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According to scientists at the University of Alaska, while the surface

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According to scientists at the University of Alaska, while the surface  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 26 Sep 2017, 16:34
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According to scientists at the University of Alaska, while the surface temperature of the globe has risen over the last century by about one degree Fahrenheit, the surface temperature in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada has increased in the previous thirty years by about five degrees.

(A) the surface temperature in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada has increased in the previous thirty years by about five degrees

(B) the surface temperature in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada has increased over the last thirty years by about five degrees

(C) there was an increase in the last thirty years by about five degrees in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada

(D) it had increased in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada by about five degrees over the previous thirty years

(E) it has increased in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada over the previous thirty years by about five degrees

Why B is wrong? "Is it The surface temperature in ......." is repeated in the second clause or anything else beyond by observation?
Answers with complete explanation will be appreciated.

OA will be given after discussion...
thanks

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Originally posted by atalpanditgmat on 08 Apr 2013, 10:16.
Last edited by hazelnut on 26 Sep 2017, 16:34, edited 2 times in total.
Moved the comments under spoiler.
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Re: According to scientists at the University of Alaska, while the surface  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 01 Jan 2016, 04:26
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I wouldn’t think B is wrong.
Let’s go case by case
(A) the surface temperature in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada has increased in the previous thirty years by about five degrees --- ‘in the previous’ means that the thirty years do not include the present. Then we cannot justify the use of present perfect ‘has increased ’ wrong

(B) the surface temperature in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada has increased over the last thirty years by about five degrees ---over the last thirty years means last thirty years including the present. So the use of present perfect ‘has increased ‘ is justified.--- Correct

(C) there was an increase in the last thirty years by about five degrees in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada --- we can’t use past tense, when we say last thirty years. Wrong

(D) it had increased in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada by about five degrees over the previous thirty years ---- had increased denotes it happened before some other past event; There is no such simple past event to justify past perfect – wrong

(E) it has increased in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada over the previous thirty years by about five degrees --- can’t use present perfect ‘has increased’ when we say previous

Take away: use past tense when previous is used, because previous is a closed chapter of a past event. Use present perfect when last is use, because last is a roll-over that includes the present.
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Originally posted by daagh on 08 Apr 2013, 10:43.
Last edited by daagh on 01 Jan 2016, 04:26, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: According to scientists at the University of Alaska, while the surface  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Apr 2013, 10:27
atalpanditgmat wrote:
According to scientists at the University of Alaska, while the surface temperature of the globe has risen over the last century by about one degree Fahrenheit, the surface temperature in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada has increased in the previous thirty years by about five degrees.


(A) the surface temperature in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada has increased in the previous thirty years by about five degrees

(B) the surface temperature in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada has increased over the last thirty years by about five degrees

(C) there was an increase in the last thirty years by about five degrees in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada

(D) it had increased in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada by about five degrees over the previous thirty years

(E) it has increased in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada over the previous thirty years by about five degrees


D and E have "it" which is not clear, what does it refer to? C is misplaced.
Between A and B, in A seems that the temperture has increased each year by 5 degrees, in B seems that has increased by 5 degrees in 30 years. B to me is more clear, are you sure it s wrong?
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Re: According to scientists at the University of Alaska, while the surface  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Apr 2013, 10:28
Quote:
Why B is wrong? "Is it The surface temperature in ......." is repeated in the second clause or anything else beyond by observation?


i am not sure why u have said this
B looks perfect to me . comparison wise and parallelism wise

u need "over" and not "previous"
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Re: According to scientists at the University of Alaska, while the surface  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Apr 2013, 16:41
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Re: According to scientists at the University of Alaska, while the surface  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Apr 2013, 21:14
Thank you guys. though i thought the answer is B, according to my source it's D. Now I realised my source is unreliable.
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Re: According to scientists at the University of Alaska, while the surface  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Apr 2013, 22:43
daagh wrote:
I wouldn’t think B is wrong.
Let’s go case by case
(A) the surface temperature in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada has increased in the previous thirty years by about five degrees --- ‘Over the previous’ means that the thirty years do not include the present. Then we cannot justify the use of present perfect ‘has increased ’ wrong

(B) the surface temperature in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada has increased over the last thirty years by about five degrees --- last thirty years means last thirty years including the present. So the use of present perfect ‘has increased ‘ is justified.--- Correct

(C) there was an increase in the last thirty years by about five degrees in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada --- we can’t use past tense, when we say last thirty years. Wrong

(D) it had increased in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada by about five degrees over the previous thirty years ---- had increased denotes it happened before some other past event; There is no such simple past event to justify past perfect – wrong

(E) it has increased in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada over the previous thirty years by about five degrees --- can’t use present perfect ‘has increased’ when we say previous

Take away: use past tense when previous is used, because previous is a closed chapter of a past event. Use present perfect when last is use, because last is a roll-over that includes the present.


hi daagh very nicely explained but one more question,if in answer choice E in place of "PREVIOUS"..."OVER" is present then it will become correct choice means only the presence of "previous" makes it incorrect ?

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Re: According to scientists at the University of Alaska, while the surface  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Apr 2013, 01:03
Hi skm
can u please post the your intended clause; becos, after replacing previous with over, the sentence doesn't seem to be makimg much meaning;
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Re: According to scientists at the University of Alaska, while the surface  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Feb 2014, 12:25
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Hi,

According to following link, we can limit the time using in the last one year etc.. and use present perfect tense as well.

http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/presentperfect.html

Have you been to Mexico in the last year?
I have seen that movie six times in the last month.

