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While students in rural areas graduate from high school at rates secon

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While students in rural areas graduate from high school at rates secon  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jul 2017, 10:13
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A
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While students in rural areas graduate from high school at rates second only to those of suburban students (by a single percentage point), and perform at or above the national average on the ACT and SAT exams, enroll in four year colleges and universities, and pursue advanced degrees at significantly lower rates.

A exams, enroll in four year colleges and universities, and
B exams, they enroll in four-year colleges and universities and
C exams; they enroll in four-year colleges and universities and they
D exams, rural students enroll in four year colleges, universities, and
E exams, enroll in four year colleges and universities, and they
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Re: While students in rural areas graduate from high school at rates secon  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jul 2017, 09:54
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akshayk wrote:
haardiksharma wrote:
While students in rural areas graduate from high school at rates second only to those of suburban students (by a single percentage point), and perform at or above the national average on the ACT and SAT exams, enroll in four year colleges and universities, and pursue advanced degrees at significantly lower rates.

A exams, enroll in four year colleges and universities, and
B exams, they enroll in four-year colleges and universities and
C exams; they enroll in four-year colleges and universities and they
D exams, rural students enroll in four year colleges, universities, and
E exams, enroll in four year colleges and universities, and they


This took me 2 minutes. Was stuck between B and D.
Finally eliminated D as it broke off colleges and universities by removing the and, and putting a comma, and we ideally want them to be one thing here. And this breaks parallelism.

While indicates a contrast should follow in the next clause, and since "while...." is a dependent clause, the main clause needs a subject, and 'they' helps with that.

Now about pronoun antecedent.
For B - they is clearly referring to students in rural areas as students in rural areas are the subject of the preceding clause. Secondly, they enroll.... and pursue... maintains parallelism.

Any other thoughts?


While students in rural areas graduate from high school at rates second only to those of suburban students (by a single percentage point), and perform at or above the national average on the ACT and SAT exams, enroll in four year colleges and universities, and pursue advanced degrees at significantly lower rates.

A exams, enroll in four year colleges and universities, and - I picked this first, as by removing all the modifiers, the sentence read fine - "While students in rural areas graduate from high school at rates second only to those of suburban students.......exams, enroll in four year colleges and universities, and pursue advanced degrees at significantly lower rates. The error here would meaning - it would mean suburban students are doing so, not the rural ones
B exams, they enroll in four-year colleges and universities and - Correct placement of THEY ENROLL - meaning rural students enroll, not suburban ones
C exams; they enroll in four-year colleges and universities and they - wrong, why use 'they' two times
D exams, rural students enroll in four year colleges, universities, and incorrect placement of commas and and
E exams, enroll in four year colleges and universities, and they incorrect construction,they should come earlier

Again, a really amazing question, testing attention to detail in sentences :D
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Re: While students in rural areas graduate from high school at rates secon  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jul 2017, 10:19
What do they refer to in option B
isn't "they" ambiguous here?
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Re: While students in rural areas graduate from high school at rates secon  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jul 2017, 10:35
While students in rural areas graduate from high school at rates second only to those of suburban students (by a single percentage point), and perform at or above the national average on the ACT and SAT exams, enroll in four year colleges and universities, and pursue advanced degrees at significantly lower rates.

A exams, enroll in four year colleges and universities, and
B exams, they enroll in four-year colleges and universities and
C exams; they enroll in four-year colleges and universities and they
D exams, rural students enroll in four year colleges, universities, and
E exams, enroll in four year colleges and universities, and they

This intend of this sentence is to show contrast.

while students in rural areas graduate from high school at rates second only to those of suburban students , they enrol in four year colleges and universities and blah ..blah...

we need two independent clause here,

They perfectly refers to the subject of the firs clause.
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Re: While students in rural areas graduate from high school at rates secon  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jul 2017, 10:48
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haardiksharma wrote:
While students in rural areas graduate from high school at rates second only to those of suburban students (by a single percentage point), and perform at or above the national average on the ACT and SAT exams, enroll in four year colleges and universities, and pursue advanced degrees at significantly lower rates.

A exams, enroll in four year colleges and universities, and
B exams, they enroll in four-year colleges and universities and
C exams; they enroll in four-year colleges and universities and they
D exams, rural students enroll in four year colleges, universities, and
E exams, enroll in four year colleges and universities, and they


This took me 2 minutes. Was stuck between B and D.
Finally eliminated D as it broke off colleges and universities by removing the and, and putting a comma, and we ideally want them to be one thing here. And this breaks parallelism.

While indicates a contrast should follow in the next clause, and since "while...." is a dependent clause, the main clause needs a subject, and 'they' helps with that.

Now about pronoun antecedent.
For B - they is clearly referring to students in rural areas as students in rural areas are the subject of the preceding clause. Secondly, they enroll.... and pursue... maintains parallelism.

