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At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on

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At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on the numerous challenges facing the company, including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the declining sales for the company’s powerful microprocessor chip.

(A) including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the declining sales for

(B) which includes the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and declining sales of

(C) included among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as a decline in sales for

(D) among them the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the decline in sales of

(E) among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as the decline in sales for
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New post 21 May 2008, 21:22
wizardofwashington wrote:
I would go with B. For better reading, I reconstructed the sentence with my selection and it seems to be reading fine.

At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on the numerous challenges facing the company, which includes the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and declining sales of the company’s powerful microprocessor chip.


Interesting finding Wix!

But,
1. why there is not "a comma" between "suit" and "and declining..."?
2. Do you think that "which" refers to " the company", making the sentence awkawrd?

Thanks!
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Re: At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on [#permalink]

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New post 22 May 2008, 12:04
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saravalli wrote:
At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on the numerous
challenges facing the company, including among them the threat from a rival’s
multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the declining sales for
the company’s
powerful microprocessor chip.
A. including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patentinfringement
suit and the declining sales for
B. which includes the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit
and declining sales of
C. included among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patentinfringement
suit as well as a decline in sales for
D. among them the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and
the decline in sales of
E. among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit
as well as the decline in sales for


the key is to look for decline IN sale OF.. sales for is wrong idiom..

so we are left with B and D..which in B is wrong..there are numerous challenges so we need something plural..D is best

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Re: At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on [#permalink]

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New post 22 May 2008, 18:48
saravalli wrote:
OA is D.

A - including among is redundant ; Also, it is 'sales of chips' NOT sales for
B - which incorrectly refars to company.
C - again 'sales of' not 'for'
E - same as C.

I went with C, it took me more than 3 minutes.DAMN :oops:


Saravalli, in D "them" refers to "investors" or challengles"? Pronoun is nightmare for me!
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New post 23 May 2008, 11:33
x2suresh wrote:
I am not convinced with answer D, why B is wrong

Can some one explain with details.

Re-arranging the sentence with B.

B - At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on the numerous
challenges facing the company, which includes the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and declining sales of the company’s powerful microprocessor chip.

It incorrectly saying that Which(company) includes X and Y.
But it is the 'numerous challenges' that includes X and Y.
X and Y are two of those 'numerous challenges'.

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New post 23 May 2008, 14:17
saravalli wrote:
x2suresh wrote:
I am not convinced with answer D, why B is wrong

Can some one explain with details.

Re-arranging the sentence with B.

B - At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on the numerous
challenges facing the company, which includes the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and declining sales of the company’s powerful microprocessor chip.

It incorrectly saying that Which(company) includes X and Y.
But it is the 'numerous challenges' that includes X and Y.
X and Y are two of those 'numerous challenges'.


Saravalli, I disagree with you about the reference for "Which". IMHO, here the word "which" refers to the challenges facing teh company. I find that a bit puzzling how monst of you could relate that word as a reference the company. If I am allowed to rewrite the sentence here, this is what it actually means:
At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on the numerous challenges facing the company, which includes the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and declining sales of the company’s powerful microprocessor chip.

Try reading it without the letters in blue and you would understand what I mean. Or, are you implying that the "which" is dubiously placed in the sentence as a tricky measure to "get the reader" to pick the wrong choice. In any case, I am still having a hard time accepting D as the preferred choice.

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New post 23 May 2008, 16:51
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In that case, 'numerous challenges' is plural. So we need 'include' and not 'includes'.

I even thought what if the 'which' is pointing to 'presentation' and then 'includes' will be right...but later thought I was thinking too much.

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New post 13 Sep 2008, 09:38
lordw wrote:
At the annual stockholder meeting, investors heard a presentation on the numerous challenges facing the company, including among them the threat from a rival´s multibillion dollar patent infringement suit and the declining sales for the company's powerfull microprocessor chip.

B. which includes the threat of a rival´s multibillion dollar patent infringement suit and declining sales of
C. included among these the threat from a rival´s multibillion dollar patent infringement suit as well as a decline in sales for
D. among them the threat of a rival's multibillion dollar patent infringement suit and the decline in sales of
E. among these the threat from a rival's multibillion dollar patent infringement suit as well as the decline in sales for

Guys my doubt is between options D and E, can someone explain with details? Tks. Lw



I would pick D over E. threat of X and decline in sales of Y are parallel.

