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A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has co

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The Official Guide for GMAT Review, 10th Edition, 2003

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 34
Page: 658

A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has concluded that much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes from the incineration of wastes.

(A) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes
(B) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins that North Americans are exposed to come
(C) much of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and that North Americans are exposed to comes
(D) many of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and North Americans are exposed to come
(E) many of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed come

[Reveal] Spoiler:
When to use a much v/s many. and should it be "exposed to" or just "exposed" ? A better explanation instead of just an answer letter would be preferred. Thanks
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Originally posted by alimad on 12 Jun 2007, 12:15.
Last edited by hazelnut on 22 Jan 2018, 02:18, edited 2 times in total.
Formatted the question.
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Re: A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has co [#permalink]

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many is used for countable nouns

much is used for uncountable nouns

dioxins i think should be categorized as countable, hence i will eliminate answers with 'much' leaving me with D & E, between whom E is the better choice.
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alimad wrote:
27. A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has concluded that much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes from the incineration of wastes.
(A) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes
(B) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins that North Americans are exposed to come
(C) much of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and that North Americans are exposed to comes
(D) many of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and North Americans are exposed to come
(E) many of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed come


When to use a much v/s many. and should it be "exposed to" or just "exposed" ? A better explaination instead of just an answer letter would be preferred. Thanks



This is an easy one. There are 2 mistakes in the original question -
1. use of much or many. Dioxins are countable like carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, etc. Therefore it should be many rather than much.

2. come/comes - Since it is plural is is come rather than comes.

Hence Answer is E.
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Re: A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has co [#permalink]

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Well competition is between B and E. Now who knows whether dioxins are countable or not.
So, I would look into the context of the sentence to see what makes sense!

Here the sentence clearly suggesting the count of dioxins not the amount of it/them. So 'many' would make more sense.
E.

(E) A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has concluded that many of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed come the incineration of wastes.
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Re: A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has co [#permalink]

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New post 22 Mar 2009, 18:38
I need help to understand why D is wrong...
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Re: A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has co [#permalink]

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bigfernhead wrote:
I need help to understand why D is wrong...


many of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and North Americans are exposed to come

North americans are exposed -> to what? This is not clear, because North americans are exposed to is an independent clause.
Option E corrects this by clearly eliminating the independent clause and bringing in the infinitive and the pronoun.

Also dioxins that are uncontrolled is wordy as compared to 'uncontrolled dioxins'.

Hope this helps,
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Originally posted by pleonasm on 22 Mar 2009, 20:15.
Last edited by pleonasm on 23 Mar 2009, 07:37, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has co [#permalink]

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New post 04 May 2009, 11:16
Friends, IMO Choice E has a split infinitive, where "to" and the verb "exposed" are split. According to manhattan SC guide, this is an error. D has teh reference issue of "to". Also is too wordy. A and B might be having a few errors but one of them is subject verb agreement. IMO B is the correct ans...
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Re: A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has co [#permalink]

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trainspotting wrote:
Friends, IMO Choice E has a split infinitive, where "to" and the verb "exposed" are split. According to manhattan SC guide, this is an error. D has teh reference issue of "to". Also is too wordy. A and B might be having a few errors but one of them is subject verb agreement. IMO B is the correct ans...


split infinites occurs when you place a word between the "to" and the base verb. For example: "to really like."

What you need to keep in mind is that it's considered clumsy when you keep the "to" at the end of the sentence. For example, it is better to say "to which he was accustomed" than "he was accustomed to." This is also true for any prepositins.

Using the relative pronoun "which" doesn't interfer in interupting the split infinitive. That is why option E is correct.
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(A) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes – using ‘’comes’’ here is wrong since dioxins are plural.-
(B) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins that North Americans are exposed to come [color=#0000FF]– I am agree with the idea that mentions We can say much of the dioxin presents in the air.
here we are taking about dioxin level.. "dioxin" --> uncountable
many of dioxins present in the air.
--> dixoins -- countable.
[/color]

(C) much of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and that North Americans are exposed to comes comes – using ‘’comes’’ here is wrong since dioxins are plural.-

(D) many of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and North Americans are exposed to come – it is wrong because of two reasons . 1)It distors paralelism , it should be many of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and that North Americans are exposed inserting that here will eliminate the problem of North americans are exposed -> to what?- 2) using ‘’that are’’ makes the sentence too wordy’’

(E) many of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed come
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alimad wrote:
27. A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has concluded that much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes from the incineration of wastes.
(A) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes
(B) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins that North Americans are exposed to come
(C) much of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and that North Americans are exposed to comes
(D) many of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and North Americans are exposed to come
(E) many of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed come


When to use a much v/s many. and should it be "exposed to" or just "exposed" ? A better explaination instead of just an answer letter would be preferred. Thanks


Tricky question.

