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# Between the eighth and eleventh centuries a.d., the

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Updated on: 12 Oct 2017, 13:24
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Quote:
Part of New RC Series- Please check this link for more questions

Between the eighth and eleventh centuries A. D., the Byzantine Empire staged an almost unparalleled economic and cultural revival, a recovery that is all the more striking because it followed a long period of severe internal decline. By the early eighth century, the empire had lost roughly two-thirds of the territory it had possessed in the year 600, and its remaining area was being raided by Arabs and Bulgarians, who at times threatened to take Constantinople and extinguish the empire altogether. The wealth of the state and its subjects was greatly diminished, and artistic and literary production had virtually ceased. By the early eleventh century, however, the empire had regained almost half of its lost possessions, its new frontiers were secure, and its influence extended far beyond its borders. The economy had recovered, the treasury was full, and art and scholarship had advanced.

To consider the Byzantine military, cultural, and economic advances as differentiated aspects of a single phenomenon is reasonable. After all, these three forms of progress have gone together in a number of states and civilizations. Rome under Augustus and fifth-century Athens provide the most obvious examples in antiquity. Moreover, an examination of the apparent sequential connections among military, economic, and cultural forms of progress might help explain the dynamics of historical change.
The common explanation of these apparent connections in the case of Byzantium would run like this: when the empire had turned back enemy raids on its own territory and had begun to raid and conquer enemy territory, Byzantine resources naturally expanded and more money became available to patronize art and literature. Therefore, Byzantine military achievements led to economic advances, which in turn led to cultural revival.

No doubt this hypothetical pattern did apply at times during the course of the recovery. Yet it is not clear that military advances invariably came first, economic advances second, and intellectual advances third. In the 860’s the Byzantine Empire began to recover from Arab incursions so that by 872 the military balance with the Abbasid Caliphate had been permanently altered in the empire’s favor. The beginning of the empire’s economic revival, however, can be placed between 810 and 830. Finally, the Byzantine revival of learning appears to have begun even earlier. A number of notable scholars and writers appeared by 788 and, by the last decade of the eighth century, a cultural revival was in full bloom, a revival that lasted until the fall of Constantinople in 1453. Thus the commonly expected order of military revival followed by economic and then by cultural recovery was reversed in Byzantium. In fact, the revival of Byzantine learning may itself have influenced the subsequent economic and military expansion
1. which of the following best states the central idea of the passage?

(a) the byzantine empire was a unique case in which the usual order of military and economic revival preceding cultural revival was reversed.

(b) the economic, cultural, and military revival in the byzantine empire between the eighth and eleventh centuries was similar in its order to the sequence of revivals in augustan rome and fifth-century athens.

(c) after 810 byzantine economic recovery spurred a military and, later, cultural expansion that lasted until 1453.

(d) the eighth-century revival of byzantine learning is an inexplicable phenomenon, and its economic and military precursors have yet to be discovered.

(e) the revival of the byzantine empire between the eighth and eleventh centuries shows cultural rebirth preceding economic and military revival, the reverse of the commonly accepted order of progress.

2. the primary purpose of the second paragraph is which of the following?

(a) to establish the uniqueness of the byzantine revival

(b) to show that augustan rome and fifth-century athens are examples of cultural, economic, and military expansion against which all subsequent cases must be measured

(c) to suggest that cultural, economic. and military advances have tended to be closely interrelated in different societies.

