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A new law gives ownership of patents—documents providing exclusive rig

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New post 08 Aug 2010, 07:38
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A
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C
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A new law gives ownership of patents—documents providing exclusive right to make and sell an invention—to universities, not the government, when those patents result from government-sponsored university research. Administrators at Logos University plan to sell any patents they acquire to corporations in order to fund programs to improve undergraduate teaching.

Which of the following, if true, would cast most doubt on the viability of the college administrators’ plan described above?


(A) Profit-making corporations interested in developing products based on patents held by universities are likely to try to serve as exclusive sponsors of ongoing university research projects.

(B) Corporate sponsors of research in university facilities are entitled to tax credits under new federal tax-code guidelines.

(C) Research scientists at Logos University have few or no teaching responsibilities and participate little if at all in the undergraduate programs in their field.

(D) Government-sponsored research conducted at Logos University for the most part duplicates research already completed by several profit-making corporations.

(E) Logos University is unlikely to attract corporate sponsorship of its scientific research.
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New post 15 Jan 2014, 17:26
A new law gives ownership of patents—documents providing exclusive right to make and sell an invention—to universities, not the government, when those patents result from government-sponsored university research. Administrators at Logos University plan to sell any patents they acquire to corporations in order to fund programs to improve undergraduate teaching.

Which of the following, if true, would cast most doubt on the viability of the college administrators’ plan described above?

(C) Research scientists at Logos University have few or no teaching responsibilities and participate little if at all in the undergraduate programs in their field.

(D) Government-sponsored research conducted at Logos University for the most part duplicates research already completed by several profit-making corporations.

i read that the argument is about the ownership. But , Do you think C is not weakening the argument ? because i see it DOES !!! ,,,, any thoughts guys ??? why C is wrong ??
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Re: A new law gives ownership of patents—documents providing exclusive rig  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jan 2014, 11:02
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Hi Shagalo,

C I'm afraid does not weaken the argument.

To see this clearly we need to put the argument linearly:

- Patents go to universities, when they're funded by gov't
- Logos will give the money from patents to undergrad teaching

It's that simple.

What does C say?

C says researchers don't teach undergrad.

Why does that weaken? The answer is that it doesn't, it talks about what researchers do , why should that affect their funding?

Hope that helps

James
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Re: A new law gives ownership of patents—documents providing exclusive rig  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jan 2014, 18:08
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NOBORU....

PLAN - Administrators at Logos University plan to sell any patents they acquire to corporations in order to fund programs to improve undergraduate teaching.



(A) Profit-making corporations interested in developing products based on patents held by universities are likely to try to serve as exclusive sponsors of ongoing university research projects.....SO EVEN IF Profit-making corporations SPONSOR THE RESEARCH PROJECTS .....they are not funding programs to improve undergraduate teaching. WHY SHOULD WE ASSUME THAT THEY PATENTS ARE BEING GIVEN FREE TO THEM and therefore funding programs to improve undergraduate teaching will not occur................INCORRECT

(D) Government-sponsored research conducted at Logos University for the most part duplicates research already completed by several profit-making corporations....THE PLAN WILL FAIL AS CORPORATIONS WILL NOT BUY THE PATENT THEY ALREADY HOLD...............CORRECT.
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Re: A new law gives ownership of patents—documents providing exclusive rig  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Mar 2014, 22:01
I have the same doubt as dav373 expressed

I chose chose choice A. I fail to understand how D can be the answer. Here is my reasoning

The conclusion is that college admins plan to sell govt. sponsored patents to corporations to fund under-grad programs. We need to weaken this plan.

Choice D says that government sponsored research mostly duplicates research of corps. Now if the college has the patent, even if corps have duplicate research, corps still cant use the research until they buy the patent. Hence IMO, this choice should not be a weakener

Choice A states that corps may end up being exclusive sponsor of the research project whose patent they want to use. In this case the college would get money for research project from corps instead of govt. But they would not be able to find additional income source for their undergrad programs. Hence this choice weakens the plan.

Can somebody explain why choice D is a better weakener than A
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New post 01 Apr 2014, 19:08
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dipsy001 wrote:
I have the same doubt as dav373 expressed

I chose chose choice A. I fail to understand how D can be the answer. Here is my reasoning

The conclusion is that college admins plan to sell govt. sponsored patents to corporations to fund under-grad programs. We need to weaken this plan.

Choice D says that government sponsored research mostly duplicates research of corps. Now if the college has the patent, even if corps have duplicate research, corps still cant use the research until they buy the patent. Hence IMO, this choice should not be a weakener

Choice A states that corps may end up being exclusive sponsor of the research project whose patent they want to use. In this case the college would get money for research project from corps instead of govt. But they would not be able to find additional income source for their undergrad programs. Hence this choice weakens the plan.

