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# An effort should be made to dispel the misunderstandings that still

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Senior Manager
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An effort should be made to dispel the misunderstandings that still  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 24 Sep 2019, 00:52
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 348, Date : 23-Sep-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details

An effort should be made to dispel the misunderstandings that still prevent the much-needed synthesis and mutual supplementation of science and the humanities. This reconciliation should not be too difficult once it is recognized that the separation is primarily the result of a basic misunderstanding of the philosophical foundations of both science and the humanities.

Some humanists still identify science with an absurd mechanistic reductionism. There are many who feel that the scientist is interested in nothing more than “bodies in motion,” in the strictly mathematical, physical, and chemical laws that govern the material world. This is the caricature of science drawn by representatives of the humanities who are ignorant of the nature of modern science and also of the scientific outlook in philosophy. For example, it is claimed that science either ignores or explains away the most essential human values. Those who believe this also assert that there are aspects of the human mind, manifest especially in the domains of morality, religion, and the arts, that contain an irreducible spiritual element and for that reason can never be adequately explained by science.

Some scientists, on the other hand, claim that the humanist is interested in nothing more than emotion and sentiment, exhibiting the vagrant fancies of an undisciplined mind. To such men and women the humanities are useless because they serve no immediate and technological function for the practical survival of human society in the material world. Such pragmatists believe that the areas of morality, religion, and the arts should have only a secondary importance in people’s lives.

Thus there are misconceptions among humanists and scientists alike that are in need of correction. This correction leads to a much more acceptable position that could be called “scientific humanism,” attempting as it does to combine the common elements of both disciplines. Both science and the humanities attempt to describe and explain. It is true that they begin their descriptions and explanations at widely separated points, but the objectives remain the same: a clearer understanding of people and their world. In achieving this understanding, science in fact does not depend exclusively on measurable data, and the humanities in fact profit from attempts at controlled evaluation.
Scientific humanism can combine the scientific attitude with an active interest in the whole scale of human values. If uninformed persons insist on viewing science as only materialistic and the humanities as only idealistic, a fruitful collaboration of both fields is unlikely. The combination of science and the humanities is, however, possible, even probable, if we begin by noting their common objectives, rather than seeing only their different means.

1. Which one of the following best describes the main idea of the passage?

(A) Scientists’ failure to understand humanists hinders collaborations between the two groups.
(B) The materialism of science and the idealism of the humanities have both been beneficial to modern society.
(C) Technological development will cease if science and the humanities remain at odds with each other.
(D) The current relationship between science and the humanities is less cooperative than their relationship once was.
(E) A synthesis of science and the humanities is possible and much-needed.

2. Which one of the following would the author be most likely to characterize as an example of a misunderstanding of science by a humanist?

(A) Science encourages the view that emotions are inexplicable.
(B) Science arises out of practical needs but serves other needs as well.
(C) Science depends exclusively on measurable data to support its claims.
(D) Science recognizes an irreducible spiritual element that makes the arts inexplicable.
(E) Science encourages the use of description in the study of human values.

3. It can be inferred from the passage that the author would be most likely to agree with which one of the following statements?

(A) Scientific humanism is characterized by the extension of description and explanation from science to the humanities.
(B) A clearer understanding of people is an objective of humanists that scientists have not yet come to share.
(C) Controlled measures of aesthetic experience are of little use in the study of the humanities.
(D) Humanists have profited from using methods generally considered useful primarily to scientists.
(E) Fruitful collaboration between scientists and humanists is unlikely to become more common.

4. According to the author, which one of the following is the primary cause of the existing separation between science and the humanities?

(A) inflammatory claims by scientists regarding the pragmatic value of the work of humanists
(B) misunderstandings of the philosophical foundations of each by the other
(C) the excessive influence of reductionism on both
(D) the predominance of a concern with mechanics in science
(E) the failure of humanists to develop rigorous methods

5. Which one of the following best describes one of the functions of the last paragraph in the passage?

(A) to show that a proposal introduced in the first paragraph is implausible because of information presented in the second and third paragraphs
(B) to show that the views presented in the second and third paragraphs are correct but capable of reconciliation
(C) to present information supporting one of two opposing views presented in the second and third paragraphs
(D) to present an alternative to views presented in the second and third paragraphs
(E) to offer specific examples of the distinct views presented in the second and third paragraphs

6. The passage suggests that the author would recommend that humanists accept which one of the following modifications of their point of view?

