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A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has co

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Re: A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has co [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jul 2014, 01:14
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apurva1985 wrote:
alimad wrote:
27. A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has concluded that much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes from the incineration of wastes.
(A) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes
(B) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins that North Americans are exposed to come
(C) much of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and that North Americans are exposed to comes
(D) many of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and North Americans are exposed to come
(E) many of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed come


When to use a much v/s many. and should it be "exposed to" or just "exposed" ? A better explaination instead of just an answer letter would be preferred. Thanks




Agreed E is a better option. I would like to add isint " are exposed to come" sounding ackward and unidiomatic


If we know that doixins is a countable noun, we could easily come down to D and E in our first round of elimination. Now when we look at D , we see aparallel construction error. The conjunction and is not joining clauses of equal grammatical rank. it should be that are currently uncontrolled [i]and
[/i] that North Americans are exposed to would fix the parallel construction error. hence E is the best possible answer.
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Re: A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has co [#permalink]

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If we know that doixins is a countable noun, we could easily come down to D and E in our first round of elimination. Now when we look at D , we see a parallel construction error. The conjunction and is not joining clauses of equal grammatical rank. it should be that are currently uncontrolled and that North Americans are exposed to which would fix the parallel construction error. hence E is the best possible answer.
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Re: A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has co [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jan 2015, 15:49
Eliminate A,B and C --> it schould be MANY not MUCH, as dioxins are countable nouns.
Eliminate D --> it has the same meaning as E, but it contains 2 errors:
1) Parallelism: many of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and [THAT]North Americans are exposed to come
2) many of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and North Americans are exposed to come
-> An infinitive cannot be the main verb o f a sentence. (Source MGMAT Founfation Verbal, Page 49), TO COME is not a working verb.

E is correct.
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Re: A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has co [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jan 2015, 07:40
Much(Uncountable) Vs Many (Countable)

Dioxins(Plural) Come(Plural)
Hence E;

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Re: A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has co [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jan 2015, 01:47
alimad wrote:
27. A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has concluded that much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes from the incineration of wastes.
(A) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes
(B) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins that North Americans are exposed to come
(C) much of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and that North Americans are exposed to comes
(D) many of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and North Americans are exposed to come
(E) many of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed come


When to use a much v/s many. and should it be "exposed to" or just "exposed" ? A better explaination instead of just an answer letter would be preferred. Thanks


dixon is a countable noun. Hence 'many' needs to be used instead of 'much' . On this basis, (A),(B) and (C) can be eliminated
The original sentence also has a subject verb error. singular verb 'comes' used with plural subject 'much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins'. Choice (C) also ha the same error.

(D) alters the meaning by changing 'currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed' to a list 'that are currently uncontrolled and North Americans are exposed to' (i.e into 2 separate entities).

Also (D) has parallelism error which has been already explained above.
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Re: A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has co [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jan 2015, 23:34
i think the explanations in this thread are all unsatisfactory. it is not 'obvious' as some posts here seem to claim, implicitly or explicitly, that dioxins are countable. this point is supported by the fact that some know-it-all has tried to analogize carbon dioxide with dioxins, when CO2 is clearly uncountable, like air. I'm surprised that noone has pointed this out and that everyone is changing their explanations to suit the OA much like a scientist who changes his hypothesis because of the data results he obtains. this is disappointing.

IMO the question basically expects you to know if dioxin is countable or uncountable, and its pretty unfair for those not technically trained in this area. plus, as someone earlier pointed out with his citation of the dictionary definition, it could easily be either. so IMO this is a bad question with poor phrasing.

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Re: A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has co [#permalink]

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New post 31 Mar 2015, 04:25
A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has concluded that much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes from the incineration of wastes.


(A) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are comes
Usage of much is wrong + dioxins is plural but comes is singular

(B) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins that North Americans are exposed to come
same as A

(C) much of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and that North Americans are exposed to comes
Usage of much is wrong + \\sm is not maintained logically correct + comes must be come

(D) many of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and North Americans are exposed to come
Same as C

(E) many of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed come
Correct

Hence E
Ans

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Re: A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has co [#permalink]

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New post 12 Nov 2015, 14:31
So are we just supposed to know that dioxins are countables? :evil: :evil: :evil:
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Re: A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has co [#permalink]

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New post 12 Apr 2016, 06:07
Official Guide 2013 - Sentence Correction - Q#83

27. A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has concluded that much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes from the incineration of wastes.
(A) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes
(B) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins that North Americans are exposed to come
(C) much of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and that North Americans are exposed to comes
(D) many of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and North Americans are exposed to come
(E) many of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed come

I was able to arrive at the answer. But in the process I got some doubts:
1. of the currently uncontrolled dioxins ... comes -> here the subject dioxins lies inside the prepositional phrase
2. to which North Americans are -> here the subject North Americans lies inside the prepositional phrase

Usually we should not consider the subjects lying inside the prepositional phrase; however here we are considering. Kindly help to explain.

