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At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on

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New post 21 May 2008, 06:19
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A
B
C
D
E

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At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on the numerous challenges facing the company, including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the declining sales for the company’s powerful microprocessor chip.

(A) including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the declining sales for

(B) which includes the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and declining sales of

(C) included among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as a decline in sales for

(D) among them the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the decline in sales of

(E) among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as the decline in sales for
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New post 11 Aug 2014, 12:23
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kinjiGC wrote:
AbhiJ wrote:
At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on the numerous challenges facing the company, including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent infringement suit and the declining sales for the company’s powerful microprocessor chip.
A. including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the declining sales for
B. which includes the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and declining sales of
C. included among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as a decline in sales for
D. among them the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the decline in sales of
E. among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as the decline in sales for

Can some one explain what type of modifier is used in the correct option and some other usages of this type modifier.


Meaning : At the annual SHM investors heard numerous challenges. Among those challenges were two challenges : threat from a rival's MDPI and decline in sales of company's powerful microprocessor chip.

verbing modifier should modify the preceding clause and should make sense with the subject of the preceding clause. Here including modifies the challenges and doesn't fit well with "investors" subject of the preceding clause.
A. including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the declining sales for
Rejecting the option A for the above reason and also sales of instead of "for".

B. which includes the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and declining sales of
which should replace challenges and includes has SV issue

C. included among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as a decline in sales for
included should modify the closest noun "challenges" that is correct. "included among these" construction doesn't seem correct. sales of should be used instead of "for".

D. among them the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the decline in sales of
This looks the least of the devil.

E. among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as the decline in sales for
"sales for" is the issue.

Doubts:
1) Any issue in "among them" and "among these"?
2) them should refer to the animate pronouns. Isn't it?
3) Any other errors?



Hi kinjiGC,

Thanks for posting your doubt here. :-)

It is true that "comma + verb-ing modifier" modifies the preceding action and must make sense with the doer of the modified action. However, "including" is an exception to this rule. Preceded or not preceded by a comma, "including" ALWAYS modifies a noun entity. In this sentence, "including" modifies "the numerous challenges" because what follows "including" are some of the challenges that the company faced.

Hence, Choice A is not incorrect from "comma + including". It is incorrect, as you have already mentioned, for the use of preposition "for" after "the declining sales" and use of preposition "from" after "threat". The correct preposition in the context of this sentence will be "threat of".

Choice B - Again, there is no problem with the modification of "which" here because "facing the company" is a noun modifier that modifies "the numerous challenges" and cannot be placed anywhere. So "which" can jump over this modifier and correctly modify "challenges". But yes, singular Verb "includes" does not agrre in number with plural Subject "challenges".

Choice C: Again, "included" in this choice is not incorrect for the same reason already explained in Choice B. "these" is demonstrative pronoun and must be followed by a noun. Per the context of the sentence, "these" should be followed by "challenges". But it is not. Hence, use of "these" is incorrect. This choice also repeats both teh incorrect prepositions of Choice A.

Choice D: This choice is correct. Here, "among them...." is a Noun Modifier that correctly modifies "the numerous challenges". Note that "them" can be used to refer to animate as well as inanimate objects.

Choice E: This Choice repeats the "these" error of Choice C and the preposition errors of Choice A.

All your doubts have been addressed in the analysis here. Please study them well, compare it to your analysis, and understand what all you possibly missed in your analysis.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
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New post 03 Nov 2012, 13:29
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AbhiJ wrote:
At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on the numerous challenges facing the company, including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent infringement suit and the declining sales for the company’s powerful microprocessor chip.
A. including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the declining sales for WE CANT USE PARTICIPLE MODIFIERS WITH COMMA
B. which includes the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and declining sales of WHICH ILLOGICALY MODIFIES COMPANY.
C. included among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as a decline in sales for A SUIT CANT THREATEN YOU BUT YOU CAN FACE THE THREAT OF A SUIT.
D. among them the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the decline in sales of ABSLOUTELY CORRECT. THIS IS AN ABSOLUTE PHRASE.
E. among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as the decline in sales for A SUIT CANT THREATEN YOU BUT YOU CAN FACE THE THREAT OF A SUIT.

Can some one explain what type of modifier is used in the correct option and some other usages of this type modifier.

This type of modifier is called Absolute phrase. This type of phrase consists of noun and noun modifier and modifies a whole clause or sentence. An absolute phrase can't stand alone as a sentence, but often expresses an additional thought.
An absolute phrase is separated from the main clause by a comma; it may come before or after that main clause.
It is usually asked at 720+ level.

i)Sound can travel through water for enormous distances,
its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.
ii) More than 300 rivers drain into Siberia's Lake Baikal, which holds 20% of the worlds fresh water, more than all of the North American Great Lakes combined.