Can somebody explain why choice D is a better weakener than A


Hi dipsy001,

First of all,a very interesting doubt! After a long time, I thought about a CR question for 15 minutes.

I'll first discuss option A and then option D:

Option A:

(A) Profit-making corporations interested in developing products based on patents held by universities are likely to try to serve as exclusive sponsors of ongoing university research projects.

What does it mean?

It means that corporations are likely to do one thing (one thing = exclusive sponsor of ongoing research projects). Does it in any way mean that they will not do the other thing (other thing = fund programs to improve undergraduate teaching)? Rather, on the contrary, the universities may make it a condition for anyone becoming an exclusive sponsor to also fund undergraduate teaching. Isn't it?

Option D:

First of all, your doubt here is different from that of dav373. He said that option D indicates that logos university will not patents and hence, this option is irrelevant since we are talking about patents and not the absence of patents.

On the other hand, you say that if logos university has a patent, then corporations will need to pay logos university to access the payment and therefore, this option does not weaken the argument.

Am I correct in my understanding?

Now, here I agree with dav373 that if the research is duplicate of the research already completed by corporations, then there is hardly a possibility of logos university getting patents. In such a case, since it does not have patents, it will not be able to fund programs to improve undergraduate training. So, now, we are less sure of their plan. Therefore, option D actually weakens the viability of the plan.

Now, you can see that I disagree with dav373 that option D is irrelevant just because it means that logos university will not get patents. If I say that

I plan to sell my upcoming book to pay off my tuition fees.

Can't you weaken my plan by saying that no one will even publish that book?

Thanks,
Chiranjeev
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New post 01 Apr 2014, 20:11
Hey Chiranjeev,

Thanks for explaining this at length, however I'm still not clear :) :(

I realize after you pointed out, that my query w.r.t. to point D is not same as dav373. Sorry for adding the confusion.

When I read the question, I consider it a given that universities own the patent. The argument clearly states it. Now even if corporations have completed similar research (before or after universities doesn't matter), they wont be able to use their own research, since the universities own the patent for the research. Corporations will have to buy patents from universities before they can use the technology/research.

Option D
(D) Government-sponsored research conducted at Logos University for the most part duplicates research already completed by several profit-making corporations.

If govt sponsored research duplicates research completed by several profit-making corporations, there are only 2 possibilities ->1) corps file the patent first and get it 2) universities file the patent first and they own it. Since, we are not talking about corps filed patents, we can ignore those. For the patents that universities own, even if corps have done duplicate research, they will have to buy the patent from universities.

Now option A

(A) Profit-making corporations interested in developing products based on patents held by universities are likely to try to serve as exclusive sponsors of ongoing university research projects.

The statement as it stands says that companies would want to be exclusive sponsors of research projects. If we say that universities may make it a condition for anyone becoming an exclusive sponsor to also fund undergraduate teaching. Wouldn't that be an additional assumption, which the choice doesn't state? On the other hand, an assumption such as 'corps would want to be exclusive sponsors of research projects only if they can use the research later without buying the patents' seems more likely. Corps wont want to fund the projects for free. This leaves the universities without a sponsor for their undergraduate teaching programs. It's as simple as univs have 2 sources of funds now 1) Govt - Who sponsor the research so that univs can own patents 2) Corps - Who buy the patents which allows univs to make additional income for funding other projects.

With option A, they cut out one of their source. It's definitely a loss and a weakener
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New post 01 Apr 2014, 22:16
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dipsy001 wrote:
Hey Chiranjeev,

Thanks for explaining this at length, however I'm still not clear :) :(

I realize after you pointed out, that my query w.r.t. to point D is not same as dav373. Sorry for adding the confusion.

When I read the question, I consider it a given that universities own the patent. The argument clearly states it.


Hi Dipsy001,

Where does the argument say that (clearly)? Also, option D is specifically about Logos university. So, do you mean that the argument clearly states that Logos university has patents? I think the argument first talks about universities in general and then specifically about the plan of Logos university.

dipsy001 wrote:
Now even if corporations have completed similar research (before or after universities doesn't matter), they wont be able to use their own research, since the universities own the patent for the research. Corporations will have to buy patents from universities before they can use the technology/research.

Option D
(D) Government-sponsored research conducted at Logos University for the most part duplicates research already completed by several profit-making corporations.

If govt sponsored research duplicates research completed by several profit-making corporations, there are only 2 possibilities ->1) corps file the patent first and get it 2) universities file the patent first and they own it. Since, we are not talking about corps filed patents, we can ignore those. For the patents that universities own, even if corps have done duplicate research, they will have to buy the patent from universities.


This part is relevant only if we know that Logos university has patents. So, I am waiting for your revert on my above question.

dipsy001 wrote:
Now option A

(A) Profit-making corporations interested in developing products based on patents held by universities are likely to try to serve as exclusive sponsors of ongoing university research projects.

