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Although surveys of medieval legislation, guild organization, and term

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Although surveys of medieval legislation, guild organization, and term  [#permalink]

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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 154, Date : 18-APR-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


Although surveys of medieval legislation, guild organization, and terminology used to designate different medical practitioners have demonstrated that numerous medical specialties were recognized in Europe during the Middle Ages, most historians continue to equate the term “woman medical practitioner,” wherever they encounter it in medieval records, with “midwife.” This common practice obscures the fact that, although women were not represented on all levels of medicine equally, they were represented in a variety of specialties throughout the broad medical community. A reliable study by Wickersheimer and Jacquart documents that of 7,647 medical practitioners in France during the twelfth through fifteenth centuries, 121 were women; of these, only 44 were identified as midwives, while the rest practiced as physicians, surgeons, apothecaries, barbers, and other healers.

While preserving terminological distinctions somewhat increases the quality of the information extracted from medieval documents concerning women medical practitioners, scholars must also reopen the whole question of why documentary evidence for women medical practitioners comprises such a tiny fraction of the evidence historians of medieval medicine usually present. Is this due to the limitations of the historical record, as has been claimed, or does it also result from the methods historians use? Granted, apart from medical licenses, the principal sources of information regarding medical practitioners available to researchers are wills, property transfers, court records, and similar documents, all of which typically underrepresent women because of restrictive medieval legal traditions. Nonetheless, the parameters researchers choose when they define their investigations may contribute to the problem. Studies focusing on the upper echelons of “learned” medicine, for example, tend to exclude healers on the legal and social fringes of medical practice, where most women would have been found.

The advantages of broadening the scope of such studies is immediately apparent in Pelling and Webster’s study of sixteenth-century London. Instead of focusing solely on officially recognized and licensed practitioners, the researchers defined a medical practitioner as “any individual whose occupation is basically concerned with the care of the sick.” Using this definition, they found primary source information suggesting that there were 60 women medical practitioners in the city of London in 1560. Although this figure may be slightly exaggerated, the evidence contrasts strikingly with that of Gottfried, whose earlier survey identified only 28 women medical practitioners in all of England between 1330 and 1530.

Finally, such studies provide only statistical information about the variety and prevalence of women’s medical practice in medieval Europe. Future studies might also make profitable use of analyses developed in other areas of women’s history as a basis for exploring the social context of women’s medical practice. Information about economic rivalry in medicine, women’s literacy, and the control of medical knowledge could add much to our growing understanding of women medical practitioners’ role in medieval society.
1. Which one of the following best expresses the main point of the passage?

(A) Recent studies demonstrate that women medical practitioners were more common in England than in the rest of Western Europe during the Middle Ages.
(B) The quantity and quality of the information historians uncover concerning women’s medical practice in medieval Europe would be improved if they changed their methods of study.
(C) The sparse evidence for women medical practitioners in studies dealing with the Middle Ages is due primarily to the limitations of the historical record.
(D) Knowledge about the social issues that influenced the role women medical practitioners played in medieval society has been enhanced by several recent studies.
(E) Analyses developed in other areas of women’s history could probably be used to provide more information about the social context of women’s medical practice during the Middle Ages.


2. Which one of the following is most closely analogous to the error the author believes historians make when they equate the term “woman medical practitioner” with “midwife”?

(A) equating pear with apple
(B) equating science with biology
(C) equating supervisor with subordinate
(D) equating member with nonmember
(E) equating instructor with trainee


3. It can be inferred from the passage that the author would be most likely to agree with which one of the following assertions regarding Gottfried’s study?

(A) Gottfried’s study would have recorded a much larger number of women medical practitioners if the time frame covered by the study had included the late sixteenth century.
(B) The small number of women medical practitioners identified in Gottfried’s study is due primarily to problems caused by inaccurate sources.
(C) The small number of women medical practitioners identified in Gottfried’s study is due primarily to the loss of many medieval documents.
(D) The results of Gottfried’s study need to be considered in light of the social changes occurring in Western Europe during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.
(E) In setting the parameters for his study. Gottfried appears to have defined the term “medical practitioner” very narrowly.


