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# Among lower- paid workers, union members are less likely

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27 Sep 2010, 02:06
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First of all—"that impose" is required, so take out A and B.

Between C, D, and E:
C) parallels everything, but this is wrong. Insurance plans impose limits, insurance plans require doctors to see more patients, and insurance plans spend less time with patients? That last part is nonsensical.
E) A little more sense here, but now -- "imposed limits" "require doctors to see more patients" and "imposed limits" "spend less time with patients." Again, limits cannot spend less time with patients, only doctors can.
D) The cheaper insurance plans now "impose" limits on spending and "require" doctors to see more patients. That part is clear. The non-paralleled "spending" less time with patients modifies "doctors" (that see more patients). Doctors can spend time with patients, limits and insurance plans cannot. So D is correct.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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16 Oct 2010, 06:46
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hey guys,

nice debate over this stuff.

This is GMATprepr SC and OA is D.

Look at the explanation by Stacey Koprince, Manhattan GMAT instructor, who scored 780.

Among <big group>, <sub-group A> are less likely than <sub-group B> to X.

In the original sentence, X is a very complex clause with two sets of compound modifiers:
to be enrolled in <Y> imposing <modifier1> and requiring<modifier1> [to see <modifier 2> and spend <modifier2>]

The first set of modifiers modifies something before "imposing"; in addition, the "imposing" and "requiring" parts are parallel. The second set modifies something before "to see"; in addition, the "see" and "spend" parts are parallel.

So, let's start with: what are they modifiying? Nouns or clauses? Something, someone, or some clause is "imposing limits" and "requiring doctors" - what is it? It's the "insurance plans." That's a noun, so we want a noun modifier setup. Those -ing words that introduce modifying phrases or clauses indicate adverbial modifiers, not noun modifiers. Eliminate A. Scan the answer. Eliminate B for repeating the error.

You could also have started with the second set: what do they modify? They modify "doctors" and parallelism dictates that we read it as "require doctors to see more" and "<require doctors to> spend less time." The plan actually requires doctors to spend less time with patients? That meaning seems... off. More logically, spending less time would seem to be a consequence of having to see more patients in the first place.

C, D, and E all start with "that." "That" is an indicator of a noun modifier, so that's good. Let's check parallelism next, since we know compound modifiers need to be parallel. This is where it can get a little messy, because we also have "nested" modifiers. So go back and pick apart that meaning:

For simplicity, I'll just type one form of each relevant word. We've got: impose, require, see, spend. Should they all be parallel? Are only some parallel to others? What is each one talking about? Let's see.

The "insurance plans" both impose limits and require doctors, so those two should be parallel. Do the plans see more patients? Nope - the plan requires the doctors to see more patients. Do the plans spend less time with the patients? No - that's also the doctors. Do the plans require doctors to spend less time with patients? I hope not! The "spending less time" thing is a consequence of the previous requirement (having to see more patients).

C says: impose, require, and spend. This says that "insurance plans that impose limits, <insurance plans that> require doctors to see more patients, and <insurance plans that> spend less time with each. That last one has a nonsensical meaning - eliminate.
D says impose and require, spending. This says that "insurance plans that impose limits and <insurance plans that> require doctors to see more patients, spending less time with each." The ", spending" set-up indicates an adverbial modifier. Why are they spending less time with each? Not because they are doctors (noun) or because of the patients (noun), but because the doctors are required to see more patients (clause). Adverbial modifiers modify clauses. So this works.
E says impose, requiring and spending. This says "insurance plans that impose limits, requiring doctors to see more and spending less time with each." The ", requiring... and spending" pieces indicate a compoun adverbial modifier, so the fact that the plans impose limits should result in (a) doctors seeing more patients, and (b) someone (unclear who) spending less time with each. Are the doctors spending less time with the patients? Technically, (a) and (b) should be able to stand completely alone. If I strip out (a), I'm left with "insurance plans that impose stricter limits on medical services, spending less time with each." Who's actually spending less time? I don't know. Meaning is ambiguous - eliminate.
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16 Oct 2010, 08:52
if d is the correct answer there should be comma before and require doctors to make the end of parallelism
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01 Jan 2011, 04:50
(D)

(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
(B) imposing stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend
(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending
(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending
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04 Jan 2011, 14:48
I think B . Because all the verbs are parallel

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18 May 2011, 05:05
'3 activities a)impose stricter limits on medical services b) require doctors to see more patients, and c)spend less time with each.in these a and b are independent and c is dependent on b....
C makes all a ,b ,c independent...... E makes b and c dependent on a..
only D makes a and b are independent and c dependent on b'

D is the right answer therefore.
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02 Sep 2011, 02:09
Quote:
Among lower- paid workers, union members are less likely than non union members to be enrolled in lower- end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.

