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Re: At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jun 2011, 08:29
The basic tenet of absolute phrases is that, they comprise a noun or a noun phrase but not a finite verb. In D if you add a verb, that is against absolute modification. D per se is best.
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Re: At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jun 2011, 09:24
the OA is D. I was in same boat as Fluke. D was best among the choices given, but was having question on why 'were' was missing (thanks fluke for correcting me). If it was 'including' rather than 'among them' I would not have any doubt.


At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on the numerous challenges facing the company, including threat of rival's multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the decline in sales of company's powerful microprocessor chip.

in the above 'including' is modifying the clause. just what I felt 'among them' is little different than 'including'
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Re: At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jul 2011, 08:41
First eliminate A,C and E as they have "sales for" which is an incorrect idiom. The proper idiom is "sales of".

Between B and D choose D as it is parallel (threat of.....and decline in sales of...). Hence the answer is D.
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Re: At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on [#permalink]

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AbhiJ wrote:
At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on the numerous challenges facing the company, including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent infringement suit and the declining sales for the company’s powerful microprocessor chip.
A. including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the declining sales for WE CANT USE PARTICIPLE MODIFIERS WITH COMMA
B. which includes the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and declining sales of WHICH ILLOGICALY MODIFIES COMPANY.
C. included among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as a decline in sales for A SUIT CANT THREATEN YOU BUT YOU CAN FACE THE THREAT OF A SUIT.
D. among them the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the decline in sales of ABSLOUTELY CORRECT. THIS IS AN ABSOLUTE PHRASE.
E. among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as the decline in sales for A SUIT CANT THREATEN YOU BUT YOU CAN FACE THE THREAT OF A SUIT.

Can some one explain what type of modifier is used in the correct option and some other usages of this type modifier.

This type of modifier is called Absolute phrase. This type of phrase consists of noun and noun modifier and modifies a whole clause or sentence. An absolute phrase can't stand alone as a sentence, but often expresses an additional thought.
An absolute phrase is separated from the main clause by a comma; it may come before or after that main clause.
It is usually asked at 720+ level.

i)Sound can travel through water for enormous distances,
its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.
ii) More than 300 rivers drain into Siberia's Lake Baikal, which holds 20% of the worlds fresh water, more than all of the North American Great Lakes combined.


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Re: At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on [#permalink]

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AbhiJ wrote:
At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on the numerous challenges facing the company, including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent infringement suit and the declining sales for the company’s powerful microprocessor chip.
A. including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the declining sales for
B. which includes the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and declining sales of
C. included among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as a decline in sales for
D. among them the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the decline in sales of
E. among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as the decline in sales for

Can some one explain what type of modifier is used in the correct option and some other usages of this type modifier.


I just wanted to add some thoughts on this SC question.

1st of all this questions has 3:2 split...if you look closely...at the end you have sales for and sales of...the correct expression is sales of
that leaves us with 2 options, which is B & D. If you examine carefully...in option B the two entities are not parallel hence it is not correct. A noun (the threat of a rival’s multibillion) and participle (declining sales).Participles can be made parallel with (present, past and adjectives).
Now coming to the "Including" Modifier.. any verb(ing) modifier can be used in two context (refer to e-gmat free videos on SC). ,verb(ing) refers/modifies the subject and not the immediate noun preceding it.
e.g. Joe killed the snake, using the stick.
Here the verb(ing) refers to subject Joe who used the stick. So in the sentence posted by you, meaning wise the including refers to the subject that is Investors, which is not the intended meaning.
Hope this clarifies all your questions on "ing" modifiers.
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Re: At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on [#permalink]

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New post 04 Nov 2012, 06:29
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If you have the Manhattan Sentence Correction Strategy guide, the Advanced section (at the end of the book) has the answer to your question. There are 4 exceptions to NOUN Modifiers including the one that is used here

If a phrase is important to a sentence and can not be placed anywhere else in the sentence then the modifier is not required to touch the noun being modified "Challenges" (in this case)

Normally your modifier should touch "challenges" but you cant separate "facing the company" so your modifier is now modifying the noun" challenges facing the company"

Any answer that has "included" and "among" is unnecessarily repetitive

Included already incorporated "among" so you need only one of those 2 words.