4. The passage suggests that a future study that would be more informative about medieval women medical practitioners might focus on which one of the following?

(A) the effect of social change on the political and economic structure of medieval society
(B) the effect of social constraints on medieval women’s access to a medical education
(C) the types of medical specialties that developed during the Middle Ages
(D) the reasons why medieval historians tend to equate the term “woman medical practitioner” with midwife
(E) the historical developments responsible for the medieval legal tradition’s restrictions on women


5. The author refers to the study by Wickersheimer and Jacquart in order to

(A) demonstrate that numerous medical specialties were recognized in Western Europe during the Middle Ages
(B) demonstrate that women are often underrepresented in studies of medieval medical practitioners
(C) prove that midwives were officially recognized as members of the medical community during the Middle Ages
(D) prove that midwives were only a part of a larger community of women medical practitioners during the Middle Ages
(E) prove that the existence of midwives can be documented in Western Europe as early as the twelfth century


6. In the passage, the author is primarily concerned with doing which one of the following?

(A) describing new methodological approaches
(B) revising the definitions of certain concepts
(C) comparing two different analyses
(D) arguing in favor of changes in method
(E) chronicling certain historical developments



  • Source: LSAT Official PrepTest 11 (June 1994)
  • Difficulty Level: 650

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Originally posted by SajjadAhmad on 18 Apr 2019, 08:20.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 06 Oct 2019, 23:18, edited 1 time in total.
Updated - Complete topic (822).
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Re: Although surveys of medieval legislation, guild organization, and term  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Apr 2019, 08:11
3
1. Which one of the following best expresses the main point of the passage?

(A) Recent studies demonstrate that women medical practitioners were more common in England than in the rest of Western Europe during the Middle Ages. - out of scope
(B) The quantity and quality of the information historians uncover concerning women’s medical practice in medieval Europe would be improved if they changed their methods of study. - this is the main idea which covers all the paragraphs and improvement is also stated in the last para
(C) The sparse evidence for women medical practitioners in studies dealing with the Middle Ages is due primarily to the limitations of the historical record. - Inconsistent
(D) Knowledge about the social issues that influenced the role women medical practitioners played in medieval society has been enhanced by several recent studies. - out of scope.
(E) Analyses developed in other areas of women’s history could probably be used to provide more information about the social context of women’s medical practice during the Middle Ages. - out of scope

2. Which one of the following is most closely analogous to the error the author believes historians make when they equate the term “woman medical practitioner” with “midwife”? According to the first para, midfwife = WMP. This means WMP is a subset to "midwife"

(A) equating pear with apple - not a subset. out of scope
(B) equating science with biology - biology is a subset of science. Hence the anwer
(C) equating supervisor with subordinate - not a subset. out of scope
(D) equating member with nonmember - same as C
(E) equating instructor with trainee - same as C

3. It can be inferred from the passage that the author would be most likely to agree with which one of the following assertions regarding Gottfried’s study?

(A) Gottfried’s study would have recorded a much larger number of women medical practitioners if the time frame covered by the study had included the late sixteenth century. - out of scope
(B) The small number of women medical practitioners identified in Gottfried’s study is due primarily to problems caused by inaccurate sources. - out of scope
(C) The small number of women medical practitioners identified in Gottfried’s study is due primarily to the loss of many medieval documents. - out of scope
(D) The results of Gottfried’s study need to be considered in light of the social changes occurring in Western Europe during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. - out of scope
(E) In setting the parameters for his study. Gottfried appears to have defined the term “medical practitioner” very narrowly. - can be inferred from the 3rd para

4. The passage suggests that a future study that would be more informative about medieval women medical practitioners might focus on which one of the following?