(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
(B) imposing stricter limits on medical services , requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend
(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending
(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending

First strike: 'Imposing' vs 'that impose'. It should be 'that impose'. So, eliminate A and B.

Second strike: Parallelism - 'insurance plans that impose stricter limits...and ...[insurance plans that] require...' --> eliminates E

Third strike: the statement is essentially saying, doctors spend less time with each patient as a result of:
i) the stricter limits, and
ii) the requirement to see more patients
i.e. the last is a resultant of the first two.
So, 'less time with each patient' need not be parallel to 'stricter limits' and 'see more patients'.
In fact, it needs to be non-parallel.

So, we take D as the answer.

Quote:
C says: impose, require, and spend. This says that "insurance plans that impose limits, <insurance plans that> require doctors to see more patients, and <insurance plans that> spend less time with each. That last one has a nonsensical meaning - eliminate.
D says impose and require, spending. This says that "insurance plans that impose limits and <insurance plans that> require doctors to see more patients, spending less time with each." The ", spending" set-up indicates an adverbial modifier. Why are they spending less time with each? Not because they are doctors (noun) or because of the patients (noun), but because the doctors are required to see more patients (clause). Adverbial modifiers modify clauses. So this works.
E says impose, requiring and spending. This says "insurance plans that impose limits, requiring doctors to see more and spending less time with each." The ", requiring... and spending" pieces indicate a compoun adverbial modifier, so the fact that the plans impose limits should result in (a) doctors seeing more patients, and (b) someone (unclear who) spending less time with each. Are the doctors spending less time with the patients? Technically, (a) and (b) should be able to stand completely alone. If I strip out (a), I'm left with "insurance plans that impose stricter limits on medical services, spending less time with each." Who's actually spending less time? I don't know. Meaning is ambiguous - eliminate.
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30 Sep 2011, 05:31
sreehari1250 wrote:
Among lower- paid workers, union members are less likely than non union members to be enrolled in lower- end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.

(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
(B) imposing stricter limits on medical services , requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend
(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending
(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending

I choose "C" but it is incorrect please explain the correct answer

"spending" in an action for "doctors"; spending and requiring are results for "enrolment in lower- end insurance plans"
so we cannot make spending || imposing and requiring.
Only (D) makes this separation.
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01 Oct 2011, 09:51
cnrnld wrote:
gsothee wrote:
(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
(B) imposing stricter limits on medical services , requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend
(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending
(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending

Spending less time with each is a modifying clause that modifies doctors.
If we use and spend/spending above meaning is lost, and the sentence assumes the below form:-
1.Investment plans impose stricter limits on medical services
2.Investment plans require doctors to see more patients
3.Investment plans spend less time with each. completely nonsensical.

then how about requiring doctors to see more patients, and to spend...?

I think see more and spend are parallel.

I believe "Impose" and "Require" are parallel and are what the insurance companies are doing... while 'spending less time with the patients' is a byproduct of them requiring the doctors to see more patients...

The insurance companies are not directly enforcing the doctors to spend less time with the patients.
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Re: Among lower- paid workers, union members are less likely [#permalink]

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31 Mar 2012, 05:53
D it is,,,,,,,,

Always get logical predction wrong.........

Any suggestion to improve on it.
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Re: Among lower- paid workers, union members are less likely [#permalink]

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22 Apr 2012, 01:00
sreehari1250 wrote:
Among lower- paid workers, union members are less likely than non union members to be enrolled in lower- end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.

(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
(B) imposing stricter limits on medical services , requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend
(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending
(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending

I choose "C" but it is incorrect please explain the correct answer

see parrallesim wrt and secondly see cause effect principle.
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Re: Among lower- paid workers, union members are less likely [#permalink]

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08 May 2012, 03:23
"So, let's start with: what are they modifiying? Nouns or clauses? Something, someone, or some clause is "imposing limits" and "requiring doctors" - what is it? It's the "insurance plans." That's a noun, so we want a noun modifier setup. Those -ing words that introduce modifying phrases or clauses indicate adverbial modifiers, not noun modifiers. Eliminate A. Scan the answer. Eliminate B for repeating the error. "

Can some throw some light on the following concept?

-ing form goes gor adverbial clauses and not noun modifiers... I am confused at this statement, for example, working hard all the times, Joe achieved his goal, ....working...modifies noun...isnt it?

can someone explain me may in lay man terms when to use ing form and when to use that form

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Among lower- paid workers, union members are less likely [#permalink]

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08 May 2012, 08:09
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Hi All,

Among lower- paid workers, union members are less likely than non-union members to be enrolled in lower- end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.

Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non-union members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans. Now these plans do things:
a. they impose stricter limits on medical services, and
b. they require doctors to see more patients.
Now if the doctors are required to see more patients, then they will spend less time with each patient.

Error Analysis:

1. The modifiers “imposing” and “requiring” correctly modify “lower-end insurance plans”, and they are parallel as well. However, “spend less time” fails to show that this action is the effect of doctors seeing more patients per the plans.
2. The only way to show this effect is by turning verb “spend” into verb-ing modifier “spending” to actually show the outcome.
3. This change alone however will not solve the problem because when we have comma + verb-ing modifier, it modifies the preceding clause. With the original sentence structure, the only clause we have is “union members are less likely…”. This is certainly the wrong modification.
4. Hence we need to change verb-ing modifiers “imposing” and “requiring” to “that” clauses so that maintain the parallelism as well as “spending” can correctly modify the “that” clause that talks about the doctors required to see more patients.

POE:

Choice A: imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend: Incorrect for the reasons stated above.

Choice B: imposing stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending: Incorrect. Turning verb “spend” into verb-ing modifier “spending” now makes it parallel with “imposing” and “requiring”. The sentence now means that the new plans will spend less time with each patient. This is not logical.

Choice C: that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend: Incorrect. This choice repeats the same error by making “impose”, “require”, and “spend” parallel.

Choice D: that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending: Correct. The verbs "impose” and “requires” are parallel with the use of “that” clause that correctly shows what the new plans do. Verb-ing modifier “spending” now correctly modifies the preceding action "required to see", correctly showing the effect of the preceding action. The thing to note about the usage of comma + verb-ing modifier is that generally we say that this modifier modifies the preceding clause. But actually this modifier modifies the preceding action. This action may not necessarily be the verb of the preceding clause. It can be an action denoted by the "to verb" phrase. But because generally, a comma _ modifier appears after a clause, we say that it modifies the preceding clause.

In this answer choice, "spending" actually modifies the preceding action "to see" by presenting the result of this action. If doctors are required to see more patients, they will have to spend less time with each to accommodate more patients, Also, "spending" makes sense with the doer of the action denoted by "to see" that is "doctors" as the doctors will spend less time with each patient in order to see more patients.

Choice E: that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending: Incorrect. By making “requiring” and “spending” parallel, the sentence now suggests that these two are the effects of imposing the stricter limits on medical services. This is certainly not the intended meaning of the sentence.

pavanpuneet wrote:
"So, let's start with: what are they modifiying? Nouns or clauses? Something, someone, or some clause is "imposing limits" and "requiring doctors" - what is it? It's the "insurance plans." That's a noun, so we want a noun modifier setup. Those -ing words that introduce modifying phrases or clauses indicate adverbial modifiers, not noun modifiers. Eliminate A. Scan the answer. Eliminate B for repeating the error. "

Can some throw some light on the following concept?

-ing form goes gor adverbial clauses and not noun modifiers... I am confused at this statement, for example, working hard all the times, Joe achieved his goal, ....working...modifies noun...isnt it?

can someone explain me may in lay man terms when to use ing form and when to use that form

Hi there,
Use of any kind of modifier is completely governed by the context of the sentence. I personally do not like to give out rules but to make it simple for you, I can suggest that use comma + verb-ing modifiers to give additional information or show the results or effects of the preceding clause.

When you need to modify a noun entity, you can either use just the verb-ing modifier or the “that” clause immediately after that noun entity.

When you have a situation like this sentence where we have two modifiers, then use “that” clause to modify the noun entity and use comma + verb-ing modifier to show the effect of the preceding clause.

In this sentence, we could only ascertain where to use which modifier only after we understood the meaning of the sentence. Hence, the key to determine the use of various modifiers is to first understand the logical intended meaning of the sentence and then decide which modifier to use depending upon the roles these modifiers play. So this means that you must have the knowledge of the roles played by various modifiers.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Last edited by egmat on 04 Jan 2016, 15:59, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: Among lower- paid workers, union members are less likely [#permalink]

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08 May 2012, 08:22
Hi Shraddha, Thanks a lot for the prompt response. Very well articulated response indeed. I always used to get confused when to use that and when to use verb+ing form, but not at least I know that they are both equal and depend more on context which to use, such as this and also based on the elimination of choice. That and verb+ing may not be only difference to make a split. Please confirm.

