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# Whereas lines of competition are clearly defined in the more establish

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Re: Whereas lines of competition are clearly defined in the more establish [#permalink]
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Whereas lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries, in the Internet industry they are blurred and indistinct, as companies that compete one day may be partners the next.

A. Whereas lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries, in the Internet industry they are blurred and indistinct, as companies that compete -- The adverb 'one day' is correctly modifying the verb compete. correct choice

B. Although the lines of competition are clearly defined in industries that are more established, they are blurred and indistinct in the Internet industry, as competing companies ---The adverbial modifier 'one day' in the non-underlined part is wrongly modifying the noun companies.

C. The lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries, unlike the Internet where they are blurred and indistinct, as companies that compete -- 1. Unparallel comparison; the Internet is being compared with 'in the more established industries'. 2. The Internet is not a place to be referred by 'where'

D. Unlike more established industries, where the lines of competition are clearly defined, they are blurred and indistinct in the Internet industry, as companies that compete ---1. where is not a place to be modified by 'where'. 2. Unparallel comparison. 'in the Internet industry' is being compared with just more established industries and not 'in the more established industries'

E. Unlike more established industries, with clearly defined lines of competition, those of the Internet industry are blurred and indistinct, as competing companies ----Unparallel comparison; of the Internet industry is being compared with just more established industries and not of the more established industries
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Whereas lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries, in the Internet industry they are blurred and indistinct, as companies that compete one day may be partners the next.

A. Whereas lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries, in the Internet industry they are blurred and indistinct, as companies that compete
B. Although the lines of competition are clearly defined in industries that are more established, they are blurred and indistinct in the Internet industry, as competing companies
---> it would be fine if "competing companies" were " companies that compete" ...coz if not, "one day" is of no use here.

C. The lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries, unlike the Internet where they are blurred and indistinct, as companies that compete
----> wrong comparison between "the lines of ..." and "the internet" ---> out.

D. Unlike more established industries, where the lines of competition are clearly defined, they are burred and indistinct in the Internet industry, as companies that compete
-----> same as C.

E. Unlike more established industries, with clearly defined lines of competition, those of the Internet industry are blurred and indistinct, as competing companies.
----->"those of " is " lines of competitions " ---> again, wrong comparison ---> out.

A stands fine.
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Dear Friends,

Here is a detailed explanation to this question-
imaru
Whereas lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries, in the Internet industry they are blurred and indistinct, as companies that compete one day may be partners the next.

A. Whereas lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries, in the Internet industry they are blurred and indistinct, as companies that compete

B. Although the lines of competition are clearly defined in industries that are more established, they are blurred and indistinct in the Internet industry, as competing companies

C. The lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries, unlike the Internet where they are blurred and indistinct, as companies that compete

D. Unlike more established industries, where the lines of competition are clearly defined, they are burred and indistinct in the Internet industry, as companies that compete

E. Unlike more established industries, with clearly defined lines of competition, those of the Internet industry are blurred and indistinct, as competing companies

Meaning is crucial to solving this problem:
Understanding the intended meaning is key to solving this question; the intended meaning of this sentence is that lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries, but in the Internet industry they are blurred and indistinct, as companies that compete one day may be partners the next.

Concepts tested here: Meaning + Comparison + Idioms

• “where” is only used to refer to a physical location.
• A comparison must always be made between similar things.

A: Correct. This answer choice uses the phrase "companies that compete one day"; this phrase correctly modifies the verb "compete" with "one day", which serves as an adverb here, conveying the intended meaning - that lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries, but in the Internet industry they are blurred and indistinct, as companies that compete one day may be partners the next. Further, Option A correctly compares the lines of competition in the more established industries to the lines of competition in the Internet industry. Additionally, Option A avoids the idiom error seen in Options C and E, as it does not use the word "where".

B: Trap. This answer choice alters the meaning of the sentence through the phrase "competing companies one day"; the construction of this phrase leads to an incoherent meaning; the intended meaning is that lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries, but in the Internet industry they are blurred and indistinct, as companies that compete one day may be partners the next; this phrase is incoherent, as "one day" serves as an adverb in this sentence, meaning its use to modify the noun "companies" is incorrect; please remember, adverbs can only modify verbs and adjectives.

