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# The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to th

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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to th  [#permalink]

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18 Oct 2017, 05:01
3
polpanumas wrote:
I have question about verb-ing and verb-ed modifier

How to determine which one should be use and what decision making factor we should think about:

Please correct me if I am wrong, I know that the following structure:

Using experiment conducted by an expert, student concluded that......
Used experiment conducted by an expert, student concluded that......

The correct one supposes to be Using experiment conducted by an expert, student concluded that......

The decision-making point is whether a student can use the experiment or not.

But in this question (this structure: Noun. + mod. (verb-ed/verb-ing)) we are discussing the timeline of the event. So, I am not quite sure what is the decision-making point

Also, please clarify this structure as well sentense, mod. (verb-ed/verb-ing)

Present participle modifier (verb+ing):
Can be used an adjective (without comma - refers to noun) or as an adverb (with comma - refers to verb).

I know the man standing there. (adjective - refers to "man")
The prices decreased, causing concern among the investors. (adverb - refers to "decreased")

Past participle modifier (verb + ed):

Tired of the hard work, I went to sleep immediately. (adjective - refers to "I").

=========================

Now to determine between the adjective present participle and the adjective past participle, see whether the usage is in passive voice or active voice - passive voice would take past participle and active would take present participle:

E.g.: The used book is of no worth. ("used" passive - the book was used by someone else - the book did not use anything)
The sleeping cat did not realise the threat. ( "sleeping" active - the cat was sleeping)
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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to th  [#permalink]

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07 Nov 2019, 11:35
Please explain why the OA is D and not B
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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to th  [#permalink]

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07 Nov 2019, 14:16
Youraisemeup wrote:
Please explain why the OA is D and not B

Have you checked out this post?
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The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to th  [#permalink]

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06 Dec 2019, 02:17
sacmanitin wrote:
The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

(A) which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

(B) that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

(C) originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

(D) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

(E) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating

Hi daagh sir,

My analysis for C --- originated is a V-ed here not a verb because the subject of this absolute phrase is "language variations" while the doer of the action (originated) is diverse ethnic and cultural heritages

similarly perpetuated is a V-ed modifier and not a verb . Hence , both V-eds can be parallel.

1. Reason to eliminate C ?

2. Am i correct in recognizing the verb and V-ed form or not ?

Kindly help, im stuckon this one

regards,
Shank
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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to th  [#permalink]

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06 Dec 2019, 04:17
sacmanitin wrote:
The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

(A) which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

(B) that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

(C) originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

(D) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

(E) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating

The part after comma is a noun modifier which modifies "regional dialects". The structure of the modifier is not parallel, so we need to select the best fit. D is the only option that has a stable structure, an ing-modifier and ed-modifier.
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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to th  [#permalink]

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07 Dec 2019, 22:55
ShankSouljaBoi wrote:
sacmanitin wrote:
The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

(A) which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

(B) that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

(C) originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

(D) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

(E) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating

Hi daagh sir,

My analysis for C --- originated is a V-ed here not a verb because the subject of this absolute phrase is "language variations" while the doer of the action (originated) is diverse ethnic and cultural heritages

similarly perpetuated is a V-ed modifier and not a verb . Hence , both V-eds can be parallel.

1. Reason to eliminate C ?

2. Am i correct in recognizing the verb and V-ed form or not ?

Kindly help, im stuckon this one

regards,
Shank

Can anyone please guide ??? GMATNinja chetan2u

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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to th  [#permalink]

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14 Dec 2019, 23:11
1
ShankSouljaBoi wrote:
The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

(A) which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

(B) that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

(C) originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

(D) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

(E) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating

I am no expert, but I will try to add how I eliminated everything except D.
Consider the meaning of the sentence. Phrased version: Increased availability of TVs has led to X, [noun modifier]. Here the modifier modifies the noun, X(regional dialects). Now, the modifier that starts with language variations should modify X.
I assume that you are convinced with eliminating other answer choices. Now between C and D,

(C) originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated.

