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A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a num

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A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a num  [#permalink]

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A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a number of remedies to reverse a decline in the shark population, which includes the establishment of size limits for shark catches, closing state waters for shark fishing during pupping season, and requiring commercial fishers to have federal shark permits.

(A) which includes the establishment of size limits for shark catches, closing

(B) which includes establishing limits to the size of sharks that can be caught, closing

(C) which include the establishment of size limits for shark catches, the closing of

(D) including establishing size limits for shark catches, closing

(E) including the establishing of limits to the size of sharks that are caught, the closing of

Originally posted by singh_amit19 on 24 Sep 2007, 11:43.
Last edited by Bunuel on 24 Sep 2019, 21:06, edited 3 times in total.
Edited the question.
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Re: A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a num  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Aug 2017, 00:22
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This sentence has parallelism error. The list is not parallel. Since 3rd element of the list is not underlined, elements 1 and 2 should follow the structure of element 3. Thus, all elements should be verb-ing forms as follows:

1) establishing size limits for shark catches
2) closing state waters for shark fishing during pupping season
3) requiring commercial fishers to have federal shark permits
This sentence also has modifier error. The modifier “which includes…” modifies the closest noun or noun phrase. In this sentence, it does not make sense for the “which modifier” providing list of remedies to modify either the noun phrase “decline in shark population” or the noun “the shark population”.

In A and B, the singular verb includes implies that the pronoun which refers either to the singular noun decline or to the singular noun population, but neither the decline nor the population is including the list of remedies that follows. Eliminate A and B.
C and E lack parallelism: the establishment of (the + noun + preposition), the establishing of (the + gerund + preposition), and the closing of (the + gerund + preposition) are not parallel with requiring commercial fishers (gerund + direct object). Eliminate C and E.
The correct answer is D.
D is correct primarily because A, B, C and E each have a clear error.
In D, including and establishing are performing different functions.

Generally, when a present participle (such as including) is preceded by a comma, it refers to the subject of the previous clause. It could be argued that including refers to the study: the study is including -- among the remedies that it recommends -- establishing size limits, closing state waters, and requiring fishers to have permits.
Establishing is not a present participle but a gerund (a verb functioning as a noun). Establishing size limits is one of the remedies that the study is including.
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Re: A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a num  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Sep 2007, 13:50
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i'll go for D
in C 'which' refers to population but infact it shud refer to remedies..
D has correct parallelism establishing, closing, requiring
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Re: A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a num  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jul 2013, 21:12
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Please explain that why 'which' is used improperly?
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Re: A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a num  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jul 2013, 13:01
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superchor wrote:
Please explain that why 'which' is used improperly?


"Which" is a relative pronoun that describes about the noun that is just before it. In this case, the noun that is just before "which" is "shark population" however, the author intends to point to the "remedies". This is the reason that "which" is not properly used here.
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Re: A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a num  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jul 2013, 14:19
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in this sentence which is referring to remidies but it cannot be placed next to remedies so use including which modifies the entire clause.
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Re: A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a num  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Sep 2017, 02:49
A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a number of remedies to reverse a decline in the shark population, which includes the establishment of size limits for shark catches, closing state waters for shark fishing during pupping season, and requiring commercial fishers to have federal shark permits.

A. which includes the establishment of size limits for shark catches, closing - usage of which to refer to a number of remedies but it refers to population here ; subject verb agreement
B. which includes establishing limits to the size of sharks that can be caught, closing - usage of which to refer to a number of remedies but it refers to population here; subject verb agreement
C. which include the establishment of size limits for shark catches, the closing of - usage of which to refer to a number of remedies but it refers to population here
D. including establishing size limits for shark catches, closing - Correct
E. including the establishing of limits to the size of sharks that are caught, the closing of - Parallelism issue - the establishing , the closing and requiring

Answer D
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Re: A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a num  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Sep 2017, 03:45
A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a number of remedies to reverse a decline in the shark population, which includes the establishment of size limits for shark catches, closing state waters for shark fishing during pupping season, and requiring commercial fishers to have federal shark permits.

A. which includes the establishment of size limits for shark catches, closing
B. which includes establishing limits to the size of sharks that can be caught, closing
C. which include the establishment of size limits for shark catches, the closing of
D. including establishing size limits for shark catches, closing
E. including the establishing of limits to the size of sharks that are caught, the closing of
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Re: A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a num  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Sep 2017, 00:56
anairamitch1804 wrote:
This sentence has parallelism error. The list is not parallel. Since 3rd element of the list is not underlined, elements 1 and 2 should follow the structure of element 3. Thus, all elements should be verb-ing forms as follows:

1) establishing size limits for shark catches
2) closing state waters for shark fishing during pupping season
3) requiring commercial fishers to have federal shark permits
This sentence also has modifier error. The modifier “which includes…” modifies the closest noun or noun phrase. In this sentence, it does not make sense for the “which modifier” providing list of remedies to modify either the noun phrase “decline in shark population” or the noun “the shark population”.

