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The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to th

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The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.


(A) which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

(B) that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

(C) originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

(D) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

(E) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating

Originally posted by sacmanitin on 25 Oct 2009, 03:15.
Last edited by Bunuel on 21 Nov 2018, 06:12, edited 1 time in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to th  [#permalink]

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New post 02 May 2010, 11:25
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Hey All,

A good explanation from demon on this one, but I just wanted to weigh in. This is a GMAT favorite trick, because students don't like paralleling -ing words with -ed words. However, when both are parallel this is okay. Remember, you can always change tense in parallel, even with verbs ("I liked to eat chicken but now I only like pork." That's past tense with present tense, joined by the conjunction "but"). But actually, tense isn't an issue here. Both -ing words and -ed words are participles, meaning they are just adjectives. Adjectives don't really HAVE tense (because they aren't verbs), so that's a second reason we shouldn't care. "Perpetuated" in this case is just passive, where as "originating" is active.

The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

(A) which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
PROBLEM: (First, which needs a comma before it). Okay, so it's the SECOND "and" here that marks the parallelism we care about (the other "and" parallels ethnic and cultural heritages, and is always correct). We're always concerned with whatever comes DIRECTLY after the parallel marker. In this case, we get "perpetuated". This is a participle, so we need another one earlier in the sentence. Instead, we get "originate", which is a present tense verb.

(B) that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
PROBLEM: Again, we look after the marker "and" and find the participle "perpetuated". Unfortunately, "originated" here is a past tense verb, not a participle. How do we know? Consider the difference here:

I read the book. ("read" = past tense verb...it has a subject in the main clause, "I")
Read by millions, the book is one of the nation's most popular. ("read" = past participle, it's just a modifier, and we don't get the subject until it's the subject of a new clause "the book is...")

(C) originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
PROBLEM: "Originated" can't be an action. This is just a misuse of the word. It may look parallel, but the participle of "originate" is "originating". Think about it. You can't put this in the past, because the word itself implies the past origin of something, even in the present tense (i.e. Originating in 1200 BC, the codex is the key to life itself).

(D) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
ANSWER: Perpetuated = participle. Originating = participle. Parallel.

(E) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating
PROBLEM: "Perpetuating by" doesn't make any sense. We need it to be passive, not active.

Hope that helps!

-tommy
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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to th  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Nov 2009, 09:09
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sacmanitin wrote:
The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

(A) which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(B) that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(C) originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(D) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(E) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating



Good question. Initially I chose B thinking of parallelism.
I tried to find explanations for D being correct and B being wrong from other sites using google.
The explanation looks like this:
B: language variations that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and (language variations that) perpetuated by geographic isolation.
the second part look awkward when considering the content in bracket. it would have been better if (language variations that) were perpetuated by geographic isolation.
So B is wrong.
in D parallelism is maintained because participles are used on both sides of 'and' (originating and perpetuated). It seems that it is ok to use the two tenses as long as both are participles :?: . Now, why is one (participle) present continuous and one past? One plausible explanation I found was that ethnic and cultural heritages are in a state of flux (so continuous) and geographic isolation is fixed (so past).
I don't know if its ok to post links, otherwise i would have pasted the links too.
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New post 09 Nov 2009, 02:32
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The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

(A) which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated--------INCORRECT (Perpetuated brings about incorrect parallelism)
(B) that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated-----INCORRECT (Same as A)
(C) originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated------INCORRECT (Wrong meaning. Need originating)
(D) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated-----CORRECT (establishes correct meaning)
(E) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating-------INCORRECT (perpetuating by is wrong)

IMO D

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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to th  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jan 2013, 15:03
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Hi Shikhar,

No need to break your head

(A) which originate (Simple past) from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated (past participle) -- not parallel
(B) that originated ("that" makes originated in simple past) from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated (past participle) -- not parallel
(C) originated (simple past) from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated (past participle) -- not parallel
(D) originating (present participle) from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated (Past participle) -- parallel construction and the correct answer choice
(E) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating ("Perpetuating by" construction is awkward and distorts the meaning)

Please explain how is originating and perpetuated parallel in form ??
I have been breaking my head for quite sometime ... guess i am missing something important here.

The correct answer choice is (D) because it makes the sentence parallel. The rule that is followed here is

-- The participles in the both the structures should be parallel; they may or may not be in the same tense

In (D) present participle originating parallels the past participle perpetuated <--- this is what grammar says

You must be confused seeing one in present and one in past. We have to understand the meaning of the original sentence to determine the tense.