C: This answer choice incorrectly compares "the more established industries" to "the Internet"; please remember, a comparison must always be made between similar things. Further, Option C incorrectly refers to "Internet" with "where"; please remember, “where” is only used to refer to a physical location.

D: This answer choice incorrectly compares "more established industries" to "they (lines of competition)"; please remember, a comparison must always be made between similar things. Further, Option D incorrectly refers to "industries" with "where"; please remember, “where” is only used to refer to a physical location.

E: This answer choice alters the meaning of the sentence through the phrase "competing companies one day"; the construction of this phrase leads to an incoherent meaning; the intended meaning is that lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries, but in the Internet industry they are blurred and indistinct, as companies that compete one day may be partners the next; this phrase is incoherent, as "one day" serves as an adverb in this sentence, meaning its use to modify the noun "companies" is incorrect; please remember, adverbs can only modify verbs and adjectives. Further, Option E incorrectly compares "more established industries" to "those (lines of competition)"; please remember, a comparison must always be made between similar things.

Hence, A is the best answer choice.

All the best!
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A. Whereas lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries, in the Internet industry they are blurred and indistinct, as companies that compete
- more appropriate, even though not perfect IMO.
B. Although the lines of competition are clearly defined in industries that are more established, they are blurred and indistinct in the Internet industry, as competing companies
- seems to imply that the internet industry is also among the "more established" industries.
C. The lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries, unlike the Internet where they are blurred and indistinct, as companies that compete
- should be internet industry
D. Unlike more established industries, where the lines of competition are clearly defined, they are burred and indistinct in the Internet industry, as companies that compete
- not clear what "they" refers to: industries or lines of competition
E. Unlike more established industries, with clearly defined lines of competition, those of the Internet industry are blurred and indistinct, as competing companies
- same argument as D
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Re: Whereas lines of competition are clearly defined in the more establish [#permalink]
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The sentence with the OA (B) reads thus:
Although the lines of competition are clearly defined in industries that are more established, they are blurred and indistinct in the Internet industry, as competing companies one day may be partners the next.
I don't think the highlighted part sounds like correct English, or I am missing something basic here. Ivymba or matrix, Help me out!
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The first word after the comma has to be the word being modified OR have parallel reasoning.

A. Whereas lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries, in the Internet industry they are blurred and indistinct, as companies that compete
After the comma, the sentence should speak of 'lines of competition' to maintain parallelism.
A does not do that.

C. The lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries, unlike the Internet where they are blurred and indistinct, as companies that compete
Here, it is comparing clear definition of the 'lines of competition' with the 'internet'

D. Unlike more established industries, where the lines of competition are clearly defined, they are burred and indistinct in the Internet industry, as companies that compete
'They' does not clearly refer to the 'lines of competition'. It could also refer to industries.

E. Unlike more established industries, with clearly defined lines of competition, those of the Internet industry are blurred and indistinct, as competing companies
'Those' does not clearly refer to the 'lines of competition'. It could also refer to industries.

B. Although the lines of competition are clearly defined in industries that are more established, they are blurred and indistinct in the Internet industry, as competing companies
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A is the correct choice: Look out for quantities being compared. We are comparing lines of competition in Established industries and Internet Industry.

Reasoning:
A. Whereas lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries, in the Internet industry they are blurred and in distinct, as companies that compete--Correct.

B. Although the lines of competition are clearly defined in industries that are more established , they are blurred and indistinct in the Internet threats t industry, as competing companies---Here the meaning is distorted, because of although.

C. The lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries, unlike the Internet where they are blurred and indistinct, as companies that compete--Comparison of lines of competition and Internet. Incorrect.

D. Unlike more established industries, where the lines of competition are clearly Defined, they are burred and indistinct in the Internet industry, as companies that compete---'They' refers to more established industries and not lines of competition Incorrect.

E. Unlike more established industries, with clearly defined lines of competition, those of the Internet industry are blurred and indistinct, as competing companies ----'Those' refers to more established industries and not lines of competition Incorrect.
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Re: Whereas lines of competition are clearly defined in the more establish [#permalink]
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Whereas lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries, in the Internet industry they are blurred and indistinct, as companies that compete one day may be partners the next.