In A and B, the singular verb includes implies that the pronoun which refers either to the singular noun decline or to the singular noun population, but neither the decline nor the population is including the list of remedies that follows. Eliminate A and B.
C and E lack parallelism: the establishment of (the + noun + preposition), the establishing of (the + gerund + preposition), and the closing of (the + gerund + preposition) are not parallel with requiring commercial fishers (gerund + direct object). Eliminate C and E.
The correct answer is D.
D is correct primarily because A, B, C and E each have a clear error.
In D, including and establishing are performing different functions.

Generally, when a present participle (such as including) is preceded by a comma, it refers to the subject of the previous clause. It could be argued that including refers to the study: the study is including -- among the remedies that it recommends -- establishing size limits, closing state waters, and requiring fishers to have permits.
Establishing is not a present participle but a gerund (a verb functioning as a noun). Establishing size limits is one of the remedies that the study is including.


I agree with D as the correct answer only because it is better than all the others. But I do have a question regarding its grammatical correctness. The problem is with "including".

This has been used at the end of the main clause to tell something extra about the clause. But from what I've read in MGMAT and e-GMAT, if a Verb-ing nodifier is placed at the end of a sentence, then it can do only the following:-
1. Tell us about the result of an action in the clause.
2. Tell us something extra about a verb in the clause.

In this sentence, "including" is doing none of these, but is used to modify a noun in the preceding clause. Is there some grammatical knowledge that I'm missing? Please help.

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Re: A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a num  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Nov 2017, 08:03
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ShashankDave wrote:
anairamitch1804 wrote:
This sentence has parallelism error. The list is not parallel. Since 3rd element of the list is not underlined, elements 1 and 2 should follow the structure of element 3. Thus, all elements should be verb-ing forms as follows:

1) establishing size limits for shark catches
2) closing state waters for shark fishing during pupping season
3) requiring commercial fishers to have federal shark permits
This sentence also has modifier error. The modifier “which includes…” modifies the closest noun or noun phrase. In this sentence, it does not make sense for the “which modifier” providing list of remedies to modify either the noun phrase “decline in shark population” or the noun “the shark population”.

In A and B, the singular verb includes implies that the pronoun which refers either to the singular noun decline or to the singular noun population, but neither the decline nor the population is including the list of remedies that follows. Eliminate A and B.
C and E lack parallelism: the establishment of (the + noun + preposition), the establishing of (the + gerund + preposition), and the closing of (the + gerund + preposition) are not parallel with requiring commercial fishers (gerund + direct object). Eliminate C and E.
The correct answer is D.
D is correct primarily because A, B, C and E each have a clear error.
In D, including and establishing are performing different functions.

Generally, when a present participle (such as including) is preceded by a comma, it refers to the subject of the previous clause. It could be argued that including refers to the study: the study is including -- among the remedies that it recommends -- establishing size limits, closing state waters, and requiring fishers to have permits.
Establishing is not a present participle but a gerund (a verb functioning as a noun). Establishing size limits is one of the remedies that the study is including.


I agree with D as the correct answer only because it is better than all the others. But I do have a question regarding its grammatical correctness. The problem is with "including".

This has been used at the end of the main clause to tell something extra about the clause. But from what I've read in MGMAT and e-GMAT, if a Verb-ing nodifier is placed at the end of a sentence, then it can do only the following:-
1. Tell us about the result of an action in the clause.
2. Tell us something extra about a verb in the clause.

In this sentence, "including" is doing none of these, but is used to modify a noun in the preceding clause. Is there some grammatical knowledge that I'm missing? Please help.

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Hi ShashankDave ,

comma+ INCLUDING is used -
- It modifies the preceding Noun
- It should give a list of SOME, but not ALL, of that noun.
- Though it looks like comma+ing , it does not function like one.