Hope that helps
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New post 22 May 2008, 12:04
5
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saravalli wrote:
At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on the numerous
challenges facing the company, including among them the threat from a rival’s
multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the declining sales for
the company’s
powerful microprocessor chip.
A. including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patentinfringement
suit and the declining sales for
B. which includes the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit
and declining sales of
C. included among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patentinfringement
suit as well as a decline in sales for
D. among them the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and
the decline in sales of
E. among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit
as well as the decline in sales for


the key is to look for decline IN sale OF.. sales for is wrong idiom..

so we are left with B and D..which in B is wrong..there are numerous challenges so we need something plural..D is best
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New post 23 May 2008, 16:51
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In that case, 'numerous challenges' is plural. So we need 'include' and not 'includes'.

I even thought what if the 'which' is pointing to 'presentation' and then 'includes' will be right...but later thought I was thinking too much.
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New post 26 Jun 2010, 04:02
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lordw wrote:
At the annual stockholder meeting, investors heard a presentation on the numerous challenges facing the company, including among them the threat from a rival´s multibillion dollar patent infringement suit and the declining sales for the company's powerfull microprocessor chip.

B. which includes the threat of a rival´s multibillion dollar patent infringement suit and declining sales of
C. included among these the threat from a rival´s multibillion dollar patent infringement suit as well as a decline in sales for
D. among them the threat of a rival's multibillion dollar patent infringement suit and the decline in sales of
E. among these the threat from a rival's multibillion dollar patent infringement suit as well as the decline in sales for

Guys my doubt is between options D and E, can someone explain with details? Tks. Lw


By process of elimination -

decline of X is the correct idiom. decline for X is wrong. This eliminates A, C and E.

In choice B, the comma is followed by which. The 'which' in this modifier (part of the sentence after the comma) modifies the noun preceding the comma - in this case which modifies company. This does not make sense as company does not include the thread and the declining sales. The challenges include the threat and the declining sales. Hence eliminate B.

Answer should be D.
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New post 01 Feb 2011, 02:13
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There is a short cut to cross this long passage. ‘Sales for’ is bad idiom, and so skip 1, 3 and 5. ‘Sales of’ is good idiom. Between 2 and 4, choice 2 no doubt sticks to the relative pronoun touch rule – ‘which’ touches and means ‘company’ - but sadly flouts logical predication by not referring to ‘challenges’ and hence dump it. Merrily tread along 4.
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New post 22 Feb 2011, 08:25
4
3
It may also be helpful to note that, in general, the test-writers don't like indicative pronouns (these, those, this, that, etc) that float free without attached nouns.

For example...

I'm not sure how I feel about that rule. (Correct)
I'm not sure how I feel about that. (Incorrect)


That knocks off C and E.

Two of the choices that are left-- A and D, include object pronouns ("them") while B contains no pronoun at all. It might be temping to nix all pronouns, but as daagh mentioned above, ", which" must touch the noun it is modifying, and in choice C it is touching "company"--eliminate B.

But, you may ask, what about the fact that there are *several* plural nouns earlier in the sentence ("stockholders, "investors," and "challenges")? Doesn't that mean the pronoun is ambiguous?

Unfortunately, no. A degree of pronoun ambiguity can be tolerated if it is grammatically clear from the sentence which of the possible antecedents is intended (notice, this is different from being clear because "I can tell what they probably meant from the content")--grammatically clear means clear from the *structure*)

(1) "stockholders" modifies "meeting" and is not a standalone noun-- out
(2) "investors" is the subject of the clause ("INVESTORS HEARD"), but we want an object noun (because we have THEM), not a subject noun. If our pronoun was "they" we would be referring to "investors"--out
(3) "challenges" is the object of the preposition ("presentation ON THE NUMEROUS CHALLENGES") -- here's our guy!

One last clue-- parallelism is very powerful on the GMAT, and the structure in D is nicely parallel:

(D) ...among them the THREAT OF....and the DECLINE OF... (yay)

...whereas in A we have

(S)...among them the THREAT FROM...and THE DECLINING SALES OF (less yay)

That's more ammo for (D) being the correct response.
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New post 08 Mar 2011, 15:58
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Yup--sorry it's taken me so long to reply (out of the country on vacation).

A SUBJECT pronoun is a pronoun that takes the place of a noun in the subject position--in other words, the noun that is PERFORMING the action.

SUBJECT PRONOUNS-- I, you, he, she, it, they

The cat jumped over my dad.
SHE jumped over my dad.

The boy threw the ball.
HE threw the ball.

Those people like Jeanine a lot.
THEY like Jeanine a lot.

OBJECT pronouns take the place of nouns in the object position-- nouns that are RECEIVING the action. If you see a preposition before a noun, that noun must be an object (that doesn't mean there *must* be a preposition, however--see the second and third examples below).