The language variations are perpetuated by geographical isolation (Isolation did not take place in the present so perpetuating is incorrect; moreover perpetuating makes the construction awkward); however these variations are still originating "from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages"

OG12 question No. 42 tests a similar parallel structure, analyze this question and try to thoroughly understand the solution.

Use 1000 series with caution. Majority of the questions have no issue, but the incorrect ones may waste a lot of your time and could even confuse you. Moreover there is no reliable source of explanations for these questions.

Hope it helps

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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to th  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Oct 2013, 10:33
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Hi,

IMO, the underlined text modifies "language variations". In this case, we can use modifying clauses with "which" or "that" or V-ing modifier.

(A) which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
1. wrong tense
2. language variations were perpetuated, not perpetuated themselves.


(B) that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
Same error with (A) (the second)

(C) originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
Language variations originated from DE themselves, not being originate

(D) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
Perfect parallelism.

(E) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating
Same error with A ( the second)

This question reminds me the similar one
scientists-have-recently-discovered-what-could-be-the-9394.html
http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/sci ... 16441.html
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New post 19 Dec 2013, 21:55
Its a tricky question, but still I did not get few things.
1. The increased popularity has done how many things? if two things decline of RD and decline of LV, then why there is no ,and between RD and LV.
2. where is the parallelism marker in the sentence?
3. Why not two independent clauses have been joined with ,FANBOYS?

need detailed explanation of this question, specially sentence structure with meaning.
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New post 20 Dec 2013, 00:04
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vivmechster wrote:
Its a tricky question, but still I did not get few things.
1. The increased popularity has done how many things? if two things decline of RD and decline of LV, then why there is no ,and between RD and LV.
2. where is the parallelism marker in the sentence?
3. Why not two independent clauses have been joined with ,FANBOYS?

need detailed explanation of this question, specially sentence structure with meaning.


Hi

Here goes my bit-

Increased popularity has led to only one thing - "decline of regional dialects"

"language variation... isolation" describes "regional dialects".

Structure-

The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects,(language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation. ) - modifier


A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

WHICH needs a comma before it.
Originate (present verb) is not parallel to perpetuated (participle)

B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
Originated (past verb) is not parallel to perpetuated (participle)

C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
"Originated" refers to a point in past and thus can't be an action. It's incorrectly used as participle here.

More on this-

The Middle Assyrian Empire, which originated in the 14th century BC, facilitated the use of Akkadian as a 'lingua franca...
Originated used as verb.

Originating in the 14th century BC, The Middle Assyrian Empire facililitated.....
Originating used as participle

D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

originating (present participle) is parallel to perpetuated (past participle)- Parallel

E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating

perpetuating By is imprecise. Needs passive voice.

Answer D

Hope this helps!
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New post 25 Dec 2013, 00:35
CrackVerbalGMAT wrote:
vivmechster wrote:
Its a tricky question, but still I did not get few things.
1. The increased popularity has done how many things? if two things decline of RD and decline of LV, then why there is no ,and between RD and LV.
2. where is the parallelism marker in the sentence?
3. Why not two independent clauses have been joined with ,FANBOYS?

need detailed explanation of this question, specially sentence structure with meaning.


Hi

Here goes my bit-

Increased popularity has led to only one thing - "decline of regional dialects"

"language variation... isolation" describes "regional dialects".

Structure-

The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects,(language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation. ) - modifier


A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

WHICH needs a comma before it.
Originate (present verb) is not parallel to perpetuated (participle)

B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
Originated (past verb) is not parallel to perpetuated (participle)

C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
"Originated" refers to a point in past and thus can't be an action. It's incorrectly used as participle here.

More on this-

The Middle Assyrian Empire, which originated in the 14th century BC, facilitated the use of Akkadian as a 'lingua franca...
Originated used as verb.

Originating in the 14th century BC, The Middle Assyrian Empire facililitated.....
Originating used as participle

D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

originating (present participle) is parallel to perpetuated (past participle)- Parallel

E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating

perpetuating By is imprecise. Needs passive voice.

Answer D

Hope this helps!
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Hi Dolly,

Can you please help me understand why "originated" in option C be considered as modifier..


The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects,(language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation. ) - modifier

C) originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

"perpetuated" is a modifier and not a verb as language variations is the doer of the action.

"originated" is a modifier as diverse ethnic is doing the action.

In the same way, the two modifiers need to be parallel, so why can't "originated" act as a modifier here??
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New post 26 Dec 2013, 02:49
Quote:

Hi Dolly,

Can you please help me understand why "originated" in option C be considered as modifier..


The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects,(language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation. ) - modifier

C) originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

"perpetuated" is a modifier and not a verb as language variations is the doer of the action.