Any other thoughts?
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Re: While students in rural areas graduate from high school at rates secon  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jul 2017, 10:58
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In order to use a pronoun, the pronoun should only have one referent throughout the sentence. They can refer to Suburban students too, hence incorrect imo.

D has no ambiguity
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Re: While students in rural areas graduate from high school at rates secon  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jul 2017, 11:08
anuj11 wrote:
In order to use a pronoun, the pronoun should only have one referent throughout the sentence. They can refer to Suburban students too, hence incorrect imo.

D has no ambiguity


Suburban Students is in a prepositional phrase modifying 'those', and those is referring to rates. Clause 1 only has one subject and that is students in rural areas. So referent for 'they' is correct in my opinion.

Let's wait for an expert's reply.
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Re: While students in rural areas graduate from high school at rates secon  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jul 2017, 11:16
anuj11 wrote:
In order to use a pronoun, the pronoun should only have one referent throughout the sentence. They can refer to Suburban students too, hence incorrect imo.

D has no ambiguity

Hi,

In terms of PRONOUN AMBIGUITY, you were right that D has no ambiguity.

So, compared to B, D is better than B in terms of PRONOUN AMBIGUITY.

However, having said that D is better than B does not mean that B is wrong.

There are 3 plural nouns preceding "they": students [in rural areas], rates and suburban students.

So there would be PRONOUN AMBIGUITY issue here. But, "they" is intended to refer to "students [in rural areas]". As long as the pronoun and its intended antecedent make sense together and agree with each other, GMAT tolerates such PRONOUN AMBIGUITY. That's why B is NOT wrong.

So, in my opinion PRONOUN AMBIGUITY is NOT an absolute rule.

Just my 2 cents :)


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Re: While students in rural areas graduate from high school at rates secon  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jul 2017, 00:42
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Sir please help in this question
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Re: While students in rural areas graduate from high school at rates secon  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jul 2017, 02:04
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D has parallelism error. Students enroll in colleges, universities, and (students) pursue advance degrees. Should have and between college and universities for it to be correct.
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Re: While students in rural areas graduate from high school at rates secon  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jul 2017, 07:49
Should B. Logically they here is referring to students is rural areas. And slight ambiguity is acceptable as long as meaning of the statement is clear.

D has parallelism error. While students in rural areas is not parallel with enroll in four year
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Re: While students in rural areas graduate from high school at rates secon  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jul 2017, 11:21
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haardiksharma wrote:
GMATNinja
Sir please help in this question

Check out Madhavi1990 's excellent explanation above. If you have specific questions beyond that, just let me know.
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Re: While students in rural areas graduate from high school at rates secon  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jul 2017, 00:12
haardiksharma wrote:
While students in rural areas graduate from high school at rates second only to those of suburban students (by a single percentage point), and perform at or above the national average on the ACT and SAT exams, enroll in four year colleges and universities, and pursue advanced degrees at significantly lower rates.

A exams, enroll in four year colleges and universities, and
B exams, they enroll in four-year colleges and universities and
C exams; they enroll in four-year colleges and universities and they
D exams, rural students enroll in four year colleges, universities, and
E exams, enroll in four year colleges and universities, and they


The sentence starts with "While....." , indicating that its a subordinate clause [which cant stand alone]. Hence we will required an independent clause in the second part.
Option A and E is wrong because "While students....graduate...to those...and perform, enroll...,and purse" is a fragment. Verb graduate cannot act as main verb here. Hence A out.
Option C is wrong because the "While" clause is dependent. Usage of semicolon is wrong since we use it to separate two independent clauses.

Now between B and D, if we try to focus on the last part of the sentence - "...rural students enroll in four year colleges, universities and..." VS "... enroll in four-year colleges and universities and...", the latter is more clear and parallel and makes sense in the sentence as a whole. Hence D out and B is the winner.
Always keep pronoun ambiguity as your last resort in elimination. Remember official answer sometimes have pronoun ambiguity.

Hope this helps :lol:
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Re: While students in rural areas graduate from high school at rates secon  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jul 2017, 04:47
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GMATNinja none Sir
Madhavi1990 This is great explanation than you so much
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Re: While students in rural areas graduate from high school at rates secon  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Nov 2017, 09:48
While students in rural areas graduate from high school at rates second only to those of suburban students (by a single percentage point), and perform at or above the national average on the ACT and SAT exams, enroll in four year colleges and universities, and pursue advanced degrees at significantly lower rates.

A exams, enroll in four year colleges and universities, and - WRONG, if we observe closely, there is no independent clause at all, just subordinate clause - while .... standing alone.