Initially them and these appeared to be referring to either investors or challenges. but logically the sentence enumerates challenges and challenges cannot be investors. That's when I felt that them possibly cannot be referring to investors.

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New post 14 Sep 2008, 03:18
lordw wrote:
At the annual stockholder meeting, investors heard a presentation on the numerous challenges facing the company, including among them the threat from a rival´s multibillion dollar patent infringement suit and the declining sales for the company's powerfull microprocessor chip.

B. which includes the threat of a rival´s multibillion dollar patent infringement suit and declining sales of
C. included among these the threat from a rival´s multibillion dollar patent infringement suit as well as a decline in sales for
D. among them the threat of a rival's multibillion dollar patent infringement suit and the decline in sales of
E. among these the threat from a rival's multibillion dollar patent infringement suit as well as the decline in sales for

Guys my doubt is between options D and E, can someone explain with details? Tks.
Lw

The initial option is wordy. We do not need INCLUDING and AMONG.
A,C are out.
B is clearly not correct.
D is better, shorter, and parallel.

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Re: At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on [#permalink]

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lordw wrote:
At the annual stockholder meeting, investors heard a presentation on the numerous challenges facing the company, including among them the threat from a rival´s multibillion dollar patent infringement suit and the declining sales for the company's powerfull microprocessor chip.

B. which includes the threat of a rival´s multibillion dollar patent infringement suit and declining sales of
C. included among these the threat from a rival´s multibillion dollar patent infringement suit as well as a decline in sales for
D. among them the threat of a rival's multibillion dollar patent infringement suit and the decline in sales of
E. among these the threat from a rival's multibillion dollar patent infringement suit as well as the decline in sales for

Guys my doubt is between options D and E, can someone explain with details? Tks. Lw


By process of elimination -

decline of X is the correct idiom. decline for X is wrong. This eliminates A, C and E.

In choice B, the comma is followed by which. The 'which' in this modifier (part of the sentence after the comma) modifies the noun preceding the comma - in this case which modifies company. This does not make sense as company does not include the thread and the declining sales. The challenges include the threat and the declining sales. Hence eliminate B.

Answer should be D.
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A small correction rlevochkin - The OA is D and not B. Kindly refer to the below Manhattan Gmat forum link for more explanations:
http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/ann ... t7688.html

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There is a short cut to cross this long passage. ‘Sales for’ is bad idiom, and so skip 1, 3 and 5. ‘Sales of’ is good idiom. Between 2 and 4, choice 2 no doubt sticks to the relative pronoun touch rule – ‘which’ touches and means ‘company’ - but sadly flouts logical predication by not referring to ‘challenges’ and hence dump it. Merrily tread along 4.
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It may also be helpful to note that, in general, the test-writers don't like indicative pronouns (these, those, this, that, etc) that float free without attached nouns.

For example...

I'm not sure how I feel about that rule. (Correct)
I'm not sure how I feel about that. (Incorrect)


That knocks off C and E.

Two of the choices that are left-- A and D, include object pronouns ("them") while B contains no pronoun at all. It might be temping to nix all pronouns, but as daagh mentioned above, ", which" must touch the noun it is modifying, and in choice C it is touching "company"--eliminate B.

But, you may ask, what about the fact that there are *several* plural nouns earlier in the sentence ("stockholders, "investors," and "challenges")? Doesn't that mean the pronoun is ambiguous?

Unfortunately, no. A degree of pronoun ambiguity can be tolerated if it is grammatically clear from the sentence which of the possible antecedents is intended (notice, this is different from being clear because "I can tell what they probably meant from the content")--grammatically clear means clear from the *structure*)

(1) "stockholders" modifies "meeting" and is not a standalone noun-- out
(2) "investors" is the subject of the clause ("INVESTORS HEARD"), but we want an object noun (because we have THEM), not a subject noun. If our pronoun was "they" we would be referring to "investors"--out
(3) "challenges" is the object of the preposition ("presentation ON THE NUMEROUS CHALLENGES") -- here's our guy!

One last clue-- parallelism is very powerful on the GMAT, and the structure in D is nicely parallel:

(D) ...among them the THREAT OF....and the DECLINE OF... (yay)

...whereas in A we have

(S)...among them the THREAT FROM...and THE DECLINING SALES OF (less yay)

That's more ammo for (D) being the correct response.
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New post 08 Mar 2011, 15:58
Yup--sorry it's taken me so long to reply (out of the country on vacation).

A SUBJECT pronoun is a pronoun that takes the place of a noun in the subject position--in other words, the noun that is PERFORMING the action.

