. The primary purpose of the passage is to:

(A) provide contrasting definitions of a term
(B) advocate in favor of a new definition for an old term
(C) criticize a group of people for the incorrect interpretation of a term
(D) evaluate two definitions of a term
(E) state that an earlier definition of a term may not apply anymore and search for an alternative definition


2. The passage suggests which of the following about anti-patriots?

(A) They believed that patriotism was no different from murdering someone
(B) They believed that all patriots were scoundrels
(C) They believed that making a shoe was better than being a patriot
(D) They primarily defined patriotism in the negative sense
(E) They believed that patriotism was an artificially created superstition


3. The passage does NOT mention which of the following about patriotism?

(A) Patriotism may be the love for one’s birthplace.
(B) The earlier definition of patriotism would not apply to many modern Americans.
(C) Leo Tolstoy was the greatest anti-patriot of all times.
(D) People have contrasting views on patriotism.
(E) Patriotism can in some way be used to justify mass killing of people.


4. The tone of the passage towards anti-patriots can best be described as:
(A) Critical
(B) Laudatory
(C) Cynical
(D) Neutral
(E) Sarcastic


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Originally posted by generis on 14 Jul 2019, 01:52.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 14 Jul 2019, 11:36, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: What is patriotism? Is it love of one’s birthplace, the place of child  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jul 2019, 05:27
Hi generis,

In the fourth paragraph, the author says "Gustave Herve, another great anti-patriot, justly calls patriotism a superstition" based on which I picked Laudatory

Why can't we disregard neutrality based on the author's use of the word JUSTLY?
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Re: What is patriotism? Is it love of one’s birthplace, the place of child  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jul 2019, 05:35
generis,

Could you please explain why the tone of the passage towards anti-patriots is Neutral not cynical
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Re: What is patriotism? Is it love of one’s birthplace, the place of child  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jul 2019, 10:50
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New post 14 Jul 2019, 11:28
2
firas92 wrote:
Hi generis,

In the fourth paragraph, the author says "Gustave Herve, another great anti-patriot, justly calls patriotism a superstition" based on which I picked Laudatory

Why can't we disregard neutrality based on the author's use of the word JUSTLY?

firas92 ,

The Aristotle OE says:
"The author does not criticize or praise the anti-patriots, he just states their views. So, the tone can be described as neutral. Hence D is the correct answer."

I've been waiting for challengers.

I can defend the answer -- sort of.

Roughly, in the first part of the passage, the author seems nostalgic about older, almost "untainted" or innocent notions of patriotism.

When he says "the greatest of anti-patriots," (Tolstoy) he means that phrase in a scholarly sense.

In a descriptive sense, I could easily call Ayn Rand "the greatest of the anti-altruists" and then present her views, although I truly believe that her work is philosophically indefensible and that her books' effect is appalling. (I really do.)

Finally, "justly" in a scholarly sense can mean "with good reason," meaning "well-reasoned given the assumptions and theoretical context."

So the author does not quite know which position to take. The best word is "neutral."

On the other hand, I could tear that defense to shreds, quickly, and with plenty of textual support. :-D

SajjadAhmad , I would change this answer to "laudatory." Would you please do so?
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New post 14 Jul 2019, 11:37
1
Changed it to "laudatory." Option B.

generis wrote:
firas92 wrote:
Hi generis,

In the fourth paragraph, the author says "Gustave Herve, another great anti-patriot, justly calls patriotism a superstition" based on which I picked Laudatory

Why can't we disregard neutrality based on the author's use of the word JUSTLY?

firas92 ,

The Aristotle OE says:
"The author does not criticize or praise the anti-patriots, he just states their views. So, the tone can be described as neutral. Hence D is the correct answer."

I've been waiting for challengers.

I can defend the answer -- sort of.

Roughly, in the first part of the passage, the author seems nostalgic about older, almost "untainted" or innocent notions of patriotism.

When he says "the greatest of anti-patriots," (Tolstoy) he means that phrase in a scholarly sense.

In a descriptive sense, I could easily call Ayn Rand "the greatest of the anti-altruists" and then present her views, although I truly believe that her work is philosophically indefensible and that her books' effect is appalling.

Finally, "justly" in a scholarly sense can mean "with good reason," meaning "well-reasoned given the assumptions and theoretical context."

So the author does not quite know which position to take. The best word is "neutral."

On the other hand, I could tear that defense to shreds, quickly, and with plenty of textual support.

SajjadAhmad , I would change this answer to "laudatory." Would you please do so?

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New post 14 Jul 2019, 11:51
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J2S2019 wrote:
generis,

Could you please explain why the tone of the passage towards anti-patriots is Neutral not cynical

J2S2019 , the author is not cynical about the anti-patriots. He is not distrustful of their sincerity. He lays out their beliefs and/or the basis of those beliefs without sounding doubtful.

The author gives a couple of clues, leaving the impression that he approves of the anti-patriots.

For example, the author observes that Herve "justly" [properly, correctly, justifiably] calls patriotism a superstition that is "far more injurious, brutal, and inhumane than religion."

The sentences that follow "justly" are not cynical. If anything, the author is cynical about patriotism.

See paragraph 2. Although we are asked only about the anti-patriots (not mentioned in paragraph 2), after we note the tone in the parts that do mention anti-patriots, we can glean tone from other parts of the passage.

Also, the tone in paragraph 1 is subtly but rhetorically scathing. The author constructs a "straw man" -- he characterizes patriotism in such a way that it is easily assailed.

Patriotism is described as if it were once prefect and glorious. Nothing is (or was) that perfect. He sets up patriotism to take a fall.

At the very least, he respects the anti-patriots. The best answer is "laudatory."