B exams, they enroll in four-year colleges and universities and - CORRECT, concise and clear, pronoun correctly refers to "students in rural areas"
C exams; they enroll in four-year colleges and universities and they - WRONG, again, while... stands alone without independent clause before semicolon
D exams, rural students enroll in four year colleges, universities, and - WRONG, "and" missing between in colleges and universities, rural students sounds like they belong to one type, rural students, normal students, abnormal students.
E exams, enroll in four year colleges and universities, and they - WRONG, "they missing" before enroll
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Re: While students in rural areas graduate from high school at rates secon  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Nov 2017, 00:15
Leo8 wrote:
While students in rural areas graduate from high school at rates second only to those of suburban students (by a single percentage point), and perform at or above the national average on the ACT and SAT exams, enroll in four year colleges and universities, and pursue advanced degrees at significantly lower rates.

A exams, enroll in four year colleges and universities, and
B exams, they enroll in four-year colleges and universities and
C exams; they enroll in four-year colleges and universities and they
D exams, rural students enroll in four year colleges, universities, and
E exams, enroll in four year colleges and universities, and they

This intend of this sentence is to show contrast.

while students in rural areas graduate from high school at rates second only to those of suburban students , they enrol in four year colleges and universities and blah ..blah...

we need two independent clause here,

They perfectly refers to the subject of the firs clause.


I guess you mean we need two dependent clause.As there is contrast we need dependent clauses.
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Re: While students in rural areas graduate from high school at rates secon  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jul 2018, 09:33
Madhavi1990 wrote:
akshayk wrote:
haardiksharma wrote:
While students in rural areas graduate from high school at rates second only to those of suburban students (by a single percentage point), and perform at or above the national average on the ACT and SAT exams, enroll in four year colleges and universities, and pursue advanced degrees at significantly lower rates.

A exams, enroll in four year colleges and universities, and
B exams, they enroll in four-year colleges and universities and
C exams; they enroll in four-year colleges and universities and they
D exams, rural students enroll in four year colleges, universities, and
E exams, enroll in four year colleges and universities, and they


This took me 2 minutes. Was stuck between B and D.
Finally eliminated D as it broke off colleges and universities by removing the and, and putting a comma, and we ideally want them to be one thing here. And this breaks parallelism.

While indicates a contrast should follow in the next clause, and since "while...." is a dependent clause, the main clause needs a subject, and 'they' helps with that.

Now about pronoun antecedent.
For B - they is clearly referring to students in rural areas as students in rural areas are the subject of the preceding clause. Secondly, they enroll.... and pursue... maintains parallelism.

Any other thoughts?


While students in rural areas graduate from high school at rates second only to those of suburban students (by a single percentage point), and perform at or above the national average on the ACT and SAT exams, enroll in four year colleges and universities, and pursue advanced degrees at significantly lower rates.

A exams, enroll in four year colleges and universities, and - I picked this first, as by removing all the modifiers, the sentence read fine - "While students in rural areas graduate from high school at rates second only to those of suburban students.......exams, enroll in four year colleges and universities, and pursue advanced degrees at significantly lower rates. The error here would meaning - it would mean suburban students are doing so, not the rural ones
B exams, they enroll in four-year colleges and universities and - Correct placement of THEY ENROLL - meaning rural students enroll, not suburban ones
C exams; they enroll in four-year colleges and universities and they - wrong, why use 'they' two times
D exams, rural students enroll in four year colleges, universities, and incorrect placement of commas and and
E exams, enroll in four year colleges and universities, and they incorrect construction,they should come earlier

Again, a really amazing question, testing attention to detail in sentences :D


GMATNinja Madhavi1990 abhimahna

I am still confused. Why can't "they" refer to Urban students?

Secondly, can we eliminate A,D,E because we should use "four-year" instead of "four year"??
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Re: While students in rural areas graduate from high school at rates secon  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jul 2018, 20:03
(D) exams, rural students enroll in four year colleges, universities, and


is incorrect because there should be an "and" between colleges and universities

enroll and pursue are two different actions
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Re: While students in rural areas graduate from high school at rates secon  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jul 2018, 06:24
egmat , @veritasprepkarishma , Abhishek009 , broall , Skywalker18

I am still confused. Why can't "they" refer to Urban students?

Secondly, can we eliminate A,D,E because we should use "four-year" instead of "four year"??
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Re: While students in rural areas graduate from high school at rates secon  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jul 2018, 11:48
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In general, if the pronoun is a subject pronoun, then it refers to the subject as a thumb rule. If hypothetically there is no suitable subject, then the pronoun may refer to the nearest object or the object of the proposition.

E.g., while ABC outperform XYZ in something, they underperform in some other thing. -- Here 'they' is a subject pronoun and hence correctly refers to the subject ABC.

Also, they cannot refer to XYZ because such a structure does not convey the correct meaning of contrast, as we can see below.
While ABC outperform XYZ in something, XYZ underperform in some other thing-- Already XYZ are underperforming ABC, and if they were to underperform ABC again, then the contrast loses its relevance.
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Re: While students in rural areas graduate from high school at rates secon &nbs [#permalink] 19 Jul 2018, 11:48
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