(A) a realization that the scientist is less interested in describing “bodies in motion” than in constructing mathematical models of the material world
(B) an acknowledgement that there is a spiritual element in the arts that science does not account for
(C) an acceptance of the application of controlled evaluation to the examination of human values
(D) a less strident insistence on the primary importance of the arts in people’s lives
(E) an emphasis on developing ways for showing how the humanities support the practical survival of mankind.

7. In using the phrase “vagrant fancies of an undisciplined mind” (Highlighted), the author suggests that humanists are sometimes considered to be

(A) wildly emotional
(B) excessively impractical
(C) unnecessarily intransigent
(D) justifiably optimistic
(E) logically inconsistent

• Source: LSAT Official PrepTest 57 (June 2009)
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Hero1kF

My glory is greater than my life.

Originally posted by hero_with_1000_faces on 23 Sep 2019, 07:22.
Last edited by hero_with_1000_faces on 24 Sep 2019, 00:52, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: An effort should be made to dispel the misunderstandings that still  [#permalink]

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24 Sep 2019, 00:13
1
Posting answers only for difficult ones.

Q 2. Which one of the following would the author be most likely to characterize as an example of a misunderstanding of science by a humanist?

The answer is in Last Para:

The last para starts with "Thus there are misconceptions among humanists and scientists alike that are in need of correction".

In achieving this understanding, science in fact does not depend exclusively on measurable data, and the humanities in fact profit from attempts at controlled evaluation.
The author is saying "Humanist have got it wrong - Scientist does not depend exclusively on measurable data".

3. It can be inferred from the passage that the author would be most likely to agree with which one of the following statements?
Straightforward

In achieving this understanding, science in fact does not depend exclusively on measurable data, and the humanities in fact profit from attempts at controlled evaluation

Q.5

The biggest lesson in RC is you need to justify each and every word of the correct answer choice

The tone of the last paragraph is reconciliatory, however in the following Trap Answer Choice, a part of this AC is incorrect i.e the views are correct.

(B) to show that the views presented in the second and third paragraphs are correct but capable of reconciliation

The author is agrees that views can be reconciled and it is possible or even probable, but he does not think the views in para 2 and 3 are correct.

(D) to present an alternative to views presented in the second and third paragraphs

D) is correct, "scientific humanism" is an alternative presented by Author.

Q. 7. In using the phrase “vagrant fancies of an undisciplined mind” (Highlighted), the author suggests that humanists are sometimes considered to be

A) is Trap
(B) excessively impractical

Bcoz as per author Humanities focus on emotion and sentiment do not mean they themselves are emotional and sentimental.

vagrant fancies of an undisciplined mind, fancies suggest imaginations or desire, hence B should be correct, rest can be eliminated by POE.
I went with E
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Re: An effort should be made to dispel the misunderstandings that still  [#permalink]

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24 Sep 2019, 07:33
Can someone post answers for 4th and 6th

4 - Tough to differentiate between 2 & 3

6 - Between 3rd and 5th
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Re: An effort should be made to dispel the misunderstandings that still  [#permalink]

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24 Sep 2019, 21:49
1
Question #4 Difference between B and C

reductionism means "The analysis of complex things into simpler constituents" and this could stand for Scientific methods but not for work of arts. We need to go well deep in the passage for inference questions normally this is a general question and should be taken by generally reading the text and B is pretty fine with that.

(B) misunderstandings of the philosophical foundations of each by the other

Clearly mentioned in the first two lines of last paragraph

Question #6 Difference between C and E

The answer C is supported by the text in the passage

Some humanists still identify science with an absurd mechanistic reductionism. There are many who feel that the scientist is interested in nothing more than “bodies in motion,” in the strictly mathematical, physical, and chemical laws that govern the material world.

E says that

(E) an emphasis on developing ways for showing how the humanities support the practical survival of mankind.

This is opposite rather practical survival couldn't be possible without the Scientific methods.