Small tip to recognize countable vs uncountable.

If countable --> you will see Noun + "s", e.g. dioxins.
If uncountable --> NO "s", e.g. dioxin.



"Dioxins" here means different types of dioxin chemical.

Narrow down to D & E. No need to say E is much better.

Hope it helps.
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If we know that doixins is a countable noun, we could easily come down to D and E in our first round of elimination. Now when we look at D , we see a parallel construction error. The conjunction and is not joining clauses of equal grammatical rank. it should be that are currently uncontrolled and that North Americans are exposed to which would fix the parallel construction error. hence E is the best possible answer.
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A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has concluded that much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes from the incineration of wastes.


(A) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are comes
Usage of much is wrong + dioxins is plural but comes is singular

(B) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins that North Americans are exposed to come
same as A

(C) much of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and that North Americans are exposed to comes
Usage of much is wrong + \\sm is not maintained logically correct + comes must be come

(D) many of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and North Americans are exposed to come
Same as C

(E) many of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed come
Correct

Hence E
Ans

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arunjay wrote:
Official Guide 2013 - Sentence Correction - Q#83

27. A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has concluded that much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes from the incineration of wastes.
(A) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes
(B) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins that North Americans are exposed to come
(C) much of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and that North Americans are exposed to comes
(D) many of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and North Americans are exposed to come
(E) many of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed come

I was able to arrive at the answer. But in the process I got some doubts:
1. of the currently uncontrolled dioxins ... comes -> here the subject dioxins lies inside the prepositional phrase
2. to which North Americans are -> here the subject North Americans lies inside the prepositional phrase

Usually we should not consider the subjects lying inside the prepositional phrase; however here we are considering. Kindly help to explain.


Hi Arun,

Thanks for posting your doubt here. :-)

1. In the correct answer choice E, the subject for the verb come is many of the currently uncontrolled dioxins. Essentially, the subject for this verb is many. Since many refers to more than one, it correctly takes plural verb come.

2. to which is not a typical prepositional phrase. Look at it this way. A relative pronoun modifier always starts a dependent clause. The relative pronoun modifier itself can be the subject of the DC it starts or can a have separate SV pair. In this particular choice, the relative pronoun modifier which starts a DC but does not act as the subject of the DC it starts. The subject of that DC is North Americans that correctly takes the verb are.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
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pqhai wrote:
alimad wrote:
27. A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has concluded that much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes from the incineration of wastes.
(A) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes
(B) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins that North Americans are exposed to come
(C) much of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and that North Americans are exposed to comes
(D) many of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and North Americans are exposed to come
(E) many of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed come


When to use a much v/s many. and should it be "exposed to" or just "exposed" ? A better explaination instead of just an answer letter would be preferred. Thanks


Tricky question.

Small tip to recognize countable vs uncountable.

If countable --> you will see Noun + "s", e.g. dioxins.
If uncountable --> NO "s", e.g. dioxin.



"Dioxins" here means different types of dioxin chemical.

Narrow down to D & E. No need to say E is much better.

Hope it helps.



As per your tip, "waters" will be a countable noun too? so we will use 'many of the waters' or 'much of the waters' in that case??
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Re: A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has co [#permalink]

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@p00rv@ wrote:
pqhai wrote:
alimad wrote:
27. A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has concluded that much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes from the incineration of wastes.
(A) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes
(B) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins that North Americans are exposed to come
(C) much of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and that North Americans are exposed to comes
(D) many of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and North Americans are exposed to come
(E) many of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed come


When to use a much v/s many. and should it be "exposed to" or just "exposed" ? A better explaination instead of just an answer letter would be preferred. Thanks


Tricky question.

Small tip to recognize countable vs uncountable.