"originated" is a modifier as diverse ethnic is doing the action.

In the same way, the two modifiers need to be parallel, so why can't "originated" act as a modifier here??


Hi

You, yourself, have answered this.

As you mentioned:
"originated" is a modifier as diverse ethnic is doing the action.

We can not use "originated" for "doing the action"..... It indicates a specific point in past and can not be used for an ongoing process/ present action.

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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to th  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Mar 2014, 13:17
First I will ask what is the source of this problem:
Second explanations provided above are not up to the mark.

The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language
variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

Following is my analysis.
In absolute Phrase modifiers we prefer restrictive clause over non restrictive clause; I mean prefer that over which.

A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated -- originate is in present tense which conveys a fact, but perpetuated is in past tense. Thus, we can reject this choice, considering parallelism issue.

B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated -- ed modifier no grammatical error.

C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated -- ed modifier no grammatical error.

D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated -- ing modifier and ed modifier no grammatical error both acting as adjective to language variations.

E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating -- ing modifier no grammatical issue.


For more detail refer Chapter 11 - page 220 of MGMAT SC -- under topic "What else is considered Parallel" : Adjective, Past Participle and Present Participle (used as adjective). Above all elements whether -ed or -ing are modifying the noun language variations and are acting like adjective. Thus, elements are logically parallel to each other.

Further any expert can us help to identify subtle differences in above options.
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New post 19 Mar 2014, 06:41
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Can you please elaborate on this... why is it imprecise to use perpetuating by?

I enjoy the divine serenity of the view while walking by the lake
This is not passive & seems to be correct.



Sure!

The way you've used 'by' is not the way it has been used in the sentence.

In the example you've stated, 'by' means 'close by'

However, in the sentence, 'by' means 'by means of or through the act of'

So both the usages cannot be compared.

Coming to the question, The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language
variations ... by geographic isolation.

'by' in the context requires past participle form for verb.

X is perpetuating by Y - Incorrect.
X is perpetuated by Y - Correct


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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to th  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 12 Oct 2014, 08:41
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Keysersoze10 wrote:
TommyWallach wrote:
Hey All,

A good explanation from demon on this one, but I just wanted to weigh in. This is a GMAT favorite trick, because students don't like paralleling -ing words with -ed words. However, when both are parallel this is okay. Remember, you can always change tense in parallel, even with verbs ("I liked to eat chicken but now I only like pork." That's past tense with present tense, joined by the conjunction "but"). But actually, tense isn't an issue here. Both -ing words and -ed words are participles, meaning they are just adjectives. Adjectives don't really HAVE tense (because they aren't verbs), so that's a second reason we shouldn't care. "Perpetuated" in this case is just passive, where as "originating" is active.

The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

(A) which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
PROBLEM: (First, which needs a comma before it). Okay, so it's the SECOND "and" here that marks the parallelism we care about (the other "and" parallels ethnic and cultural heritages, and is always correct). We're always concerned with whatever comes DIRECTLY after the parallel marker. In this case, we get "perpetuated". This is a participle, so we need another one earlier in the sentence. Instead, we get "originate", which is a present tense verb.

(B) that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
PROBLEM: Again, we look after the marker "and" and find the participle "perpetuated". Unfortunately, "originated" here is a past tense verb, not a participle. How do we know? Consider the difference here:

I read the book. ("read" = past tense verb...it has a subject in the main clause, "I")
Read by millions, the book is one of the nation's most popular. ("read" = past participle, it's just a modifier, and we don't get the subject until it's the subject of a new clause "the book is...")

(C) originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
PROBLEM: "Originated" can't be an action. This is just a misuse of the word. It may look parallel, but the participle of "originate" is "originating". Think about it. You can't put this in the past, because the word itself implies the past origin of something, even in the present tense (i.e. Originating in 1200 BC, the codex is the key to life itself).

(D) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
ANSWER: Perpetuated = participle. Originating = participle. Parallel.

(E) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating
PROBLEM: "Perpetuating by" doesn't make any sense. We need it to be passive, not active.

Hope that helps!

-tommy


Thanks Tommy for the explanation. I have a question here, shouldn't "regional dialects, language variations" be connected by 'and' here?


Dear Keysersoze10,

That's a brilliant question. here's my take on this -

The clause after the comma, modifies regional dialects and thus tries to explain what regional dialect is. By using and, the meaning of the sentence would have changed the meaning.