Pratheek95 wrote:
Can someone post answers for 4th and 6th

4 - Tough to differentiate between 2 & 3

6 - Between 3rd and 5th

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Re: An effort should be made to dispel the misunderstandings that still  [#permalink]

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24 Sep 2019, 23:44
Question #4 Difference between B and C

reductionism means "The analysis of complex things into simpler constituents" and this could stand for Scientific methods but not for work of arts. We need to go well deep in the passage for inference questions normally this is a general question and should be taken by generally reading the text and B is pretty fine with that.

(B) misunderstandings of the philosophical foundations of each by the other

Clearly mentioned in the first two lines of last paragraph

Question #6 Difference between C and E

The answer C is supported by the text in the passage

Some humanists still identify science with an absurd mechanistic reductionism. There are many who feel that the scientist is interested in nothing more than “bodies in motion,” in the strictly mathematical, physical, and chemical laws that govern the material world.

E says that

(E) an emphasis on developing ways for showing how the humanities support the practical survival of mankind.

This is opposite rather practical survival couldn't be possible without the Scientific methods.

Pratheek95 wrote:
Can someone post answers for 4th and 6th

4 - Tough to differentiate between 2 & 3

6 - Between 3rd and 5th

Q.6 A Few Scientists mention it is one of the problems with Humanity and if sufficently disproven...wont it prove that humanities is important as well ?
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An effort should be made to dispel the misunderstandings that still  [#permalink]

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18 Nov 2019, 01:14
1
Hi everyone,
Solved this one in 13:20 minutes and got 5/7 correct.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

P1

Paragraph 1 starts by giving us the author's opinion: the author thinks that science and humanities are nowadays separated but they should be reconciled and supplement each others.
At the basis of this separation there is misunderstanding about the philosophical foundations of the 2.

Brief summary: S&H should be reconciled

P2

Paragraph 2 gives us the point of view of humanists. They think that science is limited by superficial aspects and that it has only a chemical, physical and mathematical vision.
Humanists think that science ignores human values and that there are things or concepts that are out of science's grasp. Clearly the author does not agree with this view point.

Brief summary: Humanists point of view (author disagrees with it)

P3

On the other hand paragraph 3 describes the scientist's point of view with which the author also disagrees. Such point of view views humanist as people who care only about things such as emotions, morality or/and religion. To scientists this areas are not practical and serve no purpose.

Brief summary: Scientists' point of view (the author disagrees with it)

P4

Paragraph 4 gives us a possible reconciliation of the 2 fields: scientific humanism. This reconciliation, according to the author, is possible since the objectives of the 2 fields are the same even tough the starting points are different. We are also given that both the fields can profit from a collaboration and that the first step to such collaboration is to remember the common objectives rather than persisting in the old views.

Brief summary: Scientific humanism is a possible reconciliation

Main point

The main point is simply to advocate the need of a reconciliation between scientists and humanists

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1. Which one of the following best describes the main idea of the passage?

Pre-thinking

Main point question

Refer to main point and summaries above

(A) Scientists’ failure to understand humanists hinders collaborations between the two groups.
Not in line with pre-thinking.

(B) The materialism of science and the idealism of the humanities have both been beneficial to modern society.
Not in line with pre-thinking.

(C) Technological development will cease if science and the humanities remain at odds with each other.
Not in line with pre-thinking.

(D) The current relationship between science and the humanities is less cooperative than their relationship once was.
Not in line with pre-thinking.

(E) A synthesis of science and the humanities is possible and much-needed.
in line with pre-thinking.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. Which one of the following would the author be most likely to characterize as an example of a misunderstanding of science by a humanist?

Pre-thinking

Inference question

A humanist might think that a scientist is someone who cares only about the math, physics and chemistry behind the "bodies in movement". Also A scientist does not care about human values according to a humanist.
Refer to P2.

(A) Science encourages the view that emotions are inexplicable.
Not in line with pre-thinking.

(B) Science arises out of practical needs but serves other needs as well.
Not in line with pre-thinking.

(C) Science depends exclusively on measurable data to support its claims.
in line with pre-thinking.

(D) Science recognizes an irreducible spiritual element that makes the arts inexplicable.
Not in line with pre-thinking.