(d) to argue that, while the revivals of augustan rome and fifth-century athens were similar, they are unrelated to other historical examples

(e) to indicate that, wherever possible, historians should seek to make comparisons with the earliest chronological examples of revival

3. it can be inferred from the passage that by the eleventh century the byzantine military forces

(a) had reached their peak and begun to decline
(b) had eliminated the bulgarian army
(c) were comparable in size to the army of rome under augustus
(d) were strong enough to withstand the abbasid caliphate's military forces
(e) had achieved control of byzantine governmental structures

4. it can be inferred from the passage that the byzantine empire sustained significant territorial losses

(a) in 600
(b) during the seventh century
(c) a century after the cultural achievements of the byzantine empire had been lost
(d) soon after the revival of byzantine learning
(e) in the century after 873

5. in the third paragraph, the author most probably provides an explanation of the apparent connections among economic, military, and cultural development in order to

(a) suggest that the process of revival in byzantium accords with this model
(b) set up an order of events that is then shown to be not generally applicable to the case of byzantium
(c) cast aspersions on traditional historical scholarship about byzantium
(d) suggest that byzantium represents a case for which no historical precedent exists
(e) argue that military conquest is the paramount element in the growth of empires

6. which of the following does the author mention as crucial evidence concerning the manner in which the byzantine revival began?

(a) the byzantine military revival of the 860's led to economic and cultural advances.
(b) the byzantine cultural revival lasted until 1453.
(c) the byzantine economic recovery began in the 900's.
(d) the revival of byzantine learning began toward the end of the eighth century.
(e) by the early eleventh century the byzantine empire had regained much of its lost territory.

7. according to the author, "the common explanation" (line 28) of connections between economic, military, and cultural development is

(a) revolutionary and too new to have been applied to the history of the byzantine empire

(b) reasonable, but an antiquated theory of the nature of progress

(c) not applicable to the byzantine revival as a whole, but does perhaps accurately describe limited periods during the revival

(d) equally applicable to the byzantine case as a whole and to the history of military, economic, and cultural advances in ancient greece and rome

(e) essentially not helpful, because military, economic, and cultural advances are part of a single phenomenon

Originally posted by surat on 17 Feb 2004, 03:53.
Last edited by Gnpth on 12 Oct 2017, 13:24, edited 3 times in total.
Reformatted question
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Re: Between the eighth and eleventh centuries a.d., the  [#permalink]

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17 Feb 2004, 07:34
1
rakesh1239 wrote:
1.A
2.C
3.E
4.D
5.B
6.D
7.C

1. Where is there any evidence that such a reversal was in fact "unique"

3. Where in the passage do they mention government structures? However, given that that byz armies were now expanding into new territories as opposed to defending the gates, one might infer what? What does "an altered military balance in one's favor" imply?

4. Seems to me the revival of learning would signify the start of the reversal, not the devastation. Is this answer consistent with you answer to number 6? what does the passage at lines 5-10 imply?
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Re: Between the eighth and eleventh centuries a.d., the  [#permalink]

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22 Mar 2009, 04:43
My answers are:
1. E (Apt answer - it is not A since there is nothing mentioned about Byzantine being the only empire to have reversed the order for recovery.)
2. C
3. D (Nothing is mentioned about B and C. A and E are irrelevant which leaves D, for which the last paragraph mentions something.)
4. B
5. B (A is not correct. C and E are irrelevant. D is not correct)
6. D (A, B and C are all wrong. E is irrelevant)
7. C
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22 Mar 2009, 06:10
1
1
1. Which of the following best states the central idea of the passage?
(A) The Byzantine Empire was a unique case in which the usual order of military and economic revival preceding cultural revival was reversed.---never mentioned unique
(B) The economic, cultural, and military revival in the Byzantine Empire between the eighth and eleventh centuries was similar in its order to the sequence of revivals in Augustan Rome and fifth century Athens.--No it was reverse.
(C) After 810 Byzantine economic recovery spurred a military and, later, cultural expansion that lasted until 1453.--No
(D) The eighth-century revival of Byzantine learning is an inexplicable phenomenon, and its economic and military precursors have yet to be discovered.-- nothing mentioned as such in passage
(E) The revival of the Byzantine Empire between the eighth and eleventh centuries shows cultural rebirth preceding economic and military revival, the reverse of the commonly accepted order of progress.--right

