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At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on

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Re: At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Sep 2016, 01:49
In option D, don't we require a helping work (are) with the option.?? One more thing can verb-ing modifiers be used with past tense?..
eg: In 1850, Shershah built the Grand Trunk Road, extending from A to B.
In 1850, Shershah built the Grand Trunk Road, which extended from A to B.

Which between the above 2 sentences is correct?
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Re: At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Sep 2016, 07:46
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meetmba91 wrote:
In option D, don't we require a helping work (are) with the option.?? One more thing can verb-ing modifiers be used with past tense?..
eg: In 1850, Shershah built the Grand Trunk Road, extending from A to B.
In 1850, Shershah built the Grand Trunk Road, which extended from A to B.

Which between the above 2 sentences is correct?


Your query 1:
No, "are" is not required - "among them..." falls in a special category of modifier called subgroup modifier. Another example ( from Manhattan SC guide):

This model explains all known subatomic particles, SOME OF THEM only recently discovered.

Your query 2:
The present participle modifier takes up the tense of the main verb of the sentence.
I saw a bird flying. ... since the action seeing happened in the past, the action flying also happened in the past.

Your query 3:
You need to understand the difference between:
a. I saw a bird flying... means I saw a bird - it was flying
b. I saw a bird, flying.. means I saw a bird while I was flying.
A comma + a present participle modifier refers to the subject of the previous clause or the the whole clause.

In 1850, Shershah built the Grand Trunk Road, extending from A to B.... wrong: "extending" refers to the subject of the previous clause Shershah. Shershah built the Grand Trunk road - when he built it he could not have extended it at the same time.

In 1850, Shershah built the Grand Trunk Road, which extended from A to B. Here "which..." correctly refers to "Road".
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Re: At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jan 2017, 00:26
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Please change the OA to D.

Let us look at each of the answer options -

A - Incorrect.
"including among them the threat from a rival’s multi-billion-dollar patent infringement suit and the declining sales for the company’s powerful microprocessor chip."

"including + among" is redundnant.
"threat from" is generally used with people. Hence, unidiomatic.
"the threat" and "the declining" are not perfectly parallel.
"sales for" here is incorrect. It seems to imply "sales for the sake of the company's microprocessor chip".

B - Incorrect.
"the numerous challenges facing the company, which includes the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and declining sales of"

"which" seems to refer to "the company"
"the threat" and "declining" are not perfectly parallel.

C - Incorrect.
"included among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent infringement suit as well as a decline in sales for"

"included + among" is redundant as removing "included" does not change the meaning of the sentence.
"these" is incorrect as demonstrative pronouns must have a noun to modify. They cannot be used independently.
"threat from" is generally used with people. Hence, unidiomatic.
"sales for" here is incorrect.

D - correct answer.
"among them the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the decline in sales of"

"threat of X" - here X is the threat. Hence, correct.
"sales of" - is the correct idiom.

E - incorrect.
"among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as the decline in sales for"
Usage of "these" is incorrect.
"sales for" is unidiomatic.
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Re: At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Feb 2017, 03:01
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VKat wrote:
Can we use "among them" to connect independent clause .. is it some kind of modifier?


First, "among them" is NOT connecting an independent clause - there is NO clause after " among them", just two things: X (the threat) and Y (the decline) - without any verb.

"Among them X and Y" is a (special) noun modifier referring to "challenges".

One way to remember this construction is to identify the similarity of its structure with a subgroup modifier's (though they are not structurally identical, this connection may help in remembering the construction):

I have many games in my stock, many of them absolutely rubbish. ( If the latter part were an IC, the construction would be: Many of them ARE absolutely rubbish).

They heard of numerous challenges facing the company, among them X and Y. ( If the latter part were an IC, the construction would be: Among them ARE X and Y).

Now one step further:
If you can think a bit deeper, you would realise that this modifier is in fact a subgroup modifier:

many of them ( a subgroup of games) == X and Y ( a subgroup of challenges)
absolutely rubbish ( referring to "many of them") == among them (referring to " X and Y").

The only difference is that the subgroup and the part referring to it are flipped in the latter case.
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Re: At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Feb 2017, 07:41
1
Chemerical71 wrote:
At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on the numerous challenges facing the company, including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the declining sales for the company’s powerful microprocessor chip.