If countable --> you will see Noun + "s", e.g. dioxins.
If uncountable --> NO "s", e.g. dioxin.



"Dioxins" here means different types of dioxin chemical.

Narrow down to D & E. No need to say E is much better.

Hope it helps.



As per your tip, "waters" will be a countable noun too? so we will use 'many of the waters' or 'much of the waters' in that case??


There could be various dioxins: Sodium-dioxin, Potassium-dioxin, etc.(these are just hypothetical names - the real names are too complex, Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins or 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin, and unnecessary to explain the issue).

However water (the liquid substance that we drink) cannot take plural form - "waters" is generally not correct to mean that substance. There is no sodium-water or potassium-water. So 'many of the waters' and 'much of the waters' are both wrong - the correct usage is "much of the water".

However sometimes "waters" is used to refer to a specific body of water. That usage is NOT similar in meaning to usage of dioxins.
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Re: A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has co [#permalink]

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New post 20 Dec 2016, 10:47
Hi,
B,C,D could be eliminated at first sight since "to come[s]" is wrong
Between A and E:
If we interpret the sentence as several types of dioxins come from the incineration,"many...dioxins...come" is correct.I agree with the answer.
But what if we would like to imply that the amount of dioxin comes from the incineration? much...dioxin...comes?
And what if we would like to imply that that a large amount from variety of dioxins comes from the incineration? much ...dioxins...comes? --> may be this is wrong,but really want a step further to clarify my doubt

Please help :read :panel
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sleepynut wrote:
Hi,
B,C,D could be eliminated at first sight since "to come[s]" is wrong
Between A and E:
If we interpret the sentence as several types of dioxins come from the incineration,"many...dioxins...come" is correct.I agree with the answer.
But what if we would like to imply that the amount of dioxin comes from the incineration? much...dioxin...comes?
And what if we would like to imply that that a large amount from variety of dioxins comes from the incineration? much ...dioxins...comes? --> may be this is wrong,but really want a step further to clarify my doubt

Please help :read :panel


Grammatically "much" cannot go with a plural noun. So even if the last meaning you mentioned is implied, the correct usage would be "much of the dioxin" - here "dioxin" would refer to the whole group of the chemical.
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Split1) Modifier - Countable vs Uncountable nouns. The word "dioxins" is countable. How so? Because using "s" at the end of the word means that is plural = the plural makes the word countable. As a result we should decide whether "many" or "much" can modify dioxins. "Much" is used for uncountable words such as water. Conclusion = Use the word "many" in order to modify the word "dioxins". A, B and C are out.
Split2) Preposition rule. the following is a rule: Preposition + Object. The object can be a 1) noun, pronoun in objective form, 2)gerund, 3)substantive clause/noun clause. In this example = to = preposition => "to" + "which North Americans" = Preposition + Object. B, C, and D are out.
Split3) Meaning. in A, B, and E present the information about dioxins and exposure as one long modifier, while answers C and D separate this portion into two parallel pieces of information by using the word "and". what's the difference? You should use "and" to separate parallel pieces that do not have anything to do with one another directly. In this case, both parts are related "the uncontrolled dioxins that North Americans are exposed" so the following is wrong meaning: "The uncontrolled dioxins and that North Americans are exposed to" C and D are out.
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New post 09 Mar 2017, 14:45
A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has concluded that much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes from the incineration of wastes.
(A) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes
(B) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins that North Americans are exposed to come
(C) much of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and that North Americans are exposed to comes
(D) many of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and North Americans are exposed to come
(E) many of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed come

Dioxins is countable and is thus 'many'
D is incorrect structure of the intended meaning.

Oprion E is correct
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New post 17 Sep 2017, 12:58
A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has concluded that much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes from the incineration of wastes.

(A) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes
==> Usage of "Much" is incorrect here. Dioxins is plural and hence will need plural "Many" instead of "much"

(B) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins that North Americans are exposed to come
==> Usage of "Much" is incorrect here. Dioxins is plural and hence will need plural "Many" instead of "much"

(C) much of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and that North Americans are exposed to comes
==> Usage of "Much" is incorrect here. Dioxins is plural and hence will need plural "Many" instead of "much"

(D) many of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and North Americans are exposed to come
==> Missing "that" after "and" in order to maintain parallelism

(E) many of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed come
==> CORRECT
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