3. It can be inferred from the passage that by the eleventh century the Byzantine military forces
(A) had reached their peak and begun to decline---not mentioned
(B) had eliminated the Bulgarian army--not mentioned
(C) were comparable in size to the army of Rome under Augustus---not mentioned
(D) were strong enough to withstand the Abbasid Caliphate’s military forces---mentioned
(E) had achieved control of Byzantine governmental structures--not mentioned

5. In the third paragraph, the author most probably provides an explanation of the apparent connections among economic, military, and cultural development in order to
(A) suggest that the process of revival in Byzantium accords with this model--this is true but B adds more info to it and hence A is wrong
(B) set up an order of events that is then shown to be not generally applicable to the case of Byzantium---this is true
(C) cast aspersions on traditional historical scholarship about Byzantium----para is not intended to say this
(D) suggest that Byzantium represents a case for which no historical precedent exists---too extreme
(E) argue that military conquest is the paramount element in the growth of empires---not mentioned
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Re: Between the eighth and eleventh centuries a.d., the  [#permalink]

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16 Oct 2013, 08:53
surat wrote:
Between the eighth and eleventh centuries A. D., the Byzantine Empire staged an almost unparalleled economic and cultural revival, a recovery that is all the more striking because it followed a long period of severe internal decline. By the early eighth century, the empire had lost roughly two-thirds of the territory it had possessed in the year 600, and its remaining area was being raided by Arabs and Bulgarians, who at times threatened to take Constantinople and extinguish the empire altogether. The wealth of the state and its subjects was greatly diminished, and artistic and literary production had virtually ceased. By the early eleventh century, however, the empire had regained almost half of its lost possessions, its new frontiers were secure, and its influence extended far beyond its borders. The economy had recovered, the treasury was full, and art and scholarship had advanced.

To consider the Byzantine military, cultural, and economic advances as differentiated aspects of a single phenomenon is reasonable. After all, these three forms of progress have gone together in a number of states and civilizations. Rome under Augustus and fifth-century Athens provide the most obvious examples in antiquity. Moreover, an examination of the apparent sequential connections among military, economic, and cultural forms of progress might help explain the dynamics of historical change.
The common explanation of these apparent connections in the case of Byzantium would run like this: when the empire had turned back enemy raids on its own territory and had begun to raid and conquer enemy territory, Byzantine resources naturally expanded and more money became available to patronize art and literature. Therefore, Byzantine military achievements led to economic advances, which in turn led to cultural revival.

No doubt this hypothetical pattern did apply at times during the course of the recovery. Yet it is not clear that military advances invariably came first, economic advances second, and intellectual advances third. In the 860’s the Byzantine Empire began to recover from Arab incursions so that by 872 the military balance with the Abbasid Caliphate had been permanently altered in the empire’s favor. The beginning of the empire’s economic revival, however, can be placed between 810 and 830. Finally, the Byzantine revival of learning appears to have begun even earlier. A number of notable scholars and writers appeared by 788 and, by the last decade of the eighth century, a cultural revival was in full bloom, a revival that lasted until the fall of Constantinople in 1453. Thus the commonly expected order of military revival followed by economic and then by cultural recovery was reversed in Byzantium. In fact, the revival of Byzantine learning may itself have influenced the subsequent economic and military expansion
1. which of the following best states the central idea of the passage?
(a) the byzantine empire was a unique case in which the usual order of military and economic revival preceding cultural revival was reversed.
(b) the economic, cultural, and military revival in the byzantine empire between the eighth and eleventh centuries was similar in its order to the sequence of revivals in augustan rome and fifth-century athens.
(c) after 810 byzantine economic recovery spurred a military and, later, cultural expansion that lasted until 1453.
(d) the eighth-century revival of byzantine learning is an inexplicable phenomenon, and its economic and military precursors have yet to be discovered.
(e) the revival of the byzantine empire between the eighth and eleventh centuries shows cultural rebirth preceding economic and military revival, the reverse of the commonly accepted order of progress.