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Re: A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has co [#permalink]

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New post 12 Apr 2016, 06:52
arunjay wrote:
Official Guide 2013 - Sentence Correction - Q#83

27. A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has concluded that much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes from the incineration of wastes.
(A) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes
(B) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins that North Americans are exposed to come
(C) much of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and that North Americans are exposed to comes
(D) many of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and North Americans are exposed to come
(E) many of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed come

I was able to arrive at the answer. But in the process I got some doubts:
1. of the currently uncontrolled dioxins ... comes -> here the subject dioxins lies inside the prepositional phrase
2. to which North Americans are -> here the subject North Americans lies inside the prepositional phrase

Usually we should not consider the subjects lying inside the prepositional phrase; however here we are considering. Kindly help to explain.

This should be ok. I cannot think of any scenario where "many" is singular.

"North Americans" is not inside prepositional phrase. The prepositional phrase is "to which". I believe the sentence is:

North Americans are exposed to currently uncontrolled dioxins.

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Re: A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has co [#permalink]

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New post 12 Apr 2016, 07:04
arunjay wrote:
Official Guide 2013 - Sentence Correction - Q#83

27. A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has concluded that much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes from the incineration of wastes.
(A) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes
(B) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins that North Americans are exposed to come
(C) much of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and that North Americans are exposed to comes
(D) many of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and North Americans are exposed to come
(E) many of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed come

I was able to arrive at the answer. But in the process I got some doubts:
1. of the currently uncontrolled dioxins ... comes -> here the subject dioxins lies inside the prepositional phrase
2. to which North Americans are -> here the subject North Americans lies inside the prepositional phrase

Usually we should not consider the subjects lying inside the prepositional phrase; however here we are considering. Kindly help to explain.


to which is not a prepositional phrase, it is the relative pronoun that replaces dioxins in the second part of the "of prep phase" (of the...... exposed). If you are having trouble with passive mode try to flip the sentence, it would read: Americans ARE exposed to dioxins

As for the "of prepositional phase, the rule is respected : "many" is the subject of "come":
Many of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed come from incineration of wastes
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Re: A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has co [#permalink]

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New post 13 Apr 2016, 06:16
I can actually correct myself and add that this is an exception of the SANAM-quantity thing. Quantity is treated like SANAM, ie it is the subject inside the of prepositional phrase that dictates the plural verb here.
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Re: A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has co [#permalink]

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New post 13 Apr 2016, 07:22
Icecream87 wrote:
to which is not a prepositional phrase, it is the relative pronoun that replaces dioxins in the second part of the "of prep phase" (of the...... exposed).

"which" is a relative pronoun, but "to which" is definitely a prepositional phrase.

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Re: A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has co [#permalink]

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arunjay wrote:
Official Guide 2013 - Sentence Correction - Q#83

27. A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has concluded that much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes from the incineration of wastes.
(A) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes
(B) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins that North Americans are exposed to come
(C) much of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and that North Americans are exposed to comes
(D) many of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and North Americans are exposed to come
(E) many of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed come

I was able to arrive at the answer. But in the process I got some doubts:
1. of the currently uncontrolled dioxins ... comes -> here the subject dioxins lies inside the prepositional phrase
2. to which North Americans are -> here the subject North Americans lies inside the prepositional phrase

Usually we should not consider the subjects lying inside the prepositional phrase; however here we are considering. Kindly help to explain.


Hi Arun,

Thanks for posting your doubt here. :-)

1. In the correct answer choice E, the subject for the verb come is many of the currently uncontrolled dioxins. Essentially, the subject for this verb is many. Since many refers to more than one, it correctly takes plural verb come.

2. to which is not a typical prepositional phrase. Look at it this way. A relative pronoun modifier always starts a dependent clause. The relative pronoun modifier itself can be the subject of the DC it starts or can a have separate SV pair. In this particular choice, the relative pronoun modifier which starts a DC but does not act as the subject of the DC it starts. The subject of that DC is North Americans that correctly takes the verb are.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has co [#permalink]

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New post 08 Sep 2016, 12:59
[/quote] A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has concluded that much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes from the incineration of wastes.
(A) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes
(B) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins that North Americans are exposed to come
(C) much of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and that North Americans are exposed to comes
(D) many of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and North Americans are exposed to come
(E) many of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed come
[/quote]

in E, to which North Americans are exposed is a modifier. But my question is WHY we don't use comma before and after of to which North Americans are exposed?

also, in C, HOW "that are currently uncontrolled" and "that North Americans" are parallel to each other?
and in D, WHY not "that are currently uncontrolled" and "North Americans " parallel to each other?

also, it it possible to count 'Dioxin'?
Thanks...