A. including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the declining sales for
B. which includes the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and declining sales of
C. included among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as a decline in sales for
D. among them the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the decline in sales of
E. among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as the decline in sales for


A. including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the declining sales for
"sale for" is wrong grammatically

B. which includes the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and declining sales of
"which" here wrongly refers to the company

C. included among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as a decline in sales for
"these" is ambiguous

D. among them the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the decline in sales of
Correct

E. among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as the decline in sales for
"these" is ambiguous
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Re: At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Aug 2017, 09:51
. including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent infringement suit and the declining sales of


included among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent infringement suit as well as a decline in sales of

Suppose these 2 options were available. Which one would be apt usage here?
Please provide some thoughts.
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New post 26 Aug 2017, 10:34
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1. 'These' cannot stand as a stand-alone demonstrative pronoun in formal writing. Hence, example 2 is out.
One has to be clear about the status of the word 'included"; if it is a verb, we must make sure who included it. There is no answer for that. Alternately and absurdly, it may mean that the investors heard a presentation and included these challenges.
If 'included' was a past participle modifier, then because of the subject pronoun 'these'. We must follow it with a verb such as 'included' among these was x… as well as Y.
On the contrary, we know for certain that 'including' is a present participle and that 'them' is an object pronoun. As such we do not need a verb for the verb+ing modifier.
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New post 29 Aug 2017, 05:23
Quote:
At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on the numerous challenges facing the company, including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the declining sales for the company’s powerful microprocessor chip.

(A) including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the declining sales for

(B) which includes the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and declining sales of

(C) included among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as a decline in sales for

(D) among them the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the decline in sales of

(E) among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as the decline in sales for


GMATNinja, Could you help to explain "among them" since there are only two things listed in the question?

Quote:
Excerpt from Manhattan Prep Sentence Correction

The other distinction to remember is that you should use between only with two things or people.
When you are talking about three or more things or people, use among.

Wrong: I mediated a dispute BETWEEN Maya, Logan, and Kalen.
Right: I mediated a dispute AMONG Maya, Logan, and Kalen.

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New post 30 Aug 2017, 17:19
hazelnut, we aren't using "among" to relate those two items. We are saying that those two items exist "among" the full range of challenges. The sentence is basically saying "There are many challenges, and among those challenges we find these two."
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New post 31 Aug 2017, 03:28
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hazelnut wrote:

GMATNinja, Could you help to explain "among them" since there are only two things listed in the question?



Hello hazelnut,

I will be glad to help you out with this one. :-)

The structure among them the threat of a rival’s multi billion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the decline in sales of... is a Noun Modifier that modifies the preceding noun the numerous challenges facing the company.

The term among them has been used to refer to the numerous challenges. The correct answer choice says that there are many problems. Among those many problems the two points mentioned in the sentence are most prominent.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
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New post 29 Nov 2018, 17:18
daagh wrote:
There is a short cut to cross this long passage. ‘Sales for’ is bad idiom, and so skip 1, 3 and 5. ‘Sales of’ is good idiom. Between 2 and 4, choice 2 no doubt sticks to the relative pronoun touch rule – ‘which’ touches and means ‘company’ - but sadly flouts logical predication by not referring to ‘challenges’ and hence dump it. Merrily tread along 4.



I have a doubt.
'threat of' vs 'threat from' does not make any sense in POE? Is it?
Is it valid to mean- threat of a person, rather than threat from a person?
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New post 29 Nov 2018, 22:01
Both "threat from" and "threat of" can be used. They differ a bit in meaning. With "threat from," the following noun will be what's providing the threat. With "threat of," the following noun is the threat itself. Sometimes those two meanings can overlap.
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New post 02 Dec 2018, 15:26
I'm having a hard time understanding how ", among them the threat...and...the decline" is an absolute phrase. My understanding is that an absolute phrase has to have the form [noun] + [noun modifier]. In this situation I'm guessing "among them" is the noun and "the threat ...and ... the decline" are the noun modifiers? Is this correct?

In addition, what type of modifier are phrases that begin with ", including"
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