2. the primary purpose of the second paragraph is which of the following?
(a) to establish the uniqueness of the byzantine revival
(b) to show that augustan rome and fifth-century athens are examples of cultural, economic, and military expansion against which all subsequent cases must be measured
(c) to suggest that cultural, economic. and military advances have tended to be closely interrelated in different societies.
(d) to argue that, while the revivals of augustan rome and fifth-century athens were similar, they are unrelated to other historical examples
(e) to indicate that, wherever possible, historians should seek to make comparisons with the earliest chronological examples of revival

3. it can be inferred from the passage that by the eleventh century the byzantine military forces
(a) had reached their peak and begun to decline
(b) had eliminated the bulgarian army
(c) were comparable in size to the army of rome under augustus
(d) were strong enough to withstand the abbasid caliphate's military forces
(e) had achieved control of byzantine governmental structures

4. it can be inferred from the passage that the byzantine empire sustained significant territorial losses
(a) in 600
(b) during the seventh century
(c) a century after the cultural achievements of the byzantine empire had been lost
(d) soon after the revival of byzantine learning
(e) in the century after 873

5. in the third paragraph, the author most probably provides an explanation of the apparent connections among economic, military, and cultural development in order to
(a) suggest that the process of revival in byzantium accords with this model
(b) set up an order of events that is then shown to be not generally applicable to the case of byzantium
(c) cast aspersions on traditional historical scholarship about byzantium
(d) suggest that byzantium represents a case for which no historical precedent exists
(e) argue that military conquest is the paramount element in the growth of empires

6. which of the following does the author mention as crucial evidence concerning the manner in which the byzantine revival began?
(a) the byzantine military revival of the 860's led to economic and cultural advances.
(b) the byzantine cultural revival lasted until 1453.
(c) the byzantine economic recovery began in the 900's.
(d) the revival of byzantine learning began toward the end of the eighth century.
(e) by the early eleventh century the byzantine empire had regained much of its lost territory.

7. according to the author, "the common explanation" (line 28) of connections between economic, military, and cultural development is
(a) revolutionary and too new to have been applied to the history of the byzantine empire
(b) reasonable, but an antiquated theory of the nature of progress
(c) not applicable to the byzantine revival as a whole, but does perhaps accurately describe limited periods during the revival
(d) equally applicable to the byzantine case as a whole and to the history of military, economic, and cultural advances in ancient greece and rome
(e) essentially not helpful, because military, economic, and cultural advances are part of a single phenomenon

Hey all,
In regards to answer choices 1E and 7C
Aren't they too strong? I mean the passage suggests that the military economic, culturar order might have not been applied in the case of the BE, but there's nothing concrete about that.
What do you think about it?
Let me know,
Cheers
J
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Re: Between the eighth and eleventh centuries a.d., the  [#permalink]

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04 Dec 2013, 08:46
AkamaiBrah wrote:
rakesh1239 wrote:
1.A
2.C
3.E
4.D
5.B
6.D
7.C

1. Where is there any evidence that such a reversal was in fact "unique"

3. Where in the passage do they mention government structures? However, given that that byz armies were now expanding into new territories as opposed to defending the gates, one might infer what? What does "an altered military balance in one's favor" imply?

4. Seems to me the revival of learning would signify the start of the reversal, not the devastation. Is this answer consistent with you answer to number 6? what does the passage at lines 5-10 imply?
How it is C for 7? Where has it been specified that "connections between economic, military, and cultural development accurately describe limited periods during the revival for byzantines"?
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Re: Between the eighth and eleventh centuries a.d., the  [#permalink]

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03 Jan 2014, 08:39
joshnsit wrote:
AkamaiBrah wrote:
rakesh1239 wrote:
1.A
2.C
3.E
4.D
5.B
6.D
7.C

1. Where is there any evidence that such a reversal was in fact "unique"

3. Where in the passage do they mention government structures? However, given that that byz armies were now expanding into new territories as opposed to defending the gates, one might infer what? What does "an altered military balance in one's favor" imply?

