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A noted psychoanalyst claims that the causes of mental illness are mai

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A noted psychoanalyst claims that the causes of mental illness are mai  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 13 Mar 2019, 03:49
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Question Stats:

49% (01:09) correct 51% (01:17) wrong based on 420 sessions

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A noted psychoanalyst claims that the causes of mental illness are mainly environmental – extreme poverty, lack of adequate parenting, and sexual abuse – and chemical imbalances rarely.

A) and chemical imbalances rarely
B) and chemical imbalance being rare
C) with chemical imbalance as rare
D) chemical imbalances a rarity
E) with chemical imbalance as a rarity

Originally posted by Manang on 07 Mar 2019, 09:07.
Last edited by Bunuel on 13 Mar 2019, 03:49, edited 1 time in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: A noted psychoanalyst claims that the causes of mental illness are mai  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Apr 2019, 20:49
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Manang wrote:
A noted psychoanalyst claims that the causes of mental illness are mainly environmental – extreme poverty, lack of adequate parenting, and sexual abuse – and chemical imbalances rarely.

A) and chemical imbalances rarely
B) and chemical imbalance being rare
C) with chemical imbalance as rare
D) chemical imbalances a rarity
E) with chemical imbalance as a rarity


The part in the hyphen can be ignored. The rest of the sentence should be one whole.

A noted psychoanalyst claims that the causes of mental illness are mainly environmental and chemical imbalances rarely.

The claim is that causes of mental illness are environmental (some examples listed out) and that chemical imbalances lead to mental illnesses rarely.

A) and chemical imbalances rarely

With "and", we would need a complete clause.
e.g. ... and chemical imbalances are rare...

B) and chemical imbalance being rare
"being" is used to express a temporary state.
Check out this post of on the Veritas Prep website: https://www.veritasprep.com/blog/2014/1 ... s-part-ii/

C) with chemical imbalance as rare
"rare" is an adjective. You need a noun with "as" here - "chemical imbalance as a rarity"

D) chemical imbalances a rarity

A noted psychoanalyst claims that the causes of mental illness are mainly environmental chemical imbalances a rarity.
Connector that connects "chemical imbalances" to the rest of the sentence is missing.

E) with chemical imbalance as a rarity
Grammatically fine.

Answer (E)
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Re: A noted psychoanalyst claims that the causes of mental illness are mai  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Mar 2019, 09:22
Are you sure about the OA? With chemical imbalance as a rarity sounds awkward. IMO A should be the answer... as per the meaning of the sentence, Causes of mental illness are Mainly environmental- X,Y & Z & chemical imbalances .
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A noted psychoanalyst claims that the causes of mental illness are mai  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Mar 2019, 03:29
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I am unable to understand what is wrong with option C,D and E.

I have added my bit of explanation below.

A noted psychoanalyst claims that the causes of mental illness are mainly environmental – extreme poverty, lack of adequate parenting, and sexual abuse – and chemical imbalances rarely.

Lets start with the meaning of the sentence. It says the causes of mental illness are mainly environmental factors such as extreme poverty, lack of adequate parenting and sexual abuse and not so much due to chemical imbalance.

Error Analysis-
Structure X and Y is wrong. Because one factor outweighs the other as per meaning of the sentence.

A) and chemical imbalances rarely- eliminate
B) and chemical imbalance being rare-eliminate
C) with chemical imbalance as rare
D) chemical imbalances a rarity-
E) with chemical imbalance as a rarity

Can someone discuss this in detail please. bunnuel,: GMATNinjaTwo, aragonn, sudarshan22, GMATNinja, hazelnut, Vyshak, generis
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Re: A noted psychoanalyst claims that the causes of mental illness are mai  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Apr 2019, 09:57
VeritasKarishma GMATNinja mikemcgarry Can you please throw some light on this question ?

Posted from my mobile device
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Re: A noted psychoanalyst claims that the causes of mental illness are mai  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Apr 2019, 19:16
Trying to fit each option into the main sentence.