SUBJECT PRONOUNS-- I, you, he, she, it, they

The cat jumped over my dad.
SHE jumped over my dad.

The boy threw the ball.
HE threw the ball.

Those people like Jeanine a lot.
THEY like Jeanine a lot.

OBJECT pronouns take the place of nouns in the object position-- nouns that are RECEIVING the action. If you see a preposition before a noun, that noun must be an object (that doesn't mean there *must* be a preposition, however--see the second and third examples below).

OBJECT pronouns: me, you, him, her, it, them

The cat jumped over my dad.
The cat jumped over him.

The boy threw the ball.
The boy threw it.

Those people like Jeanine a lot.
Those people like her a lot.


"you" and "it" are the same for both families of pronouns, but things can get more confusing for the others. If you're not sure which case (object or subject) you should use, you can try swapping in another one from that family to check.

For example, if you wanted to test the correctness of the following sentence--
"Between you and I, that puppy is awfully mopey." (?)

You could "swap in" another member of the same family..."I" is a subject pronoun, so you should be able to subsitute another subject pronoun...

Which is correct?
"Between you and THEY, that puppy is awfully mopey."
OR
"Between you and THEM, that puppy is awfully mopey."

The second example, which uses the OBJECT case pronoun, is correct, so we actually want to say--
"Between you and ME, that puppy is awfully mopey" (CORRECT)
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Re: At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on [#permalink]

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New post 08 Mar 2011, 18:56
parker
I got A and D. A violates ||ism. Hence it should be D

But please shed light on the structure i.e. the form after the comma.
4) Among them the treat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the decline in sales of -- this modifies just "challenges".

This is not "ing" modifier. What kind of modifier is this?

parker wrote:
That knocks off C and E.

Two of the choices that are left-- A and D, include object pronouns ("them") while B contains no pronoun at all. It might be temping to nix all pronouns, but as daagh mentioned above, ", which" must touch the noun it is modifying, and in choice C it is touching "company"--eliminate B.

Last edited by gmat1220 on 09 Mar 2011, 02:49, edited 2 times in total.

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At the annual stakeholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on the numerous challenges facing the company, including among them the threat from a rival's multibillion dollar patent infringement suit and the declining sales for the company's powerful microprocessor chip

A: including among them the threat from a rival's multibillion dollar patent infringement suit and the declining sales for
B: Which includes threat of a rival's multibillion dollar patent infringement suit and declining sales of
C: inlcuded among these the threat from a rival's multibillion dollar patent infringement suit as well as decline in sales for
D: among them the threat of a rival's multibillion dollar patent infringement suit and decline in sales of
E: among these the threat from rival's multibillion dollar patent infringement suit as well as the decline in sales for

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New post 10 May 2011, 17:50
IMO "D"

"sale of" eliminates option A,C and E. In between D and B

option "B" uses parallelism the threat and declining

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New post 11 May 2011, 00:02
D it is by POE using 'of' and 'decline'.
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New post 11 May 2011, 00:23
GODSPEED wrote:
At the annual stakeholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on the numerous challenges facing the company, including among them the threat from a rival's multibillion dollar patent infringement suit and the declining sales for the company's powerful microprocessor chip

A: including among them the threat from a rival's multibillion dollar patent infringement suit and the declining sales for
B: Which includes threat of a rival's multibillion dollar patent infringement suit and declining sales of
C: inlcuded among these the threat from a rival's multibillion dollar patent infringement suit as well as decline in sales for
D: among them the threat of a rival's multibillion dollar patent infringement suit and decline in sales of
E: among these the threat from rival's multibillion dollar patent infringement suit as well as the decline in sales for


I also go for E.
some problems in other options;
I think including... among is redundant
sales of is correct and not sales from
threat from is used for person , threat of in case of abstract
GMAT prefers 'among them' over 'among these'

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Re: At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jun 2011, 06:28
brandy96 wrote:
isn't in D it should have 'among them was' rather 'among them'


You are saying:
At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on the numerous challenges facing the company, among them were the threat of rival's multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the decline in sales of company's powerful microprocessor chip.

Looks more apt than saying

At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on the numerous challenges facing the company, among them the threat of rival's multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the decline in sales of company's powerful microprocessor chip.

I see the former is a clause modifying the noun "challenges" and latter is a phrase modifying the noun. Both look correct to me unless someone points out a discrepancy. Just that the former is not in the option.
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