4. Seems to me the revival of learning would signify the start of the reversal, not the devastation. Is this answer consistent with you answer to number 6? what does the passage at lines 5-10 imply?
How it is C for 7? Where has it been specified that "connections between economic, military, and cultural development accurately describe limited periods during the revival for byzantines"?

The reason the answer to 7 is C is described in the beginning of the next paragraph, "No doubt this hypothetical pattern did apply at times during the course of the recovery. Yet it is not clear that military advances invariably came first, economic advances second, and intellectual advances third." It happened at times during the revival, but still we dont know the order of the revival. Hope that helps.
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Re: Between the eighth and eleventh centuries a.d., the  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2014, 08:24
Hi
Q4 and Q6?
On Q4, I don't get why it's B and not A? Where is this written?
Q6 - I don't even know where to start on this one... Can someone give some guidance?
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Re: Between the eighth and eleventh centuries a.d., the  [#permalink]

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07 Mar 2015, 05:15
ronr34 wrote:
Hi
Q4 and Q6?
On Q4, I don't get why it's B and not A? Where is this written?

The relevant sentence is: By the early eighth century, the empire had lost roughly two-thirds of the territory it had possessed in the year 600, and its remaining area was being raided by Arabs and Bulgarians, who at times threatened to take Constantinople and extinguish the empire altogether.

The key word in the question is territorial or another form, which in this case is territory. In basic terms, the sentence explains that the empire had accumulated a lot of land up to the year 600 and then lost a a significant part of it during period between 600 and early 700's (being the early 8th century). This describes choice B exactly. It's easy to choose A without a close reading (and don't forget some SC with the opening modifier!) of the relevant part of the passage.

C, D and E are clearly wrong. Well, at least to me they are.

Hope that helps
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Re: Between the eighth and eleventh centuries a.d., the  [#permalink]

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04 Dec 2016, 15:18
Time: 15mins:44sec; 2wrong(Q3 & Q4); Easy read;Stupid Silly mistakes!!!
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Re: Between the eighth and eleventh centuries a.d., the  [#permalink]

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20 Jan 2017, 05:03
Hi All,

Is there anyone using the amazing Rhyme's strategy for RC available at this link ? how-to-destroy-reading-comprehension-passages-by-rhyme-30247.html

I was wondering how can this strategy be used to this passage since there are too many specifics (particularly in the third paragraph) ?

Could someone using the Rhyme's strategy be so kind to share his notes on the passage ?

Many thanks,
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Re: Between the eighth and eleventh centuries a.d., the  [#permalink]

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01 Jul 2017, 00:19
Hi!
Why is the answer for 7 "not applicable to the byzantine revival as a whole, but does perhaps accurately describe limited periods during the revival" - only partly applicable. Passage after all concludes with admitting that these events happened in reverse! Also, any detail on Q1 also - I picked A not C
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Re: Between the eighth and eleventh centuries a.d., the  [#permalink]

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03 Jul 2017, 05:59
can anybody please explain why B is correct and C is wrong in the below question. Both choices are very close the author's assertion in passage -

5. in the third paragraph, the author most probably provides an explanation of the apparent connections among economic, military, and cultural development in order to
(a) suggest that the process of revival in byzantium accords with this model
(b) set up an order of events that is then shown to be not generally applicable to the case of byzantium
(c) cast aspersions on traditional historical scholarship about byzantium
(d) suggest that byzantium represents a case for which no historical precedent exists
(e) argue that military conquest is the paramount element in the growth of empires
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Re: Between the eighth and eleventh centuries a.d., the  [#permalink]

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05 Jul 2017, 03:17
arunavamunshi1988 wrote:
can anybody please explain why B is correct and C is wrong in the below question. Both choices are very close the author's assertion in passage -