Thus, A and B are both grammatically correct, but B wins as B is perfect parallel to preceding clause.
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Re: According to scientists at the University of Alaska, while the surface  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Mar 2014, 07:56
after "in" , we use a number of time such as: 2 years, 3 years and it shows the future
"over" should go with a period.

"it" refers to the same thing at the previous phrase. "it" in D and E means "the suface temperature of the global" and so makes no sense.

this question tests a preposition, testing a purely grammaticaly point and so is typical of gmat sc, which normally test logic/meaning relation between entities.
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Re: According to scientists at the University of Alaska, while the surface  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jul 2014, 15:46
Please hide the OP's question to prevent influencing answers.
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Re: According to scientists at the University of Alaska, while the surface  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Aug 2014, 02:45
daagh wrote:
I wouldn’t think B is wrong.
Let’s go case by case
(A) the surface temperature in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada has increased in the previous thirty years by about five degrees --- ‘Over the previous’ means that the thirty years do not include the present. Then we cannot justify the use of present perfect ‘has increased ’ wrong



Hi daagh,

There might be a mistake in your analysis. Choice A doesn't have "over the previous" that you mentioned, but "in the previous". The way I view the problems in choice A is different from yours. Please help to clarify if my understanding is incorrect/correct:

The use of "in" in this sentence is a bit confused. "in" can be understood as in "increase in" which means to become progressively greater (as in size, amount, number, or intensity). Thus, temperature cannot increase in period of time but over period of time.

How do you think?
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Re: According to scientists at the University of Alaska, while the surface  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Nov 2017, 15:48
According to scientists at the University of Alaska, while the surface temperature of the globe has risen over the last century by about one degree Fahrenheit, the surface temperature in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada has increased in the previous thirty years by about five degrees.

(A) the surface temperature in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada has increased in the previous thirty years by about five degrees not parallel with over the last century

(B) the surface temperature in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada has increased over the last thirty years by about five degrees Correct: 'while the surface temperature....has risen over the last century ,the surface temperature .....has increased over the last thirty

(C) there was an increase in the last thirty years by about five degrees in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada the beginning is not parallel with 'while the surface temperature

(D) it had increased in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada by about five degrees over the previous thirty years the beginning is not parallel with 'while the surface temperature

(E) it has increased in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada over the previous thirty years by about five degrees the beginning is not parallel with 'while the surface temperature.
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Re: According to scientists at the University of Alaska, while the surface  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Feb 2018, 21:42
daagh wrote:
I wouldn’t think B is wrong.
Let’s go case by case
(A) the surface temperature in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada has increased in the previous thirty years by about five degrees --- ‘in the previous’ means that the thirty years do not include the present. Then we cannot justify the use of present perfect ‘has increased ’ wrong

(B) the surface temperature in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada has increased over the last thirty years by about five degrees ---over the last thirty years means last thirty years including the present. So the use of present perfect ‘has increased ‘ is justified.--- Correct

(C) there was an increase in the last thirty years by about five degrees in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada --- we can’t use past tense, when we say last thirty years. Wrong

(D) it had increased in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada by about five degrees over the previous thirty years ---- had increased denotes it happened before some other past event; There is no such simple past event to justify past perfect – wrong

(E) it has increased in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada over the previous thirty years by about five degrees --- can’t use present perfect ‘has increased’ when we say previous

Take away: use past tense when previous is used, because previous is a closed chapter of a past event. Use present perfect when last is use, because last is a roll-over that includes the present.


daagh

Sir,Is the use of "it" in option E right or not??
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Re: According to scientists at the University of Alaska, while the surface  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Aug 2018, 03:05
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atalpanditgmat wrote:
According to scientists at the University of Alaska, while the surface temperature of the globe has risen over the last century by about one degree Fahrenheit, the surface temperature in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada has increased in the previous thirty years by about five degrees.

(A) the surface temperature in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada has increased in the previous thirty years by about five degrees

(B) the surface temperature in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada has increased over the last thirty years by about five degrees

(C) there was an increase in the last thirty years by about five degrees in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada

(D) it had increased in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada by about five degrees over the previous thirty years

(E) it has increased in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada over the previous thirty years by about five degrees

Why B is wrong? "Is it The surface temperature in ......." is repeated in the second clause or anything else beyond by observation?
Answers with complete explanation will be appreciated.

OA will be given after discussion...
thanks


i have just read about present perffect this morning. this link is critical to this problem.
https://www.perfect-english-grammar.com ... ect-use.ht

when have done is used to show an unfinished action, preposition since and for is used
when have done is used to show a finished action, no time word is used , or UNFINISHED TIME WORD is used.
unfinished time word is the word which show that the period is from the past until now.

over the last century
over the last 30 years
is unfinished time word.

the finished time word is last year, or yester day which go with simple past.

gmat test this basic present perfect because understanding how to use present perfect makes us know how to use simple present and simple past. these points are basic in english language. native speakers never explained good enough though they can choose the correct answer. the non native like me need a deep/smart explanation as in the link above.

I am excited now because i can apply the basic knowlege to the question.

come back to the question.
immediately, we can eliminate choice a, d and e because they contain finished time word "previous".

moreover, "previous" is not logic in this context. last thirty years is more logic and comparable with "last century".
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Re: According to scientists at the University of Alaska, while the surface  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Oct 2018, 23:12
:dazed Hi,
I have a question.
"the surface temperature in Alaska,Siberia,and Northwestern Canada", doesn't it mean the temperature of all these three places?
if it does, why it is not "the surface temperatures of....."?
I have struggled into this question for a long time.
someone please help me explain it
thank you in advance
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Re: According to scientists at the University of Alaska, while the surface &nbs [#permalink] 17 Oct 2018, 23:12
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