A. Whereas lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries, in the Internet industry they are blurred and indistinct, as companies that compete

B. Although the lines of competition are clearly defined in industries that are more established, they are blurred and indistinct in the Internet industry, as competing companies

C. The lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries, unlike the Internet where they are blurred and indistinct, as companies that compete

D. Unlike more established industries, where the lines of competition are clearly defined, they are burred and indistinct in the Internet industry, as companies that compete

E. Unlike more established industries, with clearly defined lines of competition, those of the Internet industry are blurred and indistinct, as competing companies

In the default statement the contrast is b/w "lines of competition" and "in internet industry"

whereas lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries, in the Internet industry they are blurred and indistinct,

- the sentence can be easily reworded -"whereas LOC are clearly........they are blurred and indistinct in the internet industry"

The contrast is correct in Option B, but the official answer is A. Why so?

What should the approach in such Q`s where the contrast in the default statement is not proper.
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imaru
Whereas lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries, in the Internet industry they are blurred and indistinct, as companies that compete one day may be partners the next.

A. Whereas lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries, in the Internet industry they are blurred and indistinct, as companies that compete
B. Although the lines of competition are clearly defined in industries that are more established, they are blurred and indistinct in the Internet industry, as competing companies
C. The lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries, unlike the Internet where they are blurred and indistinct, as companies that compete
D. Unlike more established industries, where the lines of competition are clearly defined, they are burred and indistinct in the Internet industry, as companies that compete
E. Unlike more established industries, with clearly defined lines of competition, those of the Internet industry are blurred and indistinct, as competing companies

A. Whereas lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries, in the Internet industry they are blurred and indistinct, as companies that compete - correct
B. Although the lines of competition are clearly defined in industries that are more established, they are blurred and indistinct in the Internet industry, as competing companies - continuous tense, not preferable
C. The lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries, unlike the Internet where they are blurred and indistinct, as companies that compete - has to be internet industry not INTERNET -> changes the meaning
D. Unlike more established industries, where the lines of competition are clearly defined, they are burred and indistinct in the Internet industry, as companies that compete - Comparision of two different things. Establuished industries are compared with 'lines of competition'
E. Unlike more established industries, with clearly defined lines of competition, those of the Internet industry are blurred and indistinct, as competing companies - same as D

IMO A
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Re: Whereas lines of competition are clearly defined in the more establish [#permalink]
Can someone please explain why A is right and E is wrong
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a13ssandra
Can someone please explain why A is right and E is wrong
E says: Unlike more established industries, with clearly defined lines of competition, those of the Internet industry are blurred and indistinct, as competing companies one day may be partners the next.

What does those refer to?

i) One might perhaps interpret that those refers to lines of competition. Then E would read: Unlike more established industries, with clearly defined lines of competition, lines of competition of the Internet industry are blurred and indistinct, as competing companies one day may be partners the next. At least two issues with this:

Issue 1: It is an incorrect comparison. Generally speaking, like/unlike should be between similar entities. However, here the structure is: Unlike more established industries...., lines of competition..... So, the comparison is between dis-similar entities established industries and lines of competition.

Issue 2: The sentence says: lines of competition of the Internet industry. It should actually say: lines of competition in the Internet industry (the way it is lines of competition in the more established industries)

ii) One might interpret that those refers to industries (going by the structure of option E, this is more likely to be the case). Then E would read: Unlike more established industries, with clearly defined lines of competition, industries of the Internet industry are blurred and indistinct, as competing companies one day may be partners the next. This is clearly incorrect because it suggests that industries (of the Internet industry) are blurred and indistinct, while actually lines of competition are blurred and indistinct.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses issues related to comparisons in significant detail. If you can PM you email-id, I can send you the corresponding section.