5. in the third paragraph, the author most probably provides an explanation of the apparent connections among economic, military, and cultural development in order to
(a) suggest that the process of revival in byzantium accords with this model
(b) set up an order of events that is then shown to be not generally applicable to the case of byzantium
(c) cast aspersions on traditional historical scholarship about byzantium
(d) suggest that byzantium represents a case for which no historical precedent exists
(e) argue that military conquest is the paramount element in the growth of empires

This one was tricky.. Although we have to choose the best answer
C says that the third paragraph cast aspersions on on traditional historical scholarship about byzantiym
Well the author has mentioned the traditional/common order citing Rome and Athens and inferred through a series of events that the order of byazntiym would be the same as the traditional common order. Nowhere it is asserted that the order is basis historical knowledge about the order of byazntiym

B here is a better choice (although you might get confused that setting up of order of events happened in 2nd Para) . Actually the order is repeated in the last few lines and is denied basis the presentation of events which were in the reverse order.

Hope it is not confusing
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06 Jul 2017, 04:40
I seek more explanation on 7C, as the the second half is difficult to correlate "but does perhaps accurately describe limited periods during the revival". Please help..
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Re: Between the eighth and eleventh centuries a.d., the  [#permalink]

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07 Jul 2017, 05:44
4
Between the eighth and eleventh centuries A. D., the Byzantine Empire staged an almost unparalleled economic and cultural revival, a recovery that is all the more striking because it followed a long period of severe internal decline. By the early eighth century, the empire had lost roughly two-thirds of the territory it had possessed in the year 600, and its remaining area was being raided by Arabs and Bulgarians, who at times threatened to take Constantinople and extinguish the empire altogether. The wealth of the state and its subjects was greatly diminished, and artistic and literary production had virtually ceased. By the early eleventh century, however, the empire had regained almost half of its lost possessions, its new frontiers were secure, and its influence extended far beyond its borders. The economy had recovered, the treasury was full, and art and scholarship had advanced.

To consider the Byzantine military, cultural, and economic advances as differentiated aspects of a single phenomenon is reasonable. After all, these three forms of progress have gone together in a number of states and civilizations. Rome under Augustus and fifth-century Athens provide the most obvious examples in antiquity. Moreover, an examination of the apparent sequential connections among military, economic, and cultural forms of progress might help explain the dynamics of historical change.

The common explanation of these apparent connections in the case of Byzantium would run like this: when the empire had turned back enemy raids on its own territory and had begun to raid and conquer enemy territory, Byzantine resources naturally expanded and more money became available to patronize art and literature. Therefore, Byzantine military achievements led to economic advances, which in turn led to cultural revival.

No doubt this hypothetical pattern did apply at times during the course of the recovery. Yet it is not clear that military advances invariably came first, economic advances second, and intellectual advances third. In the 860’s the Byzantine Empire began to recover from Arab incursions so that by 872 the military balance with the Abbasid Caliphate had been permanently altered in the empire’s favor. The beginning of the empire’s economic revival, however, can be placed between 810 and 830. Finally, the Byzantine revival of learning appears to have begun even earlier. A number of notable scholars and writers appeared by 788 and, by the last decade of the eighth century, a cultural revival was in full bloom, a revival that lasted until the fall of Constantinople in 1453. Thus the commonly expected order of military revival followed by economic and then by cultural recovery was reversed in Byzantium. In fact, the revival of Byzantine learning may itself have influenced the subsequent economic and military expansion

1. which of the following best states the central idea of the passage?
(a) the byzantine empire was a unique case in which the usual order of military and economic revival preceding cultural revival was reversed. -This the conclusion of the passage and not the central idea.
(b) the economic, cultural, and military revival in the byzantine empire between the eighth and eleventh centuries was similar in its order to the sequence of revivals in augustan rome and fifth-century athens. -This statement is also true, but is definitely not the central idea.
(c) after 810 byzantine economic recovery spurred a military and, later, cultural expansion that lasted until 1453. -This is the opposite of what the author states. Definitely not the central idea as well.
(d) the eighth-century revival of byzantine learning is an inexplicable phenomenon, and its economic and military precursors have yet to be discovered. -First part of the statement is true - Yes the revival was surprising - but the second part can't be assumed from the passage as no such information is given by the author.
(e) the revival of the byzantine empire between the eighth and eleventh centuries shows cultural rebirth preceding economic and military revival, the reverse of the commonly accepted order of progress. -CORRECT. The passage is all about the revival of the empire and the chronology of social, economic and military activities.