I wonder whether your eyes mistakenly read "patriots" rather than "ANTI-patriots."

Whatever the case, you're engaged with the material. :)

Hope that helps.
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New post 14 Jul 2019, 19:57
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generis wrote:
J2S2019 wrote:
generis,

Could you please explain why the tone of the passage towards anti-patriots is Neutral not cynical

J2S2019 , the author is not cynical about the anti-patriots. He is not distrustful of their sincerity. He lays out their beliefs and/or the basis of those beliefs without sounding doubtful.

The author gives a couple of clues, leaving the impression that he approves of the anti-patriots.

For example, the author observes that Herve "justly" [properly, correctly, justifiably] calls patriotism a superstition that is "far more injurious, brutal, and inhumane than religion."

The sentences that follow "justly" are not cynical. If anything, the author is cynical about patriotism.

See paragraph 2. Although we are asked only about the anti-patriots (not mentioned in paragraph 2), after we note the tone in the parts that do mention anti-patriots, we can glean tone from other parts of the passage.

Also, the tone in paragraph 1 is subtly but rhetorically scathing. The author constructs a "straw man" -- he characterizes patriotism in such a way that it is easily assailed.

Patriotism is described as if it were once prefect and glorious. Nothing is (or was) that perfect. He sets up patriotism to take a fall.

At the very least, he respects the anti-patriots. The best answer is "laudatory."

I wonder whether your eyes mistakenly read "patriots" rather than "ANTI-patriots."

Whatever the case, you're engaged with the material. :)

Hope that helps.


Thanks a ton for this swift explanation generis :)
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New post 14 Jul 2019, 21:11
J2S2019 wrote:

Thanks a ton for this swift explanation generis :)

You are very welcome. Glad I could help. :)
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What is patriotism? Is it love of one’s birthplace, the place of child  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jul 2019, 19:49
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generis wrote:
J2S2019 wrote:
generis,

Could you please explain why the tone of the passage towards anti-patriots is Neutral not cynical

J2S2019 , the author is not cynical about the anti-patriots. He is not distrustful of their sincerity. He lays out their beliefs and/or the basis of those beliefs without sounding doubtful.

The author gives a couple of clues, leaving the impression that he approves of the anti-patriots.

For example, the author observes that Herve "justly" [properly, correctly, justifiably] calls patriotism a superstition that is "far more injurious, brutal, and inhumane than religion."

The sentences that follow "justly" are not cynical. If anything, the author is cynical about patriotism.

See paragraph 2. Although we are asked only about the anti-patriots (not mentioned in paragraph 2), after we note the tone in the parts that do mention anti-patriots, we can glean tone from other parts of the passage.

Also, the tone in paragraph 1 is subtly but rhetorically scathing. The author constructs a "straw man" -- he characterizes patriotism in such a way that it is easily assailed.

Patriotism is described as if it were once prefect and glorious. Nothing is (or was) that perfect. He sets up patriotism to take a fall.

At the very least, he respects the anti-patriots. The best answer is "laudatory."

I wonder whether your eyes mistakenly read "patriots" rather than "ANTI-patriots."

Whatever the case, you're engaged with the material. :)

Hope that helps.




Thanks for a comprehensive explanation. I also marked D as the answer,but after reading your views, I must say laudatory is the best word for this. "Justly" also signifies that author in his tone is sort of agreeing with the anti patriots.

Thanks for this insight. It could not have been explained better. You are a gem. Woahhhh.
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Re: What is patriotism? Is it love of one’s birthplace, the place of child  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2019, 03:31
Took 6:30 min in total including 3:30 min to read.

Passage Map:


1) What is patriotism? Birthplace?
2) Patriotism != Birthplace
3) Patriotism = An tool for murderers?
4) Patriotism = Superstition > Religion?
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Re: What is patriotism? Is it love of one’s birthplace, the place of child  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jul 2019, 08:41
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All correct in 7 mins 30 seconds, including 3 mins 45 seconds to read.
Para 1- patriotism definition- is it love for the spot, every inch representing dear and precious recollections of a happy, joyous, and playful childhood?
Para 2- definition in previous para is NOT patriotism
Para 3- Tolstoy's definition- principle that will justify the training of wholesale murderers
Para 4- Herve- patriotism a superstition- far more injurious, brutal, and inhumane than religion.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to:
(E) state that an earlier definition of a term may not apply anymore and search for an alternative definition - Correct
If that were patriotism, few American men of today could be called upon to be patriotic, since the place of play has been turned into factory, mill, and mine, while deafening sounds of machinery have replaced the music of the birds.
Then author looks for alternative definitions in para 3 and 4


2. The passage suggests which of the following about anti-patriots?
(D) They primarily defined patriotism in the negative sense - Correct

3. The passage does NOT mention which of the following about patriotism?

(A) Patriotism may be the love for one’s birthplace. - incorrect- refer to para 1
(B) The earlier definition of patriotism would not apply to many modern Americans. - incorrect- refer to para 2
(C) Leo Tolstoy was the greatest anti-patriot of all times. - Correct; Leo Tolstoy, the greatest anti-patriot of our times, (OUR != ALL)
(D) People have contrasting views on patriotism. - incorrect
(E) Patriotism can in some way be used to justify mass killing of people. - incorrect,
Leo Tolstoy, the greatest anti-patriot of our times, defines patriotism as the principle that will justify the training of wholesale murderers

4. The tone of the passage towards anti-patriots can best be described as:
(B) Laudatory

Gustave Herve, another great anti-patriot, justly calls patriotism a superstition—one far more injurious, brutal, and inhumane than religion.
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Re: What is patriotism? Is it love of one’s birthplace, the place of child   [#permalink] 28 Jul 2019, 08:41
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