OBJECT pronouns: me, you, him, her, it, them

The cat jumped over my dad.
The cat jumped over him.

The boy threw the ball.
The boy threw it.

Those people like Jeanine a lot.
Those people like her a lot.


"you" and "it" are the same for both families of pronouns, but things can get more confusing for the others. If you're not sure which case (object or subject) you should use, you can try swapping in another one from that family to check.

For example, if you wanted to test the correctness of the following sentence--
"Between you and I, that puppy is awfully mopey." (?)

You could "swap in" another member of the same family..."I" is a subject pronoun, so you should be able to subsitute another subject pronoun...

Which is correct?
"Between you and THEY, that puppy is awfully mopey."
OR
"Between you and THEM, that puppy is awfully mopey."

The second example, which uses the OBJECT case pronoun, is correct, so we actually want to say--
"Between you and ME, that puppy is awfully mopey" (CORRECT)
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New post 12 Jun 2011, 09:29
The basic tenet of absolute phrases is that, they comprise a noun or a noun phrase but not a finite verb. In D if you add a verb, that is against absolute modification. D per se is best.
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New post 04 Nov 2012, 06:39
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AbhiJ wrote:
At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on the numerous challenges facing the company, including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent infringement suit and the declining sales for the company’s powerful microprocessor chip.
A. including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the declining sales for
B. which includes the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and declining sales of
C. included among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as a decline in sales for
D. among them the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the decline in sales of
E. among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as the decline in sales for

Can some one explain what type of modifier is used in the correct option and some other usages of this type modifier.


I just wanted to add some thoughts on this SC question.

1st of all this questions has 3:2 split...if you look closely...at the end you have sales for and sales of...the correct expression is sales of
that leaves us with 2 options, which is B & D. If you examine carefully...in option B the two entities are not parallel hence it is not correct. A noun (the threat of a rival’s multibillion) and participle (declining sales).Participles can be made parallel with (present, past and adjectives).
Now coming to the "Including" Modifier.. any verb(ing) modifier can be used in two context (refer to e-gmat free videos on SC). ,verb(ing) refers/modifies the subject and not the immediate noun preceding it.
e.g. Joe killed the snake, using the stick.
Here the verb(ing) refers to subject Joe who used the stick. So in the sentence posted by you, meaning wise the including refers to the subject that is Investors, which is not the intended meaning.
Hope this clarifies all your questions on "ing" modifiers.
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New post 04 Nov 2012, 07:29
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If you have the Manhattan Sentence Correction Strategy guide, the Advanced section (at the end of the book) has the answer to your question. There are 4 exceptions to NOUN Modifiers including the one that is used here

If a phrase is important to a sentence and can not be placed anywhere else in the sentence then the modifier is not required to touch the noun being modified "Challenges" (in this case)

Normally your modifier should touch "challenges" but you cant separate "facing the company" so your modifier is now modifying the noun" challenges facing the company"

Any answer that has "included" and "among" is unnecessarily repetitive

Included already incorporated "among" so you need only one of those 2 words.

Option A and C are out

"Which" refers to the immediately preceding noun
So B is out

You are left with D and E

But i think all you wanted was the clarification on the modifier.
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New post 06 Nov 2012, 15:22
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A. Including <-> Among them = redundancy

B. Includes does not agree in number with Challenges

C. Included <-> Among these = redundancy, these

E. These, Sales for is unidiomatic

These as a pronoun is usually wrong and should be a red flag.
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New post 09 Aug 2014, 11:53
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AbhiJ wrote:
At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on the numerous challenges facing the company, including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent infringement suit and the declining sales for the company’s powerful microprocessor chip.
A. including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the declining sales for
B. which includes the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and declining sales of
C. included among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as a decline in sales for
D. among them the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the decline in sales of
E. among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as the decline in sales for

Can some one explain what type of modifier is used in the correct option and some other usages of this type modifier.


Meaning : At the annual SHM investors heard numerous challenges. Among those challenges were two challenges : threat from a rival's MDPI and decline in sales of company's powerful microprocessor chip.

verbing modifier should modify the preceding clause and should make sense with the subject of the preceding clause. Here including modifies the challenges and doesn't fit well with "investors" subject of the preceding clause.
A. including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the declining sales for
Rejecting the option A for the above reason and also sales of instead of "for".

B. which includes the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and declining sales of
which should replace challenges and includes has SV issue

C. included among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as a decline in sales for
included should modify the closest noun "challenges" that is correct. "included among these" construction doesn't seem correct. sales of should be used instead of "for".

D. among them the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the decline in sales of
This looks the least of the devil.

E. among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as the decline in sales for
"sales for" is the issue.

Doubts:
1) Any issue in "among them" and "among these"?
2) them should refer to the animate pronouns. Isn't it?
3) Any other errors?
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New post 18 Aug 2014, 13:29
kinjiGC wrote:

I didn't understand your comment "Again, "included" in this choice is not incorrect for the same reason already explained in Choice B". Which reason in option B ?