2. the primary purpose of the second paragraph is which of the following?
It talks about the 3 activities and how their order is important in an economy
(a) to establish the uniqueness of the byzantine revival -Wrong as per my above statement
(b) to show that augustan rome and fifth-century athens are examples of cultural, economic, and military expansion against which all subsequent cases must be measured -It gives an illustration, but the main point of second para is as described above.
(c) to suggest that cultural, economic. and military advances have tended to be closely interrelated in different societies. -CORRECT. As per our expectation
(d) to argue that, while the revivals of augustan rome and fifth-century athens were similar, they are unrelated to other historical examples -The author doesn't argue on anything
(e) to indicate that, wherever possible, historians should seek to make comparisons with the earliest chronological examples of revival -No; wrong as per my above statement

3. it can be inferred from the passage that by the eleventh century the byzantine military forces
(a) had reached their peak and begun to decline -We cant say whether they started to decline or not.
(b) had eliminated the bulgarian army - We can't say which army they defeated. All we know from the passage is that the byzantine military regained some of its earlier captured land
(c) were comparable in size to the army of rome under augustus -We can't say this either
(d) were strong enough to withstand the abbasid caliphate's military forces -CORRECT."In the 860’s the Byzantine Empire began to recover from Arab incursions so that by 872 the military balance with the Abbasid Caliphate had been permanently altered in the empire’s favor" - We can see from this statement, that byzantine's military had long become strong to withstand abbasid caliphate's military forces
(e) had achieved control of byzantine governmental structures -We can't say this

4. it can be inferred from the passage that the byzantine empire sustained significant territorial losses
"By the early eighth century, the empire had lost roughly two-thirds of the territory it had possessed in the year 600"-From this statement we know that they had good amount of land under there control in 600, but by early eighth century they lost most of their land. Thus, all the bad things happened in the seventh century
(a) in 600 -wrong
(b) during the seventh century - CORRECT
(c) a century after the cultural achievements of the byzantine empire had been lost -Wrong
(d) soon after the revival of byzantine learning -Wrong
(e) in the century after 873 -Are you kidding me? Completely wrong

5. in the third paragraph, the author most probably provides an explanation of the apparent connections among economic, military, and cultural development in order to
In the second para the authors introduces the three "things": culture, economic development and military. In the third para the authors presents the general chronology and in the very next para refutes the chronology.
(a) suggest that the process of revival in byzantium accords with this model -Opposite of the reality
(b) set up an order of events that is then shown to be not generally applicable to the case of byzantium -CORRECT
(c) cast aspersions on traditional historical scholarship about byzantium -Wrong
(d) suggest that byzantium represents a case for which no historical precedent exists -Rubbish
(e) argue that military conquest is the paramount element in the growth of empires -In general, true; but the same is not true for byzantine empire

6. which of the following does the author mention as crucial evidence concerning the manner in which the byzantine revival began?
(a) the byzantine military revival of the 860's led to economic and cultural advances. -The author says that the social change began way back in 780s. This is the opposite of what the author thinks.
(b) the byzantine cultural revival lasted until 1453. -We are worried about the beginning and not the end
(c) the byzantine economic recovery began in the 900's. -It's too late. The recovery began in the eighth century itself, definitely not in the ninth century
(d) the revival of byzantine learning began toward the end of the eighth century. -CORRECT. The cultural, economic and military development together initiated the empire's learning in the eighth century.
(e) by the early eleventh century the byzantine empire had regained much of its lost territory. -Ok, but it doesn't tell us how the recovery began