Option A and C are out

"Which" refers to the immediately preceding noun
So B is out

You are left with D and E

But i think all you wanted was the clarification on the modifier.
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New post 06 Nov 2012, 14:22
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A. Including <-> Among them = redundancy

B. Includes does not agree in number with Challenges

C. Included <-> Among these = redundancy, these

E. These, Sales for is unidiomatic

These as a pronoun is usually wrong and should be a red flag.
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Re: At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on [#permalink]

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New post 08 Nov 2012, 20:16
I used Manhantan SC Guide 5th, but do not see advanced section of the book.

I see the "pronoun and modifier" section.

the where do the 4 kinds of noun modifier you mention appear? pls, advise
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Re: At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on [#permalink]

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New post 05 May 2013, 11:38
lordw wrote:
At the annual stockholder meeting, investors heard a presentation on the numerous challenges facing the company, including among them the threat from a rival´s multibillion dollar patent infringement suit and the declining sales for the company's powerfull microprocessor chip.

B. which includes the threat of a rival´s multibillion dollar patent infringement suit and declining sales of
C. included among these the threat from a rival´s multibillion dollar patent infringement suit as well as a decline in sales for
D. among them the threat of a rival's multibillion dollar patent infringement suit and the decline in sales of
E. among these the threat from a rival's multibillion dollar patent infringement suit as well as the decline in sales for

Guys my doubt is between options D and E, can someone explain with details? Tks. Lw



ok lets analyse this
At the annual stockholders meeting (dependent clause acting as a modifier for independent clause after comma)

investors heard a presentation (main clause with investors as subject and heard as verb)

on the numerous challenges facing the company (phrase connected with conjunction on the, and it describes more about the presentation)
including among them the threat from a rival's multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the declining sales for
(including acting as a verb-ing modifier modifying subject of the main clause "investors" as it modifies the subject/noun in the previous clause. in this "the threat from a rival's multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit " and "the declining sales for" are two members of the list however "investors" cannot be the subject here but then what is the subject?
may be i understand now that we need "these" to stand as pronoun for presentation, as these 2 parts are items of the presentation. thus E.
but what is the subject in this?
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Re: At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on [#permalink]

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New post 13 Nov 2013, 10:44
At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on the numerous challenges facing the company, including among them the threat from a rival's multibilllon-dollar patent-infringement suit and the declining sales for company's powerful microprocessor chip.

A including among them the threat from a rival's multibilllon-dollar patent-infringement suit and the declining sales for
B which includes the threat of a rival's multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and declining sales of
C Included among these the threat from a rival's multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as a decline in sales for
D among them the threat of a rival's multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the decline in sales of
E among these the threat from a rival's multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as the decline in sales for


Sales for is wrong in this context, hence A,C and E are wrong.
B is wrong because which seems to refer company which is not the intended meaning.
Hence the correct answer is D
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Re: At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jan 2014, 18:18
Here is a good explanation:
"http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/annual-stock-holders-meeting-t7688.html".
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Re: At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2014, 02:12
oss198 wrote:
Marcab wrote:
AbhiJ wrote:
At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on the numerous challenges facing the company, including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent infringement suit and the declining sales for the company’s powerful microprocessor chip.
A. including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the declining sales for [color=#fff200]WE CANT USE PARTICIPLE MODIFIERS WITH COMMA[/color]


Can someone explain this point?
i looked in the Mgmat guide but i didnt find anything explaining it..


Participle modifiers can be used after a comma to modify the preceding clause. No doubts about this. I think the problem here is that the subject of the preceding clause "investors"doesn't make perfect sense with the modifier, because it would mean the investors included the two issues ("threat" and "declining sales") in the list of threats themselves. It is not the implied anywhere in the original sentence. Apart from that issue, the sentence has an obvious problem with "declining sales for the company’s powerful microprocessor chip".

Just my humble opinion , I could be wrong :-)
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Re: At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on [#permalink]

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AbhiJ wrote:
At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on the numerous challenges facing the company, including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent infringement suit and the declining sales for the company’s powerful microprocessor chip.
A. including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the declining sales for
B. which includes the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and declining sales of
C. included among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as a decline in sales for
D. among them the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the decline in sales of
E. among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as the decline in sales for

Can some one explain what type of modifier is used in the correct option and some other usages of this type modifier.