Hi kinjiGC,

My bad. I guess while writing the response, I confused "included" with "includes" in Option B which is incorrect as it does not agree in number with plural Subject "challenges". I apologize for that.

The Verb-ed Modifier "included" can refer to "challenges", but Choice B is incorrect for the other errors I have mentioned.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
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New post 13 Apr 2015, 00:56
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souvik101990 wrote:
At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on the numerous challenges facing the company, including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the declining sales for the company’s powerful microprocessor chip.

A. including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the declining sales for

B. which includes the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and declining sales of

C. included among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as a decline in sales for

D. among them the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the decline in sales of

E. among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as the decline in sales for


A, C, E - declining sales for.. is wrong. Should be declining sales of .
B - 'which' refers to company which is wrong. Challenges include 'the threat...' and 'the declining sales..'
Hence 'D'.

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New post 17 Apr 2015, 10:22
souvik101990 wrote:
At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on the numerous challenges facing the company, including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the declining sales for the company’s powerful microprocessor chip.


A. including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the declining sales for
comma+ing serves as a clause modifier that modifies the preceding clause. but it doesn't make sense at all
declining sales is not a continuous action.
sales for - not correct to present the intended meaning
parallelism error - the treat is not || to the declining sales
including among - i believe it is redundant

B. which includes the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and declining sales of
which refers to the closest noun company - hence again a modifier error.
includes = does not agree in number with "challenges"
declining sales is not a continuous action.
parallelism error - the treat is not || to declining sales

C. included among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as a decline in sales for
comma+ed again modifier of the closest noun - incorrect.
as well as - is not preferred
decline in sales for - changes the meaning
parallelism error - the treat is not || to a decline

D. among them the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the decline in sales of
correct
entities are parallel
correctly presents "sales of"


E. among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as the decline in sales for
as well as - incorrect
sales for.
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New post 06 Jun 2016, 02:52
enasni wrote:



I have a question.. "among them......" in the answer choice 'd' is a prepositional noun modifier modifyin the noun 'challenges' and not an absolute phrase? N If "among them....." is a prepositional noun modifier then why is there a comma to separate this phrase? n If its an absolute phrase (noun + noun modifier) then the noun modifier(among them) which is a prepositional noun modifier modyfyin the nouns "the threat n the decline" should come after the nouns?

eg The cat on the couch took a nap but if we say ' On the couch, the cat took the nap'... now the prepositional phrase modifies the verb. What am I missin? Please help.
Thanks. :)


The modifier "among them" is more similar to a subgroup modifier than to a prepositional phrase.

Moreover using a comma after an introductory prepositional phrase depends on the length of the phrase. Some grammarians suggest that comma should be used only when the length of the phrase is at least 5 words.Thus for the example you have given, the comma is not required. However this concept is not the issue here since "among them..." is not a prepositional phrase comparable to the example you have cited.

Coming back to the type of modifier in question, subgroup modifiers are non-essential modifiers, stating something extra about the group it refers to. Hence they should be separated by commas.
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New post 24 Jul 2016, 02:43
This is not as daunting a question as it appears. The decision point is easy "sales for" is an incorrect idiom. The correct idiom is "sales of"

1) Including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the declining sales for
WRONG :- Incorrect idiom "sales for" is incorrect ; "sale of" is correct idiom

2) Which includes the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the declining sales of
WRONG:- "which" is incorrectly modifying company. "which" should modify challenges

3) Included among these the treat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as a decline in sales for
WRONG :- Incorrect idiom "sales for" is incorrect ; "sale of" is correct idiom

4) Among them the treat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the decline in sales of
CORRECT:- Correct idiom; crisp and concise.

5) Among these the treat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as the decline in sales for
WRONG :- Incorrect idiom "sales for" is incorrect ; "sale of" is correct idiom



mymba99 wrote:
At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on the numerous
challenges facing the company, including among them the threat from a rival’s
multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the declining sales for
the company’s
powerful microprocessor chip.
A. including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patentinfringement
suit and the declining sales for
B. which includes the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit
and declining sales of
C. included among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patentinfringement
suit as well as a decline in sales for
D. among them the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and
the decline in sales of
E. among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit
as well as the decline in sales for

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Re: At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Sep 2016, 02:49
In option D, don't we require a helping work (are) with the option.?? One more thing can verb-ing modifiers be used with past tense?..
eg: In 1850, Shershah built the Grand Trunk Road, extending from A to B.
In 1850, Shershah built the Grand Trunk Road, which extended from A to B.

Which between the above 2 sentences is correct?
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Re: At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on &nbs [#permalink] 20 Sep 2016, 02:49

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