Here , "including" is placed as close as possible to "remedies"

*For more information on this, watch Thursdays with Ron - Sep 23 , 2010
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New post 12 Apr 2019, 18:22
GMATNinja , in this question can't which refer to "a number of remedies....."?
So at the end "which includes" means "a number of remedies" includes "establishing limit....,closing ...., and requiring ....
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New post 12 Apr 2019, 18:55
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nishantgauragmat wrote:
GMATNinja , in this question can't which refer to "a number of remedies....."?
So at the end "which includes" means "a number of remedies" includes "establishing limit....,closing ...., and requiring ....
A number of is just another way of saying some or many. To be more specific, when you see a number of + [plural noun] used this way, the focus is always on the plural noun, and not on the word number. For example:

1. A number of people who has taken the GMAT...
vs.
2. A number of people who have taken the GMAT...

So effectively, it doesn't matter whether we look at remedies or a number of remedies. The verb after the which cannot be singular.

3. ... a number of remedies, which includes...
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Re: A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a num  [#permalink]

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New post 13 May 2019, 07:20
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I agree with D as the correct answer only because it is better than all the others. But I do have a question regarding its grammatical correctness. The problem is with "including".

This has been used at the end of the main clause to tell something extra about the clause. But from what I've read in e-GMAT, if a Verb-ing modifier is placed at the end of a sentence, then it can do only the following:-
1. Tell us about the result of an action in the clause.
2. Tell us something extra about a verb in the clause.

In this sentence, "including" is doing none of these, but is used to modify a noun in the preceding clause. Is there some grammatical knowledge that I'm missing? Please help.
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Re: A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a num  [#permalink]

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New post 20 May 2019, 06:22
mallya12 wrote:
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I agree with D as the correct answer only because it is better than all the others. But I do have a question regarding its grammatical correctness. The problem is with "including".

This has been used at the end of the main clause to tell something extra about the clause. But from what I've read in e-GMAT, if a Verb-ing modifier is placed at the end of a sentence, then it can do only the following:-
1. Tell us about the result of an action in the clause.
2. Tell us something extra about a verb in the clause.

In this sentence, "including" is doing none of these, but is used to modify a noun in the preceding clause. Is there some grammatical knowledge that I'm missing? Please help.

"-ing" modifiers can also act as adjectives and modify nouns! For example, "The man eating sushi has fishy breath."

For more on this, check out section 4 of this article.

I hope this helps!
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Re: A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a num  [#permalink]

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New post 20 May 2019, 07:12
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mallya12 wrote:
I agree with D as the correct answer only because it is better than all the others. But I do have a question regarding its grammatical correctness. The problem is with "including".

This has been used at the end of the main clause to tell something extra about the clause. But from what I've read in e-GMAT, if a Verb-ing modifier is placed at the end of a sentence, then it can do only the following:-
1. Tell us about the result of an action in the clause.
2. Tell us something extra about a verb in the clause.

In this sentence, "including" is doing none of these, but is used to modify a noun in the preceding clause. Is there some grammatical knowledge that I'm missing? Please help.

Hi mallya12, this indeed creates confusion. The rule you've mentioned (result/something extra about the clause) is for present participial phrases. However, including is not a present participial phrase; including is actually a preposition. Hence, the general rules of participial phrases do not apply to including.

including can modify the Noun or Noun-Phrase immediately before the word including.

An officially correct sentence:

A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a number of remedies to reverse a decline in the shark population, including establishing size limits for shark catches, closing state waters for shark fishing during pupping season, and requiring commercial fishers to have federal shark permits.

Notice how including modifies a rather far-away noun remedies.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana has a special note on the usage of including. Have attached the corresponding section of the book, for your reference.
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Re: A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a num  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Sep 2019, 21:04
singh_amit19 wrote:
A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a number of remedies to reverse a decline in the shark population, which includes the establishment of size limits for shark catches, closing state waters for shark fishing during pupping season, and requiring commercial fishers to have federal shark permits.

(A) which includes the establishment of size limits for shark catches, closing

(B) which includes establishing limits to the size of sharks that can be caught, closing

(C) which include the establishment of size limits for shark catches, the closing of

(D) including establishing size limits for shark catches, closing

(E) including the establishing of limits to the size of sharks that are caught, the closing of


some verb-form words such as "including", " combined" or "compared with" are not verb or participle but word as a preposition
"including" here is a preposition. look at it in a dictionary.

including normally refer to a plural noun such as "remedies". but , it, I think, can refer to a single noun. I have a 3 day holiday, including nest friday.

"including" can refer to far noun "remedies", so, which can refer to "remedies. but I see that gmat do not like which refer to a far noun, while it permit "including" refer to a far noun/nouns.

but even if "which" can refer to "remedies", this reference is not logical. "remedies " can not "includes". the verb "includes" means "contains". each "remedies" can not contain
closing or requiring.
"including" is a preposition. it means "among them are closing, and requiring". this meaning is logical.
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Re: A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a num   [#permalink] 24 Sep 2019, 21:04
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