Meaning : At the annual SHM investors heard numerous challenges. Among those challenges were two challenges : threat from a rival's MDPI and decline in sales of company's powerful microprocessor chip.

verbing modifier should modify the preceding clause and should make sense with the subject of the preceding clause. Here including modifies the challenges and doesn't fit well with "investors" subject of the preceding clause.
A. including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the declining sales for
Rejecting the option A for the above reason and also sales of instead of "for".

B. which includes the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and declining sales of
which should replace challenges and includes has SV issue

C. included among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as a decline in sales for
included should modify the closest noun "challenges" that is correct. "included among these" construction doesn't seem correct. sales of should be used instead of "for".

D. among them the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the decline in sales of
This looks the least of the devil.

E. among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as the decline in sales for
"sales for" is the issue.

Doubts:
1) Any issue in "among them" and "among these"?
2) them should refer to the animate pronouns. Isn't it?
3) Any other errors?
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Re: At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on [#permalink]

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kinjiGC wrote:
AbhiJ wrote:
At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on the numerous challenges facing the company, including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent infringement suit and the declining sales for the company’s powerful microprocessor chip.
A. including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the declining sales for
B. which includes the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and declining sales of
C. included among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as a decline in sales for
D. among them the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the decline in sales of
E. among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as the decline in sales for

Can some one explain what type of modifier is used in the correct option and some other usages of this type modifier.


Meaning : At the annual SHM investors heard numerous challenges. Among those challenges were two challenges : threat from a rival's MDPI and decline in sales of company's powerful microprocessor chip.

verbing modifier should modify the preceding clause and should make sense with the subject of the preceding clause. Here including modifies the challenges and doesn't fit well with "investors" subject of the preceding clause.
A. including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the declining sales for
Rejecting the option A for the above reason and also sales of instead of "for".

B. which includes the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and declining sales of
which should replace challenges and includes has SV issue

C. included among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as a decline in sales for
included should modify the closest noun "challenges" that is correct. "included among these" construction doesn't seem correct. sales of should be used instead of "for".

D. among them the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the decline in sales of
This looks the least of the devil.

E. among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as the decline in sales for
"sales for" is the issue.

Doubts:
1) Any issue in "among them" and "among these"?
2) them should refer to the animate pronouns. Isn't it?
3) Any other errors?



Hi kinjiGC,

Thanks for posting your doubt here. :-)

It is true that "comma + verb-ing modifier" modifies the preceding action and must make sense with the doer of the modified action. However, "including" is an exception to this rule. Preceded or not preceded by a comma, "including" ALWAYS modifies a noun entity. In this sentence, "including" modifies "the numerous challenges" because what follows "including" are some of the challenges that the company faced.

Hence, Choice A is not incorrect from "comma + including". It is incorrect, as you have already mentioned, for the use of preposition "for" after "the declining sales" and use of preposition "from" after "threat". The correct preposition in the context of this sentence will be "threat of".

Choice B - Again, there is no problem with the modification of "which" here because "facing the company" is a noun modifier that modifies "the numerous challenges" and cannot be placed anywhere. So "which" can jump over this modifier and correctly modify "challenges". But yes, singular Verb "includes" does not agrre in number with plural Subject "challenges".

Choice C: Again, "included" in this choice is not incorrect for the same reason already explained in Choice B. "these" is demonstrative pronoun and must be followed by a noun. Per the context of the sentence, "these" should be followed by "challenges". But it is not. Hence, use of "these" is incorrect. This choice also repeats both teh incorrect prepositions of Choice A.

Choice D: This choice is correct. Here, "among them...." is a Noun Modifier that correctly modifies "the numerous challenges". Note that "them" can be used to refer to animate as well as inanimate objects.

Choice E: This Choice repeats the "these" error of Choice C and the preposition errors of Choice A.