A) A noted psychoanalyst claims that the causes of mental illness are mainly environmental – {ignore, the statements before and after the hyphens are to be consistent} – and chemical imbalances rarely

Sentence feels wrong / stopped mid-way, also the 'and' is a problem here.

B) A noted psychoanalyst claims that the causes of mental illness are mainly environmental – {ignore, the statements before and after the hyphens are to be consistent} – and chemical imbalance being rare

Ruled out because of the 'and'

C) A noted psychoanalyst claims that the causes of mental illness are mainly environmental – {ignore, the statements before and after the hyphens are to be consistent} – with chemical imbalance as rare

Incomplete sentence, does not gel well with the grammatical structure of the first part, especially with the plural word 'causes'

D) A noted psychoanalyst claims that the causes of mental illness are mainly environmental – {ignore, the statements before and after the hyphens are to be consistent} – chemical imbalances a rarity

Missing conjunction between two parts of the sentence

E) A noted psychoanalyst claims that the causes of mental illness are mainly environmental – {ignore, the statements before and after the hyphens are to be consistent} – with chemical imbalance as a rarity

Correct answer, by elimination of the above four.
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Re: A noted psychoanalyst claims that the causes of mental illness are mai  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Apr 2019, 18:35
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sayan640 wrote:
VeritasKarishma GMATNinja mikemcgarry Can you please throw some light on this question ?
You could also take a look at the official question that this question is based on.
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Re: A noted psychoanalyst claims that the causes of mental illness are mai  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Apr 2019, 10:58
VeritasKarishma wrote:

A noted psychoanalyst claims that the causes of mental illness are mainly environmental and chemical imbalances rarely.


A) and chemical imbalances rarely

With "and", we would need a complete clause.
e.g. ... and chemical imbalances are rare...

Dear VeritasKarishma
what if it's "and rarely chemical imbalances "
would that be correct? ??

VeritasKarishma wrote:


C) with chemical imbalance as rare
"rare" is an adjective. You need a noun with "as" here - "chemical imbalance as a rarity"

D) chemical imbalances a rarity

E) with chemical imbalance as a rarity
Grammatically fine.

Answer (E)

can you please explain the use of as + noun
it's kinda strange to me
Thank you
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Re: A noted psychoanalyst claims that the causes of mental illness are mai  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Apr 2019, 04:15
the only error in choice d is "balances". we have no reason to use plural noun here beccause "poverty, parenting and abuse" are singular noun.

the pattern in choice d is without "with". this is good because absolute pattern can and can not go with "with".
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Re: A noted psychoanalyst claims that the causes of mental illness are mai  [#permalink]

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New post 24 May 2020, 16:55
Why E over A.

I am more inclined to A as "and" is parallelism marker.
I consider both mainly environmental and chemical imbalances rarely in parallel. And I don't see nothing wrong in it.

Ans if reworded option E, it seems to me like ...mental illness are mainly environmental (list of examples) with chemical imbalances as rarity.
"with chemical imbalances as rarity" seems to connected with mainly environmental directly.
Please clear this doubt.


VeritasKarishma wrote:
Manang wrote:
A noted psychoanalyst claims that the causes of mental illness are mainly environmental – extreme poverty, lack of adequate parenting, and sexual abuse – and chemical imbalances rarely.

A) and chemical imbalances rarely
B) and chemical imbalance being rare
C) with chemical imbalance as rare
D) chemical imbalances a rarity
E) with chemical imbalance as a rarity


The part in the hyphen can be ignored. The rest of the sentence should be one whole.

A noted psychoanalyst claims that the causes of mental illness are mainly environmental and chemical imbalances rarely.

The claim is that causes of mental illness are environmental (some examples listed out) and that chemical imbalances lead to mental illnesses rarely.

A) and chemical imbalances rarely

With "and", we would need a complete clause.
e.g. ... and chemical imbalances are rare...

B) and chemical imbalance being rare
"being" is used to express a temporary state.
Check out this post of on the Veritas Prep website: https://www.veritasprep.com/blog/2014/1 ... s-part-ii/

C) with chemical imbalance as rare
"rare" is an adjective. You need a noun with "as" here - "chemical imbalance as a rarity"

D) chemical imbalances a rarity

A noted psychoanalyst claims that the causes of mental illness are mainly environmental chemical imbalances a rarity.
Connector that connects "chemical imbalances" to the rest of the sentence is missing.