(A) the effect of social change on the political and economic structure of medieval society - Inconsistent
(B) the effect of social constraints on medieval women’s access to a medical education - as stated in last para
(C) the types of medical specialties that developed during the Middle Ages - out of scope
(D) the reasons why medieval historians tend to equate the term “woman medical practitioner” with midwife - out of scope
(E) the historical developments responsible for the medieval legal tradition’s restrictions on women - out of scope

5. The author refers to the study by Wickersheimer and Jacquart in order to

(A) demonstrate that numerous medical specialties were recognized in Western Europe during the Middle Ages - out of scope
(B) demonstrate that women are often underrepresented in studies of medieval medical practitioners - Inconsistent
(C) prove that midwives were officially recognized as members of the medical community during the Middle Ages - Inconsistent
(D) prove that midwives were only a part of a larger community of women medical practitioners during the Middle Ages - as stated in the line " although women were not represented on all levels of medicine equally, they were represented in a variety of specialties throughout the broad medical community."
(E) prove that the existence of midwives can be documented in Western Europe as early as the twelfth century - out of scope

6. In the passage, the author is primarily concerned with doing which one of the following?

(A) describing new methodological approaches - out of scope
(B) revising the definitions of certain concepts- out of scope
(C) comparing two different analyses - Inconsistent
(D) arguing in favor of changes in method - as stated in the last para
(E) chronicling certain historical developments - out of scope
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Re: Although surveys of medieval legislation, guild organization, and term  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Apr 2019, 08:17
7-8 Mins and All correct,

If possible kindly share the difficulty level of the questions.

personally i like the 1st question of almost every RC posted by SajjadAhmad because it helps us in preparing for the Main Point question which is one of the most dreaded in GMAT.

Thanks
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Re: Although surveys of medieval legislation, guild organization, and term  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Apr 2019, 08:23
1
Answer to your question

"If possible kindly share the difficulty level of the questions."

Please see attachment. :)

Attachment:
v.jpg
v.jpg [ 221.3 KiB | Viewed 829 times ]


shubham2312 wrote:
7-8 Mins and All correct,

If possible kindly share the difficulty level of the questions.

personally i like the 1st question of almost every RC posted by SajjadAhmad because it helps us in preparing for the Main Point question which is one of the most dreaded in GMAT.

Thanks

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Re: Although surveys of medieval legislation, guild organization, and term  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Oct 2019, 01:30
Hi everyone,
Took 15 minutes and got 5/6 correct. Took 5 minutes to read, write down paragraphs summaries and main point.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

P1
Paragraph 1 starts by stating a contrast: |while evidence suggests a wide terminology for describing the role women had in medicine during the middle ages|, |historians frequently refer to those women simply with the term "midwife".|
Then we are told why this is bad: women were represented in a variety of specialities in the med community BUT this practice hides this information.
To support the idea that historians are inaccurate and that women worked in different roles in the med community the study of Wickersheimer and Jacquart is presented

P2
The second paragraph investigates why women are underrepresented in the medical field. The answer lies in the fact that documents are somehow faulty and the methodology used for classifying people in the medical field excludes healers who are represented by a lot of women

P3
Paragraph 3 stresses the importance of going beyond the traditional classification. The study of Pelling and Webster supports the intent since it finds 60 women in the med field in London while the study of Goffred found only 28 women.

P4
Last paragraph is dedicated to the limitations of the current analysis. It advocates for future studies involving more parameters such as economic rivalry in medicine, women’s literacy, and the control of medical knowledge.

MP
The main point is to stress the limitations of current methodologies used for classifying women as medical practitioners in the middle ages

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1. Which one of the following best expresses the main point of the passage?


Pre-thinking:
Main Point question

Refer to main point above


(A) Recent studies demonstrate that women medical practitioners were more common in England than in the rest of Western Europe during the Middle Ages.
Not in line with pre-thinking: hence incorrect

(B) The quantity and quality of the information historians uncover concerning women’s medical practice in medieval Europe would be improved if they changed their methods of study.
In line with pre-thinking. hence correct

(C) The sparse evidence for women medical practitioners in studies dealing with the Middle Ages is due primarily to the limitations of the historical record.
Not in line with pre-thinking: hence incorrect

(D) Knowledge about the social issues that influenced the role women medical practitioners played in medieval society has been enhanced by several recent studies.
Not in line with pre-thinking: hence incorrect

(E) Analyses developed in other areas of women’s history could probably be used to provide more information about the social context of women’s medical practice during the Middle Ages.
Partial scope, hence incorrect

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. Which one of the following is most closely analogous to the error the author believes historians make when they equate the term “woman medical practitioner” with “midwife”?