All your doubts have been addressed in the analysis here. Please study them well, compare it to your analysis, and understand what all you possibly missed in your analysis.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
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Re: At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on [#permalink]

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New post 17 Aug 2014, 23:26
egmat wrote:
kinjiGC wrote:
AbhiJ wrote:
At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on the numerous challenges facing the company, including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent infringement suit and the declining sales for the company’s powerful microprocessor chip.
A. including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the declining sales for
B. which includes the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and declining sales of
C. included among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as a decline in sales for
D. among them the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the decline in sales of
E. among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as the decline in sales for

Can some one explain what type of modifier is used in the correct option and some other usages of this type modifier.


Meaning : At the annual SHM investors heard numerous challenges. Among those challenges were two challenges : threat from a rival's MDPI and decline in sales of company's powerful microprocessor chip.

verbing modifier should modify the preceding clause and should make sense with the subject of the preceding clause. Here including modifies the challenges and doesn't fit well with "investors" subject of the preceding clause.
A. including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the declining sales for
Rejecting the option A for the above reason and also sales of instead of "for".

B. which includes the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and declining sales of
which should replace challenges and includes has SV issue

C. included among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as a decline in sales for
included should modify the closest noun "challenges" that is correct. "included among these" construction doesn't seem correct. sales of should be used instead of "for".

D. among them the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the decline in sales of
This looks the least of the devil.

E. among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as the decline in sales for
"sales for" is the issue.

Doubts:
1) Any issue in "among them" and "among these"?
2) them should refer to the animate pronouns. Isn't it?
3) Any other errors?



Hi kinjiGC,

Thanks for posting your doubt here. :-)

It is true that "comma + verb-ing modifier" modifies the preceding action and must make sense with the doer of the modified action. However, "including" is an exception to this rule. Preceded or not preceded by a comma, "including" ALWAYS modifies a noun entity. In this sentence, "including" modifies "the numerous challenges" because what follows "including" are some of the challenges that the company faced.

Hence, Choice A is not incorrect from "comma + including". It is incorrect, as you have already mentioned, for the use of preposition "for" after "the declining sales" and use of preposition "from" after "threat". The correct preposition in the context of this sentence will be "threat of".

Choice B - Again, there is no problem with the modification of "which" here because "facing the company" is a noun modifier that modifies "the numerous challenges" and cannot be placed anywhere. So "which" can jump over this modifier and correctly modify "challenges". But yes, singular Verb "includes" does not agrre in number with plural Subject "challenges".

Choice C: Again, "included" in this choice is not incorrect for the same reason already explained in Choice B. "these" is demonstrative pronoun and must be followed by a noun. Per the context of the sentence, "these" should be followed by "challenges". But it is not. Hence, use of "these" is incorrect. This choice also repeats both teh incorrect prepositions of Choice A.

Choice D: This choice is correct. Here, "among them...." is a Noun Modifier that correctly modifies "the numerous challenges". Note that "them" can be used to refer to animate as well as inanimate objects.

Choice E: This Choice repeats the "these" error of Choice C and the preposition errors of Choice A.

All your doubts have been addressed in the analysis here. Please study them well, compare it to your analysis, and understand what all you possibly missed in your analysis.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
SJ


Hi
I have a query.
Can verb-ing modifier be used for a past situation.
For example, in the question attached below, option 2 is incorrect. However, in this example discussed above, option 1, as you say, is not incorrect for its verb-ing usage.
egmat Please explain. :)
Attachments

q2.JPG
q2.JPG [ 40.81 KiB | Viewed 14515 times ]


Last edited by tushain on 13 Sep 2014, 20:56, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on [#permalink]

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New post 18 Aug 2014, 12:29
kinjiGC wrote:

I didn't understand your comment "Again, "included" in this choice is not incorrect for the same reason already explained in Choice B". Which reason in option B ?


Hi kinjiGC,

My bad. I guess while writing the response, I confused "included" with "includes" in Option B which is incorrect as it does not agree in number with plural Subject "challenges". I apologize for that.

The Verb-ed Modifier "included" can refer to "challenges", but Choice B is incorrect for the other errors I have mentioned.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
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Re: At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on [#permalink]

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New post 29 Sep 2014, 08:09
At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on the numerous challenges facing the company, including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent infringement suit and the declining sales for the company’s powerful microprocessor chip.