Can you suggest some material that may help me understand roles played by various modifiers?
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Re: Among lower- paid workers, union members are less likely [#permalink]

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08 May 2012, 08:36
pavanpuneet wrote:
Hi Shraddha, Thanks a lot for the prompt response. Very well articulated response indeed. I always used to get confused when to use that and when to use verb+ing form, but not at least I know that they are both equal and depend more on context which to use, such as this and also based on the elimination of choice. That and verb+ing may not be only difference to make a split. Please confirm.

Can you suggest some material that may help me understand roles played by various modifiers?

Hi there,
Glad to know that you liked the reply. But the fact that it helped you is more heart-warming.

As far as suggesting material is concerned, may I ask you to register yourself at e-gmat.com for free and go through the concepts of preview level 1 that are offered for free. These free concepts include use of Verb-ing modifiers in excruciating details. The other modifiers are covered in the same manner in other paid levels.

Also at e-gmat, we do not talk about splits. We focus on the meaning of the sentence and follow a consistent method to arrive at the correct answer. So check it out for yourself. If you need any help, we are always around.

Take care.
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Re: Among lower- paid workers, union members are less likely [#permalink]

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08 May 2012, 10:46
Let me put the whole perspective in my own style.

One thing is obvious that there is no comma+ verb- ing format in any of the choices as far as imposing is concerned. In the absence of the comma, the verb- ing modifier imposing right royally modifies the noun it touches namely plans.

That aside let’s then decide how many things the low end insurance plans are doing. Two jobs or three jobs is the critical question whose answer will solve the problem

The low-end schemes are 1. Imposing strict limits and 2. requiring the doctors to see more patients (by spending less time with each). Thus there are only two primary functions namely impose and require. Spending less time is just an offshoot of the second function and can even be ignored. Let us then see case by case, if there are other issues

(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend: The use of and after patients is antithetical, since it implies that the there are three functions; In addition and has already been used between the two essentials functions of the plan

(B) imposing stricter limits on medical services , requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
Though grammatically correct by providing appropriate punctuation and parallelism, it is still antithetical to the original perspective that there are only two functions because the choice talks of three equal functions

Thus, you may see that verb - ing choices in A and B are not fitting in for reasons other than modification.

(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend: The separation of spend by an and is antithetical, implying that there are three functions

(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending: This is perfect. There are only two functions done by the plans and they are promptly separated by an and, pushing the spending to an auxiliary function of the second function

(E) That impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending; The list implies that there is only one primary function that imposes strict limits while the other two functions are rendered subordinate to the single primary function, thus distorting the original intent .

It may thus be seen how an answer to one important concept leads to an easy solution
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Re: Among lower- paid workers, union members are less likely [#permalink]

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05 Jun 2012, 05:15
sreehari1250 wrote:
Among lower- paid workers, union members are less likely than non union members to be enrolled in lower- end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.

(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
(B) imposing stricter limits on medical services , requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend
(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending
(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending

I choose "C" but it is incorrect please explain the correct answer

i pick D. according to the meaning of the sentence, doctors can spend less time with each to see more patients. only D legitimates the meaning. correct me if i am wrong
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Re: Among lower- paid workers, union members are less likely [#permalink]

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06 Jun 2012, 00:51
C is incorrect. I read some of the other explanations in this thread, and I feel that people get far too caught up in the idea of complex explanations for these types of problems. Sure, there is a "technical" aspect to this question, but the key is to just do these over and over and over again until you look at a problem like this and realize, "oh, hey, insurance plans don't spend time with patients". No need to explain complex theories about grammar.
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Re: Among lower- paid workers, union members are less likely [#permalink]

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29 Oct 2012, 10:01
Among lower- paid workers, union members are less likely than non union members to be enrolled in lower- end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.

(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend --imposing ambiguous
B) imposing stricter limits on medical services , requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending --imposing ambiguous
(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend -- "spend" could refer to insurance plans itself distorts sentence
(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending-- best option
(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending-- not parallel

Though D is the most apropriate option, Consider D in context of the whole sentence..
Among lower- paid workers, union members are less likely than non union members to be enrolled in lower- end insurance plans that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending less time with each

it is ambiguous which subject the verb (gerund) spending modifies. It could be the subject doctors of the clause " and require doctors to see more patients" or insurance plans?
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29 Oct 2012, 15:38
I picked D so I got it right and understand the hard part (the 2nd split with the parallelism), but somehow, I'm struggling with the easier part (i.e. "that imposes" vs "imposing") .

I eliminated A and B because to me, "that imposes" makes it clear as that it's the insurance plan or whatever that is doing the imposing. However, I can't think of why "imposing" wouldn't work honestly. Can anyone give me the proper grammar rule as to when to use the gerund form versus "that X" and why it fits in this scenario? Kudos will be given
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Re: Low- paid workers   [#permalink] 29 Oct 2012, 15:38

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