You may assume originated to be V-ed modifier. But, are language variations a thing of past? Per sentence, something has led to decline, but did not make language variations extinct. So, even if it is considered a V-ed modifier, option C lacks meaning.

(D) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
originating now acts as modifier. You may argue this is not parallel with perpetuated. But this is more like, ailing grandmother. Modifier originating provides some additional information about language variations.
Now, perpetuated by geographic isolation. Geography is not changing, so does language variation pertaining to that geography.

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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to th  [#permalink]

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21 Dec 2019, 08:32
1
Following is an excerpt from " A hundred 700+ SC Questions" pdf that I think will be of great benefit:

the main idea behind whether to choose the -ing form or
the -ed form is this:

When we reduce a verb to its -ing or -ed form, we must look at one and only one thing: whether the noun that it will
modify is the subject or object of that verb.
The -ing form is used for DOING the action, which means SUBJECT, which means ACTIVE voice.
The -ed form is used for RECEIVING the action, which means OBJECT, which means PASSIVE voice.

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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to th  [#permalink]

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23 Dec 2019, 23:09
on gmat land, we have
comma+which
that
comma+who
who

this means, which always need a comma and show the non essential modifier. ""who" can go with or without comma , depending on non essential or essential modifier.
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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to th  [#permalink]

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13 Jan 2020, 00:01
The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

(A) which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

(B) that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

(C) originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

(D) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

(E) originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating

language variations modifies regional dialects. What are the regional dialects? They are language variations originating from the diverse ethnic ---- and perpetuated by geographical isolation.

Here originating and perpetuated by are modifying language variations. Originated is not the correct action form. Originating from and perpetuated by is parallel. D is the correct answer.
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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to th  [#permalink]

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27 Jan 2020, 04:57
Hi guys,

I have a question regarding the non underlined portion of the sentence
Should the main verb not be 'have led' instead of 'has' - The subjects of the sentence are popularity and availability right? Though singular, they are joined by and, which makes them a plural subject demanding a plural verb .

Or the subject is increased - which is a verbed modifier modifying the availability and popularity?

Thanks
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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to th  [#permalink]

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27 Jan 2020, 05:45
1
Hi guys,

I have a question regarding the non underlined portion of the sentence
Should the main verb not be 'have led' instead of 'has' - The subjects of the sentence are popularity and availability right? Though singular, they are joined by and, which makes them a plural subject demanding a plural verb .

Or the subject is increased - which is a verbed modifier modifying the availability and popularity?

Thanks

Good question. Reminds me of another such official question:

According to a recent poll, owning and living in a freestanding house on its own land is still a goal of a majority of young adults, as it was of earlier generations.

My understanding is that owning and living are not depicted as entirely distinct activities, in the sense that the sentence is basically trying to convey that living in a self-owned freestanding house is a goal of majority of young adults. Hence, the sentence uses singular verb is.

Thankfully, this verb is in the non-underlined portion and so, we don't have to make a choice here. My feeling is that in such tricky situations, GMAT would not make students choose between a singular and a plural verb.

As far as underlined portion of the sentence is concerned, it is still a safe bet to choose a plural verb in situations where two nouns are connected by and.
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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to th  [#permalink]

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27 Jan 2020, 07:53
1
Hi guys,

I have a question regarding the non underlined portion of the sentence
Should the main verb not be 'have led' instead of 'has' - The subjects of the sentence are popularity and availability right? Though singular, they are joined by and, which makes them a plural subject demanding a plural verb .

Or the subject is increased - which is a verbed modifier modifying the availability and popularity?

Thanks

Sometimes the author thinks of multiple nouns as forming one unit. In such cases, he or she may opt for a singular verb.
1. Her skill and her talent makes her the favorite to win the tournament.

This pattern is more common when the nouns are headed by a common element:
2. Her skill and talent makes her the favorite to win the tournament.

In this question, we have common elements on both sides of the nouns. This makes it even easier for the reader to accept a singular verb.
3. The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects...

I agree with EducationAisle: I would not expect the GMAT to move something like this to the underlined portion of the question.
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Re: The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to th   [#permalink] 27 Jan 2020, 07:53

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