Lets analyse question:

Phrase 1: At the annual stockholders meeting,
Clause 1 : investors heard a presentation on the numerous challenges facing the company,
including among [color=#ed1c24]them
the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent infringement suit
and the declining sales for the company’s powerful microprocessor chip.[/color]

In clause 1 : Them may refer to challenges or investors, Including modifying investors instead of challenges

A.
B. which includes the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and declining sales of - Which refers to company instead of challenges

C. included among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as a decline in sales for - included modifying company instead of challenges. these can not be used standalone without noun.

D. among them the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the decline in sales of - Them clearly refers to challenges. The threat is parallel to Decline

E. among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as the decline in sales for : these can not be used standalone without noun.

Hence D is the correct answer.
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Edited: Just saw the post of E-Gmat: Thanks for great explanation e-Gmat. I did not rejected A and B for the correct reason.
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Re: At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on [#permalink]

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New post 29 Sep 2014, 08:29
egmat wrote:

It is true that "comma + verb-ing modifier" modifies the preceding action and must make sense with the doer of the modified action. However, "including" is an exception to this rule. Preceded or not preceded by a comma, "including" ALWAYS modifies a noun entity. In this sentence, "including" modifies "the numerous challenges" because what follows "including" are some of the challenges that the company faced.

Hence, Choice A is not incorrect from "comma + including". It is incorrect, as you have already mentioned, for the use of preposition "for" after "the declining sales" and use of preposition "from" after "threat". The correct preposition in the context of this sentence will be "threat of".

SJ


Hello Shraddha ,
Can you please elaborate the use of including/included - It always refers to noun but how will be decide that which noun?
In above sentence investors and challenges both are nouns. Does only context of sentence will decide the use or is there any other rule?

Does included also is the exception to the rule that Verb-ed modifier always modify preceding noun.

Thanks
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Re: At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on [#permalink]

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New post 08 Oct 2014, 23:53
him1985 wrote:
egmat wrote:

It is true that "comma + verb-ing modifier" modifies the preceding action and must make sense with the doer of the modified action. However, "including" is an exception to this rule. Preceded or not preceded by a comma, "including" ALWAYS modifies a noun entity. In this sentence, "including" modifies "the numerous challenges" because what follows "including" are some of the challenges that the company faced.

Hence, Choice A is not incorrect from "comma + including". It is incorrect, as you have already mentioned, for the use of preposition "for" after "the declining sales" and use of preposition "from" after "threat". The correct preposition in the context of this sentence will be "threat of".

SJ


Hello Shraddha ,
Can you please elaborate the use of including/included - It always refers to noun but how will be decide that which noun?
In above sentence investors and challenges both are nouns. Does only context of sentence will decide the use or is there any other rule?

Does included also is the exception to the rule that Verb-ed modifier always modify preceding noun.

Thanks


My 2 cents here..
IMO, you are right here, its the context of the sentence which links the modifier and modified entity.
Here idea is to present list of challenges in the modifier[the threat of a rival’s multi billion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the decline in sales of...].
Now which one makes sense: challenges included/ investors included ?

Regarding, "included also is the exception to the rule that Verb-ed modifier always modify preceding noun."
BTW, if i remember it correctly: -ed modifier are noun modifier and can modify a noun faraway.Its just that they cant jump over verb. I remember reading that in an eGmat article. Below link is for ur quick reference.
http://www.beatthegmat.com/modifiers-ve ... 88893.html
Hope this answers ur query :)
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souvik101990 wrote:
At the annual stockholders meeting, investors heard a presentation on the numerous challenges facing the company, including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the declining sales for the company’s powerful microprocessor chip.

A. including among them the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the declining sales for

B. which includes the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and declining sales of

C. included among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as a decline in sales for

D. among them the threat of a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit and the decline in sales of

E. among these the threat from a rival’s multibillion-dollar patent-infringement suit as well as the decline in sales for


A, C, E - declining sales for.. is wrong. Should be declining sales of .
B - 'which' refers to company which is wrong. Challenges include 'the threat...' and 'the declining sales..'
Hence 'D'.

Thanks!
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