Pre-thinking:
Analogous scenario question

We need to find a scenario in which a general term is used to describe a a more specific term.



(A) equating pear with apple
Comparison of two different object on the same level. Hence incorrect

(B) equating science with biology
Correct

(C) equating supervisor with subordinate
Authority is out of scope. Hence incorrect

(D) equating member with nonmember
Here we have two elements belonging to different groups. Hence incorrect

(E) equating instructor with trainee
same error as C. Hence incorrect

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. It can be inferred from the passage that the author would be most likely to agree with which one of the following assertions regarding Gottfried’s study?


Pre-thinking:
Inference question

Gottfried study is used to contrast the study done by Pelling and Webster. It is reasonable to infer that Gotfrried study is missing something. Hence any choice that states something that the study missed will be correct



(A) Gottfried’s study would have recorded a much larger number of women medical practitioners if the time frame covered by the study had included the late sixteenth century.
Cannot be inferred from the information given. Hence incorrect

(B) The small number of women medical practitioners identified in Gottfried’s study is due primarily to problems caused by inaccurate sources.
Cannot be inferred from the information given. Hence incorrect

(C) The small number of women medical practitioners identified in Gottfried’s study is due primarily to the loss of many medieval documents.
Cannot be inferred from the information given. Hence incorrect

(D) The results of Gottfried’s study need to be considered in light of the social changes occurring in Western Europe during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.
Cannot be inferred from the information given. Hence incorrect

(E) In setting the parameters for his study. Gottfried appears to have defined the term “medical practitioner” very narrowly.
This indeed is that something that is missing from the study. Hence correct

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. The passage suggests that a future study that would be more informative about medieval women medical practitioners might focus on which one of the following?


Pre-thinking:
Inference question

Let's refer to the last paragraph and especially to the paragraph summary above.



(A) the effect of social change on the political and economic structure of medieval society
The political structure is never mentioned. Hence incorrect

(B) the effect of social constraints on medieval women’s access to a medical education
Last paragraph talks about exploring more the social context. Hence correct

(C) the types of medical specialties that developed during the Middle Ages
Cannot be inferred from the information given. Hence incorrect

(D) the reasons why medieval historians tend to equate the term “woman medical practitioner” with midwife
Cannot be inferred from the information given. Hence incorrect

(E) the historical developments responsible for the medieval legal tradition’s restrictions on women
Cannot be inferred from the information given. Hence incorrect

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

5. The author refers to the study by Wickersheimer and Jacquart in order to


Pre-thinking:
Purpose question

Refer to P1 and to: "only 44 were identified as midwives, while the rest practiced as physicians, surgeons, apothecaries, barbers, and other healers."
Clearly the study wants to stress that midwifes were fewer compared to other female doctors



(A) demonstrate that numerous medical specialties were recognized in Western Europe during the Middle Ages
Not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect

(B) demonstrate that women are often underrepresented in studies of medieval medical practitioners
Not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect

(C) prove that midwives were officially recognized as members of the medical community during the Middle Ages
Not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect

(D) prove that midwives were only a part of a larger community of women medical practitioners during the Middle Ages
In line with pre-thinking. Hence correct

(E) prove that the existence of midwives can be documented in Western Europe as early as the twelfth century
Not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

6. In the passage, the author is primarily concerned with doing which one of the following?


Pre-thinking:
Main point question

Refer to main point above



(A) describing new methodological approaches
Incorrect

(B) revising the definitions of certain concepts
Incorrect

(C) comparing two different analyses
Incorrect

(D) arguing in favor of changes in method
correct

(E) chronicling certain historical developments
Incorrect

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Re: Although surveys of medieval legislation, guild organization, and term   [#permalink] 01 Oct 2019, 01:30
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