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Advanced SC: The increased popularity and availability of televisions

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Re: The increased popularity and availability  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Nov 2014, 06:45
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The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated - Which-Clause is made parallel with Past participle. Even if this would be the right answer, Comma would be required before which; one more which would be required before perpetuated.
B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated - That-Clause is made parallel with Past participle. Even if this would be the right answer, one more 'That' would be required before perpetuated.
C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated - Originated is a verb and hence cannot be parallel to past participle 'perpetuated'.
D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated - Present participle is made parallel with past participle. Correct.
E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating - present continuous 'perpetuating' must be past participle 'perpetuated'. Moreover, in original sentence, second verb is in past form.

OA please...

Please correct me if i am wrong in my reasoning... :?
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New post 29 Nov 2014, 20:57
Eliminate E as perpetuating is incorrect for the second part. I believe the first part requires the gerund (participle.)

D is the correct choice for me using originating (first part) and perpetuated (second part).
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New post 30 Nov 2014, 20:09
The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating[/quote]

----IMO B
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New post 08 Mar 2015, 21:31
IMO B . What is the OA ?

The usage of "that" in choice B seeks to represent the variations that came about .
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New post 08 Mar 2015, 22:17
For some reason, I like the choice C. Kindly post the OA.

souvik101990 wrote:
The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating

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Re: The increased popularity and availability  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Mar 2015, 09:31
shriramvelamuri wrote:
For some reason, I like the choice C. Kindly post the OA.

OA to this is definitely D.

As dinesh has correctly mentioned in his post above, in choice C, "originated" is a verb while "perpetuated" is a participle. A verb cannot be parallel to a participle.

This is a tricky subject and it does require some time to develop these concepts. It took quite some time for me to be comfortable with such concepts:).
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The increased popularity and availability  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Mar 2015, 13:25
The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
Concept: Parallelism. There is parallelism error between "originate" & "perpetuated"

B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

Concept1: Parallelism. originated & perpetuated are parallel.
Concept2: 'that' modifier. Here that clearly modifies "language variations" and so provides ground for a parallel structure for verbs 'originated' and 'perpetuated'

C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

Concept: Intended meaning
Not parallel with the flow of the passage. "Originated from diverse...and cultural...and perpetuated"
Alters the intended meaning.

D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

Concept: Parallelism. There is parallelism error between "originating" & "perpetuated"

E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating

Concept: Tense. Verb-ing 'originating' and 'perpetuating' are parallel but change the tense of the sentence which is in present perfect.



So Answer: B conveys the meaning as well as keeps the SC concepts intact.
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Advanced SC: The increased popularity and availability of televisions  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Apr 2015, 13:06
AND is a parallel marker.
we need Modifier on both side of AND.

originating and Perpetuated is parallel. D is correct.

other option has Parallelism error.
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Re: Advanced SC: The increased popularity and availability of televisions  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Apr 2015, 14:14
just wondering why C is wrong
originated is parallel to perpetuated
both are noun modifiers
the languages originated in the past
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New post 30 Apr 2015, 14:55
+1 for D. Don't fall for parallelism trap in C and E.
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Re: Advanced SC: The increased popularity and availability of televisions  [#permalink]

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New post 01 May 2015, 02:18
Well - between B and D, D is actually parallel because of the correct usage in D of participles (originating and
perpetuated) even though they are structurally dissimilar.
if we were to use the structure of B -
variations that originated from should be paralleled by and that were perpetuated by.... then it would have been
parallel.
Alternatively D uses
Variations ORIGINATING from (originating acts as an adjective modifying Variations) and perpetuated by (again
perpetuated acts as an adjective modifying variatons).
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Re: Advanced SC: The increased popularity and availability of televisions  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jun 2015, 14:16
souvik101990 wrote:
Well - between B and D, D is actually parallel because of the correct usage in D of participles (originating and
perpetuated) even though they are structurally dissimilar.
if we were to use the structure of B -
variations that originated from should be paralleled by and that were perpetuated by.... then it would have been
parallel.
Alternatively D uses
Variations ORIGINATING from (originating acts as an adjective modifying Variations) and perpetuated by (again
perpetuated acts as an adjective modifying variatons).


