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# According to the theory of gravitation, every particle of matter in

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Re: According to the theory of gravitation, every particle of matter in [#permalink]
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MG0701 wrote:
Can someone explain question 6? or if OA can be provided that would be helpful.

Explanation

6. Which one of the following phrases could replace the word “cohere” at line 30 without substantively altering the author’s meaning?

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

The author says that neutrinos must have mass to exert a gravitational force. He also says that gravitational force is what causes matter to form itself into planets, solar systems, and galaxies. So if we replace the word “cohere” with something that means, “stick together in the form of planets, etc,” then we’ll be on the right track. (B) is pretty close to this.

(A)—neutrinos don’t induce other matter to have gravitational force. All matter has gravitational force, as line 2 says.

(C) is a distortion. Oscillation is a property of neutrinos; it is not discussed as a property of any other type of matter.

(D)—particles other than neutrinos changing mass is well outside the scope of the passage.

(E)—fusion is discussed as a way neutrinos are formed, not as an effect of neutrinos.

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Re: According to the theory of gravitation, every particle of matter in [#permalink]
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Dear Experts,

Could you please explain How option C is correct and D is incorrect?

1. Which one of the following most accurately expresses the main idea of the passage?

(C) Indirect evidence suggesting that neutrinos have mass may allow neutrinos to account for up to 20 percent of dark matter, a finding that could someday be extended to a complete solution of the dark matter problem. -> I understand that the green highlighted is correct, but I am not able to understand the red highlighted in this option. I know that in the passage it is mentioned that it will add a lot to the current understanding, but I am not able to understand that how it leaped to the maybe someday this will help to extend to complete solution.

(D) After much speculation, researchers have discovered that neutrinos oscillate from one type into another as they travel through space, a phenomenon that proves that neutrinos have mass. -> I believe that the main point is that Neutrinos have mass that help resolves the black matter problem.

Deadpool3, I'm no expert but see this helps

Option C - Adding to the current understanding is similar to someday extended to a complete solution of the dark matter. Obviously, these 2 phrases are not exactly the same, bu they give the same idea - the idea that the said discovery is a positive step towards the mail goal.

Option D - This option is wrong for the reason that you pointed out. This option suggests that the passage revolvers around the discovery for oscillation. Oscillation is just one aspect of the passage. D does not consider a lot of points/questions that surround the main idea of the passage. So what if neutrinos have mass? What are you trying to do by stating that it has mass? The objective/main point is not to prove that neutrinos have mass, but rather to show how this discovery ties to a bigger problem.
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Re: According to the theory of gravitation, every particle of matter in [#permalink]
Sajjad1994 can you explain how is option B wrong in Question 3 and Question 5? GMATNinja

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Explanation

3. Based on the passage, the author most likely holds which one of the following views?

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

The words “most likely” signal an inference question. You must have a good handle on the points of view presented in the passage to answer most inference questions; they will ask you which answer choice accords with a particular point of view.

Predicting an answer to this inference question is difficult. We are asked to find the answer choice with which the author would most likely agree, so our research will entail checking each answer choice against the passage as a whole.

(A) is a distortion. Line 9 says that non-observable makes up 90% of the universe.

(B) doesn’t fit the tone of the passage. The author has a positive tone in the final paragraph which doesn’t match the word “incapable”. In addition, the author does not dispute the validity of the theory of gravitation as the universe-binding force.

(C)—the author says that neutrinos have a range of possible mass, and doesn’t dwell on the importance of pinning down that mass exactly.

(D)—the author says that gravitation is believed to shape the structure of the universe, and the rest of the passage discusses how we can explain gravity. There is no reason to think the author would think a force other than gravity is necessary to explain the universe. Thus (D) accords with the passage and is correct.

(E) says that neutrinos make up most of the missing matter in the world, whereas the author says that neutrinos can make up at most 20% of the missing matter in the world.

5. The author’s attitude toward oscillation can most accurately be characterized as being

Difficulty Level: 600

Explanation

You can quickly eliminate wrong answer choices in Author’s Attitude questions by eliminating answer choices that don’t fit the overall tone of the passage.

The author mentions oscillation in paragraph three, when discussing how we know that neutrinos have mass. The author takes the evidence for oscillation as proof that neutrinos have some slight mass, and he spends the following paragraph discussing the implications of that mass. Choice (A) matches well.