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Re: A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has co [#permalink]

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pqhai wrote:
alimad wrote:
27. A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has concluded that much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes from the incineration of wastes.
(A) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes
(B) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins that North Americans are exposed to come
(C) much of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and that North Americans are exposed to comes
(D) many of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and North Americans are exposed to come
(E) many of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed come


When to use a much v/s many. and should it be "exposed to" or just "exposed" ? A better explaination instead of just an answer letter would be preferred. Thanks


Tricky question.

Small tip to recognize countable vs uncountable.

If countable --> you will see Noun + "s", e.g. dioxins.
If uncountable --> NO "s", e.g. dioxin.



"Dioxins" here means different types of dioxin chemical.

Narrow down to D & E. No need to say E is much better.

Hope it helps.



As per your tip, "waters" will be a countable noun too? so we will use 'many of the waters' or 'much of the waters' in that case??

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Re: A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has co [#permalink]

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New post 01 Oct 2016, 03:25
@p00rv@ wrote:
pqhai wrote:
alimad wrote:
27. A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has concluded that much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes from the incineration of wastes.
(A) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes
(B) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins that North Americans are exposed to come
(C) much of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and that North Americans are exposed to comes
(D) many of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and North Americans are exposed to come
(E) many of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed come


When to use a much v/s many. and should it be "exposed to" or just "exposed" ? A better explaination instead of just an answer letter would be preferred. Thanks


Tricky question.

Small tip to recognize countable vs uncountable.

If countable --> you will see Noun + "s", e.g. dioxins.
If uncountable --> NO "s", e.g. dioxin.



"Dioxins" here means different types of dioxin chemical.

Narrow down to D & E. No need to say E is much better.

Hope it helps.



As per your tip, "waters" will be a countable noun too? so we will use 'many of the waters' or 'much of the waters' in that case??


There could be various dioxins: Sodium-dioxin, Potassium-dioxin, etc.(these are just hypothetical names - the real names are too complex, Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins or 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin, and unnecessary to explain the issue).

However water (the liquid substance that we drink) cannot take plural form - "waters" is generally not correct to mean that substance. There is no sodium-water or potassium-water. So 'many of the waters' and 'much of the waters' are both wrong - the correct usage is "much of the water".

However sometimes "waters" is used to refer to a specific body of water. That usage is NOT similar in meaning to usage of dioxins.

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Re: A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has co [#permalink]

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New post 09 Oct 2016, 13:44
alimad wrote:
27. A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has concluded that much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes from the incineration of wastes.
(A) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes
(B) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins that North Americans are exposed to come
(C) much of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and that North Americans are exposed to comes
(D) many of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and North Americans are exposed to come
(E) many of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed come


When to use a much v/s many. and should it be "exposed to" or just "exposed" ? A better explanation instead of just an answer letter would be preferred. Thanks

'Much' is used for uncountable noun and 'many' is used for countable noun. here, dioxins are plural and countable noun because there is sign of 'S'. If there is a sign 's' with noun, then it is countable. 'dioxins' is countable. So, 'many' makes sense. A,B, and C are cancel out because mistakenly 'much' is used here.

In E, '' to which North Americans are exposed'' is 'modifier'. if you delete it from the main sentence, then it would be:
A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has concluded that many of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposedcome from the incineration of wastes.
''.......many of the currently uncontrolled dioxins COME from the incineration of wastes''.
-----> perfectly ok.

In D, if we delete the modifier then the full sentence will be like below:
A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has concluded that many of the dioxinsthat are currently uncontrolled and North Americans are exposed to come the incineration of wastes.
The is the sentence fragment; there is no verb here.
Hope it helps.
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Re: A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has co [#permalink]

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New post 20 Dec 2016, 10:47
Hi,
B,C,D could be eliminated at first sight since "to come[s]" is wrong
Between A and E:
If we interpret the sentence as several types of dioxins come from the incineration,"many...dioxins...come" is correct.I agree with the answer.
But what if we would like to imply that the amount of dioxin comes from the incineration? much...dioxin...comes?
And what if we would like to imply that that a large amount from variety of dioxins comes from the incineration? much ...dioxins...comes? --> may be this is wrong,but really want a step further to clarify my doubt

Please help :read :panel

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Re: A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has co [#permalink]

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sleepynut wrote:
Hi,
B,C,D could be eliminated at first sight since "to come[s]" is wrong
Between A and E:
If we interpret the sentence as several types of dioxins come from the incineration,"many...dioxins...come" is correct.I agree with the answer.
But what if we would like to imply that the amount of dioxin comes from the incineration? much...dioxin...comes?
And what if we would like to imply that that a large amount from variety of dioxins comes from the incineration? much ...dioxins...comes? --> may be this is wrong,but really want a step further to clarify my doubt

Please help :read :panel


Grammatically "much" cannot go with a plural noun. So even if the last meaning you mentioned is implied, the correct usage would be "much of the dioxin" - here "dioxin" would refer to the whole group of the chemical.

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