E) with chemical imbalance as a rarity
Grammatically fine.

Answer (E)
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A noted psychoanalyst claims that the causes of mental illness are mai  [#permalink]

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New post 25 May 2020, 04:11
A noted psychoanalyst claims that the causes of mental illness are mainly environmental – extreme poverty, lack of adequate parenting, and sexual abuse – and chemical imbalances rarely.

The phrase included in between the dashes is a modifier phrase that describes the 'causes'. Hence, if you remove this phrase completely, you'll still get a valid sentence. In fact, we need to remove this phrase to visualize what's going on in the passage.

So, after removing this phrase, the sentence effectively becomes:

A noted psychoanalyst claims that the causes of mental illness are mainly environmental and chemical imbalances rarely.


Let's refer to this new version (of the sentence) as V1. we will now analyze our available options using V1 as our reference.

A) and chemical imbalances rarely - By analyzing V1, we realize that what follows 'and' is not an independent clause. Hence, eliminate (A)

B) and chemical imbalance being rare - Same error as in (A). Hence, eliminate (B)

C) with chemical imbalance as rare - here, chemical imbalances is being equated to 'rare' as though both are analogous to each other. This, however, is incorrect as 'rare' is meant to behave as an adjective that describes the 'chemical imbalance'. Hence, eliminate (C).

D) chemical imbalances a rarity - here, the preposition 'with' is missing. Without the preposition 'with', we cannot clearly make out what this underlined portion is trying to modify (or whether this underlined portion is a modifier in the first place). There's a lot of room for doubt here. Hence, eliminate (D)

E) with chemical imbalance as a rarity - here, the preposition phrase 'with... as a rarity' is clearly modifying the noun '' the causes of mental illness''. Hence, (E) is the right answer choice.
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Re: A noted psychoanalyst claims that the causes of mental illness are mai  [#permalink]

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New post 25 May 2020, 12:25
jaisonsunny77 wrote:
A noted psychoanalyst claims that the causes of mental illness are mainly environmental – extreme poverty, lack of adequate parenting, and sexual abuse – and chemical imbalances rarely.

The phrase included in between the dashes is a modifier phrase that describes the 'causes'. Hence, if you remove this phrase completely, you'll still get a valid sentence. In fact, we need to remove this phrase to visualize what's going on in the passage.

So, after removing this phrase, the sentence effectively becomes:

A noted psychoanalyst claims that the causes of mental illness are mainly environmental and chemical imbalances rarely.


Let's refer to this new version (of the sentence) as V1. we will now analyze our available options using V1 as our reference.

A) and chemical imbalances rarely - By analyzing V1, we realize that what follows 'and' is not an independent clause. Hence, eliminate (A)

B) and chemical imbalance being rare - Same error as in (A). Hence, eliminate (B)

C) with chemical imbalance as rare - here, chemical imbalances is being equated to 'rare' as though both are analogous to each other. This, however, is incorrect as 'rare' is meant to behave as an adjective that describes the 'chemical imbalance'. Hence, eliminate (C).

D) chemical imbalances a rarity - here, the preposition 'with' is missing. Without the preposition 'with', we cannot clearly make out what this underlined portion is trying to modify (or whether this underlined portion is a modifier in the first place). There's a lot of room for doubt here. Hence, eliminate (D)

E) with chemical imbalance as a rarity - here, the preposition phrase 'with... as a rarity' is clearly modifying the noun '' the causes of mental illness''. Hence, (E) is the right answer choice.


For choice A, there is no comma before "and". Thus, there should not be a need for an independent clause afterward right?
are [mainly environmental] and [chemical imbalances rarely] seems correct to me? What is wrong with this interpretation?
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Re: A noted psychoanalyst claims that the causes of mental illness are mai   [#permalink] 25 May 2020, 12:25

A noted psychoanalyst claims that the causes of mental illness are mai

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