(E) Science encourages the use of description in the study of human values.
Not in line with pre-thinking.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. It can be inferred from the passage that the author would be most likely to agree with which one of the following statements?

Pre-thinking

Inference question

(A) Scientific humanism is characterized by the extension of description and explanation from science to the humanities.
Not in line with pre-thinking.

(B) A clearer understanding of people is an objective of humanists that scientists have not yet come to share.
Not in line with pre-thinking.

(C) Controlled measures of aesthetic experience are of little use in the study of the humanities.
Not in line with pre-thinking.

(D) Humanists have profited from using methods generally considered useful primarily to scientists.
"objectives remain the same:

a clearer understanding of people and their world.

In achieving this understanding, science in fact does not depend exclusively on measurable data,

and the humanities in fact profit from attempts at controlled evaluation."

The author here is saying that already now scientists are exploiting methods used in the humanities and humanists are exploiting methods used in science.

(E) Fruitful collaboration between scientists and humanists is unlikely to become more common.
Not in line with pre-thinking.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. According to the author, which one of the following is the primary cause of the existing separation between science and the humanities?

Pre-thinking

Detail question

From P1:
"This reconciliation should not be too difficult once it is recognized that the separation is primarily the result of a basic misunderstanding of the philosophical foundations of both science and the humanities."

(A) inflammatory claims by scientists regarding the pragmatic value of the work of humanists
Not in line with pre-thinking.

(B) misunderstandings of the philosophical foundations of each by the other
in line with pre-thinking.

(C) the excessive influence of reductionism on both
Not in line with pre-thinking.

(D) the predominance of a concern with mechanics in science
Not in line with pre-thinking.

(E) the failure of humanists to develop rigorous methods
Not in line with pre-thinking.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

5. Which one of the following best describes one of the functions of the last paragraph in the passage?

Pre-thinking

Function question

The last paragraph states the need for reconciliation between the 2 fields

(A) to show that a proposal introduced in the first paragraph is implausible because of information presented in the second and third paragraphs
opposite

(B) to show that the views presented in the second and third paragraphs are correct but capable of reconciliation
per the author the views are incorrect. check the paragraph summaries above

(C) to present information supporting one of two opposing views presented in the second and third paragraphs
Not in line with pre-thinking.

(D) to present an alternative to views presented in the second and third paragraphs
the reconciliation is the alternative view

(E) to offer specific examples of the distinct views presented in the second and third paragraphs
no example presented

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

6. The passage suggests that the author would recommend that humanists accept which one of the following modifications of their point of view?

Pre-thinking

Inference question

The humanist per the author view should accept that they have the same goal the scientists have and that science is not strictly related to a superficial aspect

(A) a realization that the scientist is less interested in describing “bodies in motion” than in constructing mathematical models of the material world
Not in line with pre-thinking.

(B) an acknowledgement that there is a spiritual element in the arts that science does not account for
Not in line with pre-thinking.

(C) an acceptance of the application of controlled evaluation to the examination of human values
"objectives remain the same:

a clearer understanding of people and their world.

In achieving this understanding, science in fact does not depend exclusively on measurable data,

and the humanities in fact profit from attempts at controlled evaluation."

[b]Some of them already profit from it in fact

(D) a less strident insistence on the primary importance of the arts in people’s lives
Not in line with pre-thinking.

(E) an emphasis on developing ways for showing how the humanities support the practical survival of mankind.
Not in line with pre-thinking.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

7. In using the phrase “vagrant fancies of an undisciplined mind” (Highlighted), the author suggests that humanists are sometimes considered to be

Pre-thinking

Inference question

This is a tricky and trap question because of answer choice A. If you like me focus only on the word fancy, you'll select wrongly A.
But if you read the sentence after it you'll select B.
"To such men and women the humanities are useless because they serve no immediate and technological function for the practical survival of human society in the material world."

(A) wildly emotional
Actually wildly is too extreme

(B) excessively impractical
In line with pre-thinking

(C) unnecessarily intransigent
opposite

(D) justifiably optimistic
cannot infer it

(E) logically inconsistent
cannot infer it

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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An effort should be made to dispel the misunderstandings that still   [#permalink] 18 Nov 2019, 01:14