Hi Souvic,

Like mvictor I am also confused that why c is out of the league as an answer.
I do understand that you have made correct decision for going with D instead of B. But what about C ?
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Re: Advanced SC: The increased popularity and availability of televisions  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jun 2015, 00:01
souvik101990 wrote:
Well - between B and D, D is actually parallel because of the correct usage in D of participles (originating and
perpetuated) even though they are structurally dissimilar.
if we were to use the structure of B -
variations that originated from should be paralleled by and that were perpetuated by.... then it would have been
parallel.
Alternatively D uses
Variations ORIGINATING from (originating acts as an adjective modifying Variations) and perpetuated by (again
perpetuated acts as an adjective modifying variatons).



Can you please explain why originating and perpetuated should be parallel .

Originating is modifying language variations .

perpetuated should be parallel to other items in the list.

...has led to the decline of 1. regional dialects 2.language variations and 3.

Or the placement of and does not make any sense to me.
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New post 27 Oct 2015, 19:21
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TommyWallach wrote:
Hey All,

A good explanation from demon on this one, but I just wanted to weigh in. This is a GMAT favorite trick, because students don't like paralleling -ing words with -ed words. However, when both are parallel this is okay. Remember, you can always change tense in parallel, even with verbs ("I liked to eat chicken but now I only like pork." That's past tense with present tense, joined by the conjunction "but"). But actually, tense isn't an issue here. Both -ing words and -ed words are participles, meaning they are just adjectives. Adjectives don't really HAVE tense (because they aren't verbs), so that's a second reason we shouldn't care. "Perpetuated" in this case is just passive, where as "originating" is active.

The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

(A) which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
PROBLEM: (First, which needs a comma before it). Okay, so it's the SECOND "and" here that marks the parallelism we care about (the other "and" parallels ethnic and cultural heritages, and is always correct). We're always concerned with whatever comes DIRECTLY after the parallel marker. In this case, we get "perpetuated". This is a participle, so we need another one earlier in the sentence. Instead, we get "originate", which is a present tense verb.

(B) that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
PROBLEM: Again, we look after the marker "and" and find the participle "perpetuated". Unfortunately, "originated" here is a past tense verb, not a participle. How do we know? Consider the difference here:

I read the book. ("read" = past tense verb...it has a subject in the main clause, "I")
Read by millions, the book is one of the nation's most popular. ("read" = past participle, it's just a modifier, and we don't get the subject until it's the subject of a new clause "the book is...")

(C) originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
PROBLEM: "Originated" can't be an action. This is just a misuse of the word. It may look parallel, but the participle of "originate" is "originating". Think about it. You can't put this in the past, because the word itself implies the past origin of something, even in the present tense (i.e. Originating in 1200 BC, the codex is the key to life itself).

(D) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
ANSWER: Perpetuated = participle. Originating = participle. Parallel.

(E) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating
PROBLEM: "Perpetuating by" doesn't make any sense. We need it to be passive, not active.

Hope that helps!

-tommy



Hello - I am still not sure how to identify if the -ed word being used is a Verb or a Participle... It is clear in example of "Read", but when it comes to sentence correction, -ed participles always confuses me. So in option B what indicates that ORIGINATED is not a Participle but a Verb?

Appreciate any help. Still struggling with Participles, specially -ed ones.

Regards
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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Dec 2015, 06:25
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Hi guys,

My first post here, thanks to all for an awesome forum.

I now this question has been posted earlier, but I could not find any replies to it.

Why is the verb has singular, and not plural?
""The increased popularity and availability of televisions has ...)

Thanks
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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Apr 2017, 20:08
Merged topics! Please, search before posting questions!
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The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Apr 2017, 04:39
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The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language
variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.
A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating

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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Apr 2017, 06:27
I picked C. Can anyone explain why C is wrong? Thanks!
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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Apr 2017, 07:52
eddy8700 wrote:
The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language
variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.
A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating




I also went for C :( ...
searched in internet , In on of the Manhattan post , it is highlighted that this question is from 1000sc and this material is banned now..
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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Apr 2017, 04:49
tcwity88 wrote:
I picked C. Can anyone explain why C is wrong? Thanks!


There is no solid reason to eliminate C. Moreover the verb "has" in the non-underlined portion is wrong - should be "have" (plural subject "popularity and availability").
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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led &nbs [#permalink] 22 Apr 2017, 04:49

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