The statement as it stands says that companies would want to be exclusive sponsors of research projects. If we say that universities may make it a condition for anyone becoming an exclusive sponsor to also fund undergraduate teaching. Wouldn't that be an additional assumption, which the choice doesn't state?


Yes, that would be an additional assumption, which you don't need to make. I just gave it as an example. My main reason for rejection was something else: doing one thing does not exclude you from doing the other thing. Would you like to read my explanation again for option A?

dipsy001 wrote:
On the other hand, an assumption such as 'corps would want to be exclusive sponsors of research projects only if they can use the research later without buying the patents' seems more likely. Corps wont want to fund the projects for free.

Now, this assumption is more likely than the previous one. I agree. But it does not mean that we can make this assumption. What if exclusive sponsorship just gives the corporation a right of first refusal to the patent? In such a case, they will in any case need to buy the patent but they will have the first right to buy it. Also, even if the exclusive sponsor does not need to buy this patent, there might be other corporations who will be interested in buying this patent.

dipsy001 wrote:
This leaves the universities without a sponsor for their undergraduate teaching programs.

Cannot say this based on above explanation.

Thanks,
Chiranjeev
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Re: A new law gives ownership of patents—documents providing exclusive rig  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Apr 2014, 02:29
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The question asks us to weaken the conclusion .

The conclusion is "Administrators at Logos University plan to sell any patents they acquire to corporations in order to fund programs to improve undergraduate teaching."

Here the assumption is that "By Selling patents, University will make money to fund undergraduate teaching" .

We need an arguments that weakens this.

"But what if the patents or Research is duplicate/carbon copy of already completed Projects??"
Thus choice D weakens the argument.
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New post 02 Apr 2014, 19:29
Hey Chiranjeev,

Ok, I see your point.

I was trying to weaken the conclusion "Administrators at Logos University plan to sell any patents they acquire to corporations in order to fund programs to improve undergraduate teaching." as Given that Logos University acquires a patent, weaken their plan of "being able to fund under-grad programs by selling the patent".

I see your approach of weakening this argument( which I now see is the right way) is to weaken their plan as a whole, which could start with weakening the possibility that Logos University will acquire the patent in the first place. Then D rightfully is a stronger weakener.

Wow, that is quite a gap in how I approached the question. Thanks for the detailed clarification :) Kudos to you!!
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New post 05 Apr 2014, 08:30
can someone explain why E is incorrect. Wouldnt the university want to attract companies to sell the product
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New post 01 May 2014, 17:40
tryingharder wrote:
dav373 wrote:
Whenever I looked at this problem I thought along the lines of, what would make the university not able to allocate funds towards undergraduate programs by not selling their patents.

I eliminated answer D last because it said that a lot of the research they perform is just a duplicate of work performed and completed by for-profit corporations. If it is duplicate research then they would never be awarded a patent which means that this option is irrelevant to the question. All this option states is that most of their research won't result in a patent which is 100% irrelevant (in my mind) to the argument.

I selected A because if the corporations are only willing to allocate their money as a sponsorship and not as outright buying the patents for cash, then the school would not be able to allocate money to their undergraduate program. All you would have is the government and corporations sponsoring additional research but that would not translate in to more money for undergraduate studies.


defintly D it is :wink:


I agree that D is simply wrong. The plan is to make money from patents that they DO get. If the patent has already been filed, they wouldn't win a patent in the first place, so this is irrelevant. The plan is that they make money ONLY off the ones that they DO get. In my opinion, none of the answer choices are correct. It's simply a poorly written question.
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New post 22 Jul 2014, 17:45
So I suppose I overthought this one because I picked A.

It sounded to me as if the corporations taking over exclusive sponsorship of the projects would mean that the patents would end up belonging to them, since the amended law concerned the government, not the private sector. D looked very attractive but I figured that research is research, and the question was regarding patents, and since the answer said that the RESEARCH was duplicated but didn't mention any patents accompanying that research by those other companies I figured that was a meaningful omission.

I guess my problem was that I made an assumption to make the connection for A, which took it a bit too far. It's a good reminder to look for evidence that weakens assumptions that the argument makes, or in the case of evaluating a plan that sometimes the plan itself doesn't have a weakness, but rather the people executing it will make errors in judgment.
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New post 12 Sep 2016, 17:39
Ans D: If the corporations have completed similar research and invested resources and yet they do not have the right to use that innovation, isnt that a good reason to buy that patent from the universities?

If D truly needs to cast a doubt it needs to complete by indicating that these corporations further intends to file their own 'improved' patent.