(B) is a distortion. The author only mentions other forms of dark matter in a very oblique fashion at the end of the passage, and he certainly never ties oscillation to anything other than neutrinos.

(C)—the fraction of dark matter that is made up by neutrinos is addressed in paragraph four. The author never discusses misinterpretation at all, much less specifically in connection to oscillation.

(D) says that the author feels skeptical towards oscillation. The author’s description, however, is a very cut-and-dry explanation of the experiment and why it shows that neutrinos have mass. Skepticism does not enter the picture.

(E)—the author never draws a distinction between things that can only occur in an experimental setting and those that occur in the real world. Thus (E) is out of scope.

Anwer: A

Gmattired wrote:
Sajjad1994 can you explain how is option B wrong in Question 3 and Question 5? GMATNinja

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Re: According to the theory of gravitation, every particle of matter in [#permalink]

"Neutrinos, which come in three types, are by far the
(25) most numerous kind of particle in the universe;"

Doesn't this imply option (A) from Q7 ?
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Re: According to the theory of gravitation, every particle of matter in [#permalink]
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sting8 wrote:

"Neutrinos, which come in three types, are by far the
(25) most numerous kind of particle in the universe;"

Doesn't this imply option (A) from Q7 ?

Hi sting8,

Quote:
(A) There are more neutrinos in the universe than there are non-neutrinos.

I think this option is a trap answer. If you look at what is mentioned : Neutrinos, which come in three types, are by far the
(25) most numerous kind of particle in the universe
;", but what's mentioned in the option is There are more neutrinos in the universe than there are non-neutrinos. Non neutrinos imply all the particles in the universe except Neutrinos and we can't infer if there are more neutrinos in the universe when compared to the number of the rest of the particles.

Hope This Helps.
Thanks.
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Re: According to the theory of gravitation, every particle of matter in [#permalink]
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sting8 wrote:

"Neutrinos, which come in three types, are by far the
(25) most numerous kind of particle in the universe;"

Doesn't this imply option (A) from Q7 ?

The author says that neutrinos are the most abundant kind of particle in the universe. He never says, however, that they outnumber every other particle, as choice (A) says. Thus, (A) is never mentioned.
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Re: According to the theory of gravitation, every particle of matter in [#permalink]
Thanks for the explanations bm2201 and Sajjad1994.

I think I can understand my mistake now. Just to be clear, is the below reasoning correct?

Let
N : neutrino,
X : non-neutrino 1
Y : non-neutrino 2
Z : non-neutrino 3

such that
N=5
X=4
Y=4
Z=4

Then, author tells that N>X, N>Y, N>Z
But, the option tells that N > X+Y+Z
That's why this is a trap option.
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Re: According to the theory of gravitation, every particle of matter in [#permalink]
Hello Sajjad1994 can you share the OE of Question 4?
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Akarshkhan86 wrote:
Hello Sajjad1994 can you share the OE of Question 4?

Explanation

4. As described in the last paragraph of the passage, the cosmologists’ approach to solving the dark matter problem is most analogous to which one of the following?

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

We have to find an answer choice that parallels the cosmologists’ approach as described in the final paragraph. Let’s start by abstracting their approach and then find the answer choice that matches best. The cosmologists are trying to solve a particular problem (where’s the missing matter?) and they have something (dark matter) which provides a partial solution (neutrinos) and which they hope to continue their efforts along the same lines (other elementary particles) to achieve a total solution (hold the universe together).

(A) is not parallel. The child going to a chess book involves appealing to some informative authority who will answer all of the child’s questions.

(B) is not parallel. The child has a partial solution (part of the money towards a bike) but instead of continuing his work, he changes his goal (the skateboard).

(C) is not parallel. The child wants a particular solution (getting a dog) and receives something less than the expected (a cat), but changes the goal (loves the cat) rather than continuing towards the same goal.

(D) is parallel. The child tries to solve a particular problem (go to a movie) and he has something (begging from siblings) which provides a partial solution (so me money from one sibling) and he hopes to continue his efforts along the same lines (begging from remaining siblings) to achieve a total solution (go to a movie).

(E) is not parallel. The stated goal (playing sports) cannot be achieved until another, completely unrelated activity (homework) is carried out.