Originally posted by EducationAisle on 28 Oct 2014, 22:51.
Last edited by EducationAisle on 28 Oct 2014, 23:10, edited 1 time in total.
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A. Whereas lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries, in the Internet industry they are blurred and indistinct, as companies that compete

They is referring to lines of competition, but they are too far apart. How can this be correct?
For one thing, pronoun ambiguity (a pronoun with multiple eligible antecedents, in this case lines of competition and industries) is acceptable on GMAT. Also, generally in such sentences, what works is to split the sentence into corresponding clauses:

i) Whereas lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries
ii) In the Internet industry they are blurred and indistinct

lines of competition (a noun) and they (a pronoun) are subjects in their respective clauses. Hence, they would refer to lines of competition.

Nevertheless, it is not a good idea to eliminate an answer choice because of pronoun ambiguity.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses the scenarios of pronoun usage, their application and examples in significant detail. If you can PM you email-id, I can send you the corresponding section.
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Whereas lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries, in the Internet industry they are blurred and indistinct, as companies that compete one day may be partners the next.

A. Whereas lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries, in the Internet industry they are blurred and indistinct, as companies that compete
Correct: The word "whereas" correctly contrasts the two clauses. Usage of "companies that compete" is clear and concise.

B. Although the lines of competition are clearly defined in industries that are more established, they are blurred and indistinct in the Internet industry, as competing companies
Incorrect: wordy; usage of "competing companies" is awkward.

C. The lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries, unlike the Internet where they are blurred and indistinct, as companies that compete
Incorrect: "Industries" is compared with "internet"

D. Unlike more established industries, where the lines of competition are clearly defined, they are burred and indistinct in the Internet industry, as companies that compete
Incorrect: "more established industries" is compared with "lines of competition" (they)

E. Unlike more established industries, with clearly defined lines of competition, those of the Internet industry are blurred and indistinct, as competing companies
Incorrect: again usage of "competing companies"
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Whereas lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries, in the Internet industry they are blurred and indistinct, as companies that compete one day may be partners the next.

A. Whereas lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries, in the Internet industry they are blurred and indistinct, as companies that compete - Correct

B. Although the lines of competition are clearly defined in industries that are more established, they are blurred and indistinct in the Internet industry, as competing companies
Two issues:
1) that are -> is not required
2) competing companies -> Not parallel with "may be partners the next"

C. The lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries, unlike the Internet where they are blurred and indistinct, as companies that compete
Two issues
1) unlike X Y
So "Lines" cannot be compared to/with internet companies.
2) The original sentence talks about Internet industries and not internet
.

D. Unlike more established industries, where the lines of competition are clearly defined, they are burred and indistinct in the Internet industry, as companies that compete
Wrong comparsion -> Industries compared with/to lines

E. Unlike more established industries, with clearly defined lines of competition, those of the Internet industry are blurred and indistinct, as competing companies
Comparison should be made between industries and industries
Those refers to industries and industries of Internet industry is wrong.
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Quote:
Vikram wrote and Vipul seconded
In A or B how do we know that "they" is referring to lines and not industries

OK, let me now replace the pronoun’ they’ with both the contenders

1. Whereas lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries, in the Internet industry ( they) the industries are blurred and indistinct, as companies that compete
A.2. Whereas lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries, in the Internet industry (they) the lines are blurred and indistinct, as companies that compete
Now, one can decide which is logical.
That is why, whenever, one has doubts about the relevance a pronoun, he or she should apply the replacement test and conclude
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Re: Whereas lines of competition are clearly defined in the more establish [#permalink]
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Quote:
Vikram wrote and Vipul seconded
In A or B how do we know that "they" is referring to lines and not industries

OK, let me now replace the pronoun’ they’ with both the contenders

1. Whereas lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries, in the Internet industry ( they) the industries are blurred and indistinct, as companies that compete
A.2. Whereas lines of competition are clearly defined in the more established industries, in the Internet industry (they) the lines are blurred and indistinct, as companies that compete
Now, one can decide which is logical.
That is why, whenever, one has doubts about the relevance a pronoun, he or she should apply the replacement test and conclude

HI Daagh, thanks for prompt response, I know that "they" logically should refer to lines, but my concern is we cant assume that "they " is referring to lines since grammatically it can refer to both lines and the industries,

Just as in many SC questions when we have multiple antecedents of it , we omit that choice , however we know logically "it" should refer to one clear antecedent
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