Here's an example

1 The recent spread of Ebola, a severe and often fatal disease in humans and nonhuman primates caused by the Ebola virus, has united the world to fight the disease.
2. The recent spread of Ebola and a severe and often fatal disease in humans and nonhuman primates caused by the Ebola virus, have united the world to fight the disease.

I hope you can understand the difference between the above two sentences.

Hope that helps you.
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New post 15 Nov 2014, 23:27
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The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

(A) which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(B) that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(C) originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(D) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(E) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating

First decision point is perpetuated and not perpetuating.

When in doubt if verb-ed is a verb or participle modifier, follow the below principle:
Identify the subject here in this case "language variations ". Is "language variations " has done the act of perpetuating. Here clearly we can see action is done by "geographic isolation" so it is a participle modifier.

hence E) goes off.

Now we can look at the structure.
We have a complete Independent clause
"The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects" and then we have a comma. The "perpetuated" after and cannot be part of the list and hence it is not a list.
So " language variations" and "regional dialects" is not part of the list.

Consider the sentence : Rohit sharma scored a century with his favorite bat, the blade bought by his father.
The "bat" and "blade" is not in the list but the "blade" is acting as a noun modifier modifying the "bat".
We call it as "absolute phrase". The structure is "Noun" + Modifier phrase. The phrase can have verb-ing or verb-ed modifier.

In this sentence Originating/originated should be parallel in action with perpetuated (which is a participle modifier).
So lets take originated. Lets ask whether "language variations" did the act of origination. Yes, hence originated is a verb form and not a participle modifier

So originating which modifies the nearest noun is a modifier we require and Hence D)

P.S. I got it wrong and I wanted to pen all the reasons for rejecting the wrong options.
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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to th  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Nov 2014, 06:45
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The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated - Which-Clause is made parallel with Past participle. Even if this would be the right answer, Comma would be required before which; one more which would be required before perpetuated.
B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated - That-Clause is made parallel with Past participle. Even if this would be the right answer, one more 'That' would be required before perpetuated.
C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated - Originated is a verb and hence cannot be parallel to past participle 'perpetuated'.
D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated - Present participle is made parallel with past participle. Correct.
E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating - present continuous 'perpetuating' must be past participle 'perpetuated'. Moreover, in original sentence, second verb is in past form.

OA please...

Please correct me if i am wrong in my reasoning... :?
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New post 09 Mar 2015, 13:25
The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
Concept: Parallelism. There is parallelism error between "originate" & "perpetuated"

B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

Concept1: Parallelism. originated & perpetuated are parallel.
Concept2: 'that' modifier. Here that clearly modifies "language variations" and so provides ground for a parallel structure for verbs 'originated' and 'perpetuated'

C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

Concept: Intended meaning
Not parallel with the flow of the passage. "Originated from diverse...and cultural...and perpetuated"
Alters the intended meaning.

D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

Concept: Parallelism. There is parallelism error between "originating" & "perpetuated"

E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating

Concept: Tense. Verb-ing 'originating' and 'perpetuating' are parallel but change the tense of the sentence which is in present perfect.



So Answer: B conveys the meaning as well as keeps the SC concepts intact.
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New post 01 May 2015, 02:18
Well - between B and D, D is actually parallel because of the correct usage in D of participles (originating and
perpetuated) even though they are structurally dissimilar.
if we were to use the structure of B -
variations that originated from should be paralleled by and that were perpetuated by.... then it would have been
parallel.
Alternatively D uses
Variations ORIGINATING from (originating acts as an adjective modifying Variations) and perpetuated by (again
perpetuated acts as an adjective modifying variatons).
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New post 20 Apr 2017, 06:27
I picked C. Can anyone explain why C is wrong? Thanks!
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New post 22 Apr 2017, 04:49
tcwity88 wrote:
I picked C. Can anyone explain why C is wrong? Thanks!


There is no solid reason to eliminate C. Moreover the verb "has" in the non-underlined portion is wrong - should be "have" (plural subject "popularity and availability").
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New post 17 Oct 2017, 01:48
I have question about verb-ing and verb-ed modifier

How to determine which one should be use and what decision making factor we should think about:

Please correct me if I am wrong, I know that the following structure:

Using experiment conducted by an expert, student concluded that......
Used experiment conducted by an expert, student concluded that......

The correct one supposes to be Using experiment conducted by an expert, student concluded that......

The decision-making point is whether a student can use the experiment or not.

But in this question (this structure: Noun. + mod. (verb-ed/verb-ing)) we are discussing the timeline of the event. So, I am not quite sure what is the decision-making point

Also, please clarify this structure as well sentense, mod. (verb-ed/verb-ing)
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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to th   [#permalink] 17 Oct 2017, 01:48

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