No wonder GMAC retired this question!!
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New post 26 Nov 2017, 16:19
Here option A, D and E were the close contenders A can be eliminated because it talks about the profit making corporations, But the argument is about the Logos University making money. Now option E is just talking about the non-sponsors for the scientific research but the what if other kind of invention was sponsored also then argument nowhere mentions about the scientific invention. so option E is incorrect
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New post 26 Nov 2017, 20:50
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Looks like I am the only one who thought C should be the answer.

Conclusion is about improving undergraduate teaching.

C says there are hardly any teaching responsibilities in the undergraduate programs, at Logos University.

So, doesn't it weaken the conclusion? If there are are hardly any teaching responsibilities, what improvement in undergraduate teaching is the conclusion talking about?

Or are we supposed to know (from C) that while "Research scientists" at Logos University have hardly any teaching responsibilities, there would be "other" teachers at Logos University who do have teaching responsibilities?
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New post 13 Apr 2018, 02:10
azargoshtasb wrote:
Hey there
Despite the fact I read all of the above explanations still cant understand why the OA is D. I've answered this question at least three times but every single time I end up choosing A!!
What am I missing?!!!
:(


college administrator plan:sell any patents resulted from government sponsored research to corporation to improve undergraduate teaching

for the viability of a plan,following are the assumptions
1.plan is feasible
2.result is achieved

so here ,the assumptions are
1.there are some government funded research going in LOGOS university
2.they will be able to get patent
3.the patent is bought by corporation
4.undergrad teaching can be improved

to weaken:
an option that defies the assumption can be weakener
A:the corporations will sponsor the university research.but nothing about undergrad teaching
B.corporate sponsors of research: OOS as we are talking about whether the government sponsored research -patent can help to improve the undergrad teaching
C.research scientist and their teaching responsibility OOS
D:says the GOVERNMENT SPONSORED RESEARCH duplicates the research ..that means the university even can not get a patent for that research.so no further steps of teh plan(sell the patent->get money->improve teaching)
E.CORPORATE SPONSORSHIP FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH .but SCOPE IS GOVERNMENT FUNDED RESEARCH.
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New post 20 Jun 2018, 05:19
shalu wrote:
A new law gives ownership of patents—documents providing exclusive right to make and sell an invention—to universities, not the government, when those patents result from government-sponsored university research. Administrators at Logos University plan to sell any patents they acquire to corporations in order to fund programs to improve undergraduate teaching.

Which of the following, if true, would cast most doubt on the viability of the college administrators’ plan described above?


(A) Profit-making corporations interested in developing products based on patents held by universities are likely to try to serve as exclusive sponsors of ongoing university research projects.

(B) Corporate sponsors of research in university facilities are entitled to tax credits under new federal tax-code guidelines.

(C) Research scientists at Logos University have few or no teaching responsibilities and participate little if at all in the undergraduate programs in their field.


D) Government-sponsored research conducted at Logos University for the most part duplicates research already completed by several profit-making corporations.

(E) Logos University is unlikely to attract corporate sponsorship of its scientific research.


OFFICIAL EXPLANATION:



Evaluation of a Plan

Situation Universities own the patents resulting from government-sponsored research at their institutions. One university plans to sell its patents to corporations to fund a program to improve teaching.

Reasoning Which point casts doubt on the university's plan? The university's plan assumes there will be a market for its patents, and that the corporations will want to buy them. What might make this untrue? If some of the corporations have already done the same or similar research, they will not be prospective buyers of the university's patents.


(A) Profit-making corporations interested in developing products based on patents held by universities are likely to try to serve as exclusive sponsors of ongoing university research projects.
This point is irrelevant to the plan to sell patents in order to fund a program.


(B) Corporate sponsors of research in university facilities are entitled to tax credits under new federal tax-code guidelines.
The university plans to sell the patents to the corporations, not to invite the corporations to sponsor research.


(C) Research scientists at Logos University have few or no teaching responsibilities and participate little if at all in the undergraduate programs in their field.
This point is irrelevant to the university's plan to sell off patents since the plan does not specify that the research scientists will be involved in the programs to improve undergraduate teaching.


(D) Government-sponsored research conducted at Logos University for the most part duplicates research already completed by several profit-making corporations.
Correct. This statement properly identifies a factor that casts doubt on the university's plan to sell its patents to corporations.


(E) Logos University is unlikely to attract corporate sponsorship of its scientific research.
The plan concerns selling patents resulting from government-sponsored research, not attracting corporate sponsorship for research.


Answer: D.
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Re: A new law gives ownership of patents—documents providing exclusive rig  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Sep 2018, 02:09
Hi,

The correct answer choice mentions only 'Profit-Making' corporations not all corporations. Doesn't that make this answer choice too narrow? Also, I was thinking why author, at first, introduced this additional information (the phrase 'profit-making') . Any help w.r.t will be appreciated.

Thanks.
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Re: A new law gives ownership of patents—documents providing exclusive rig &nbs [#permalink] 30 Sep 2018, 02:09
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