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A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a num

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A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a num [#permalink]

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New post 24 Sep 2007, 11:43
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A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a number of remedies to reverse a decline in the shark population, which includes the establishment of size limits for shark catches, closing state waters for shark fishing during pupping season, and requiring commercial fishers to have federal shark permits.

(A) which includes the establishment of size limits for shark catches, closing

(B) which includes establishing limits to the size of sharks that can be caught, closing

(C) which include the establishment of size limits for shark catches, the closing of

(D) including establishing size limits for shark catches, closing

(E) including the establishing of limits to the size of sharks that are caught, the closing of
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by hazelnut on 19 Oct 2017, 07:12, edited 2 times in total.
Edited the question.

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Re: A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a num [#permalink]

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New post 24 Sep 2007, 13:50
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i'll go for D
in C 'which' refers to population but infact it shud refer to remedies..
D has correct parallelism establishing, closing, requiring

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Re: A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a num [#permalink]

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New post 24 Sep 2007, 15:11
singh_amit19 wrote:
A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a number of remedies to reverse a decline in the shark population, which includes the establishment of size limits for shark catches, closing state waters for shark fishing during pupping season, and requiring
commercial fishers to have federal shark permits.

A. which includes the establishment of size limits for shark catches, closing
B. which includes establishing limits to the size of sharks that can be caught, closing
C. which include the establishment of size limits for shark catches, the closing of
D. including establishing size limits for shark catches, closing
E. including the establishing of limits to the size of sharks that are caught, the closing of

I picked C - seems OK to me...thoughts????


I think it is all about parallelism here, ...-ing. I will go with D
which* is redundant

A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a number of remedies to reverse a decline in the shark population, including establishing size limits for shark catches, closing state waters for shark fishing during pupping season, and requiring...

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Re: A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a num [#permalink]

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New post 24 Sep 2007, 19:08
some of the choices seem to change the meaning , for example:

1. establishing size limits for shark catches --> to me, means a limit on the AMOUNT of shark that can be caught

2. establishing limits on the size of shark --> presented in E for example ...

does anyone else see this ?

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Re: A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a num [#permalink]

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New post 24 Sep 2007, 20:15
singh_amit19 wrote:
A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a number of remedies to reverse a decline in the shark population, which includes the establishment of size limits for shark catches, closing state waters for shark fishing during pupping season, and requiring
commercial fishers to have federal shark permits.

A. which includes the establishment of size limits for shark catches, closing
B. which includes establishing limits to the size of sharks that can be caught, closing
C. which include the establishment of size limits for shark catches, the closing of
D. including establishing size limits for shark catches, closing
E. including the establishing of limits to the size of sharks that are caught, the closing of


I picked C - seems OK to me...thoughts????


D.

Elim ABC right away improper use of "which"

E. not ||. the establishing... the closing... and requiring should be "the requiring"

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Re: A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a num [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jan 2010, 11:35
'a number of ...." always takes a plural verb form so A and B goes. C is not parallel.
E is wordy/awkward.
So we are left with D

Once again, correct me if I am wrong

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Re: A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a num [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jul 2013, 21:12
Please explain that why 'which' is used improperly?

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Re: A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a num [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jul 2013, 13:01
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superchor wrote:
Please explain that why 'which' is used improperly?


"Which" is a relative pronoun that describes about the noun that is just before it. In this case, the noun that is just before "which" is "shark population" however, the author intends to point to the "remedies". This is the reason that "which" is not properly used here.
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Re: A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a num [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jul 2013, 14:19
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in this sentence which is referring to remidies but it cannot be placed next to remedies so use including which modifies the entire clause.

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Re: A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a num [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jul 2015, 22:31
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Re: A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a num [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2016, 11:00
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Re: A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a num [#permalink]

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New post 21 Mar 2017, 04:32
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Why is it not E

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Re: A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a num [#permalink]

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New post 14 Aug 2017, 00:22
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This sentence has parallelism error. The list is not parallel. Since 3rd element of the list is not underlined, elements 1 and 2 should follow the structure of element 3. Thus, all elements should be verb-ing forms as follows:

1) establishing size limits for shark catches
2) closing state waters for shark fishing during pupping season
3) requiring commercial fishers to have federal shark permits
This sentence also has modifier error. The modifier “which includes…” modifies the closest noun or noun phrase. In this sentence, it does not make sense for the “which modifier” providing list of remedies to modify either the noun phrase “decline in shark population” or the noun “the shark population”.

In A and B, the singular verb includes implies that the pronoun which refers either to the singular noun decline or to the singular noun population, but neither the decline nor the population is including the list of remedies that follows. Eliminate A and B.
C and E lack parallelism: the establishment of (the + noun + preposition), the establishing of (the + gerund + preposition), and the closing of (the + gerund + preposition) are not parallel with requiring commercial fishers (gerund + direct object). Eliminate C and E.
The correct answer is D.
D is correct primarily because A, B, C and E each have a clear error.
In D, including and establishing are performing different functions.

Generally, when a present participle (such as including) is preceded by a comma, it refers to the subject of the previous clause. It could be argued that including refers to the study: the study is including -- among the remedies that it recommends -- establishing size limits, closing state waters, and requiring fishers to have permits.
Establishing is not a present participle but a gerund (a verb functioning as a noun). Establishing size limits is one of the remedies that the study is including.
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New post 14 Aug 2017, 01:38
I think D is the correct answer.

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Re: A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a num [#permalink]

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New post 07 Sep 2017, 00:56
anairamitch1804 wrote:
This sentence has parallelism error. The list is not parallel. Since 3rd element of the list is not underlined, elements 1 and 2 should follow the structure of element 3. Thus, all elements should be verb-ing forms as follows:

1) establishing size limits for shark catches
2) closing state waters for shark fishing during pupping season
3) requiring commercial fishers to have federal shark permits
This sentence also has modifier error. The modifier “which includes…” modifies the closest noun or noun phrase. In this sentence, it does not make sense for the “which modifier” providing list of remedies to modify either the noun phrase “decline in shark population” or the noun “the shark population”.

In A and B, the singular verb includes implies that the pronoun which refers either to the singular noun decline or to the singular noun population, but neither the decline nor the population is including the list of remedies that follows. Eliminate A and B.
C and E lack parallelism: the establishment of (the + noun + preposition), the establishing of (the + gerund + preposition), and the closing of (the + gerund + preposition) are not parallel with requiring commercial fishers (gerund + direct object). Eliminate C and E.
The correct answer is D.
D is correct primarily because A, B, C and E each have a clear error.
In D, including and establishing are performing different functions.

Generally, when a present participle (such as including) is preceded by a comma, it refers to the subject of the previous clause. It could be argued that including refers to the study: the study is including -- among the remedies that it recommends -- establishing size limits, closing state waters, and requiring fishers to have permits.
Establishing is not a present participle but a gerund (a verb functioning as a noun). Establishing size limits is one of the remedies that the study is including.


I agree with D as the correct answer only because it is better than all the others. But I do have a question regarding its grammatical correctness. The problem is with "including".

This has been used at the end of the main clause to tell something extra about the clause. But from what I've read in MGMAT and e-GMAT, if a Verb-ing nodifier is placed at the end of a sentence, then it can do only the following:-
1. Tell us about the result of an action in the clause.
2. Tell us something extra about a verb in the clause.

In this sentence, "including" is doing none of these, but is used to modify a noun in the preceding clause. Is there some grammatical knowledge that I'm missing? Please help.

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Re: A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a num   [#permalink] 07 Sep 2017, 00:56
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