7. according to the author, "the common explanation" (line 28) of connections between economic, military, and cultural development is
(a) revolutionary and too new to have been applied to the history of the byzantine empire -Wrong as its a general rule that applies to most of the empires, but byzantine was an exception. This wasn't a new venture.
(b) reasonable, but an antiquated theory of the nature of progress -It wasn't an outdated theory
(c) not applicable to the byzantine revival as a whole, but does perhaps accurately describe limited periods during the revival -CORRECT. It wasn't applicable to the byzantine's revival since the opposite of the explanation was applicable to the byzantine's empire. Even though the chronology was opposite, each individual element (i.e. culture, economic development and military) was important towards the learning of the byzantine empire's recovery.
(d) equally applicable to the byzantine case as a whole and to the history of military, economic, and cultural advances in ancient greece and rome -It wasn't applicable to the byzantine empire. In fact it was reverse chronology that applied to byzantine empire.
(e) essentially not helpful, because military, economic, and cultural advances are part of a single phenomenon -The connections among the three "things" are helpful, however only the chronology is different from the general.

Hope this helps !!

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Kudos if this helps in any way !!
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Re: Between the eighth and eleventh centuries a.d., the  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 04 Oct 2017, 17:22
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Between the eighth and eleventh centuries A.D., the Byzantine Empire staged an almost unparalleled economic and cultural revival, a recovery that is all the more striking because it followed a long period of severe internal decline. By the early eighth century, the empire had lost roughly two-thirds of the territory it had possessed in the year 600, and its remaining area was being raided by Arabs and Bulgarians, who at times threatened to take Constantinople and extinguish the empire altogether. The wealth of the state and its subjects was greatly diminished, and artistic and literary production had virtually ceased. By the early eleventh century, however, the empire had regained almost half of its lost possessions, its new frontiers were secure, and its influence extended far beyond its borders. The economy had recovered, the treasury was full, and art and scholarship had advanced.
To consider the Byzantine military, cultural, and economic advances as differentiated aspects of a single phenomenon is reasonable. After all, these three forms of progress have gone together in a number of states and civilizations. Rome under Augustus and fifth-century Athens provide the most obvious examples in antiquity. Moreover, an examination of the apparent sequential connections among military, economic, and cultural forms of progress might help explain the dynamics of historical change.
The common explanation of these apparent connections in the case of Byzantium would run like this: when the empire had turned back enemy raids on its own territory and had begun to raid and conquer enemy territory, Byzantine resources naturally expanded and more money became available to patronize art and literature. Therefore, Byzantine military achievements led to economic advances, which in turn led to cultural revival.
No doubt this hypothetical pattern did apply at times during the course of the recovery. Yet it is not clear that military advances invariably came first. Economic advances second, and intellectual advances third. In the 860’s the Byzantine Empire began to recover from Arab incursions so that by 872 the military balance with the Abbasid Caliphate had been permanently altered in the empire’s favor. The beginning of the empire’s economic revival, however, can be placed between 810 and 830. Finally, the Byzantine revival of learning appears to have begun even earlier. A number of notable scholars and writers appeared by 788 and, by the last decade of the eighth century, a cultural revival was in full bloom, a revival that lasted until the fall of Constantinople in 1453.Thus the commonly expected order of military revival followed by economic and then by cultural recovery was reversed in Byzantium. In fact, the revival of Byzantine learning may itself have influenced the subsequent economic and military expansion.

1. Which of the following best states the central idea of the passage?
(A) The Byzantine Empire was a unique case in which the usual order of military and economic revival preceding cultural revival was reversed.
(B) The economic, cultural, and military revival in the Byzantine Empire between the eighth and eleventh centuries was similar in its order to the sequence of revivals in Augustan Rome and fifth century Athens.
(C) After 810 Byzantine economic recovery spurred a military and, later, cultural expansion that lasted until 1453.
(D) The eighth-century revival of Byzantine learning is an inexplicable phenomenon, and its economic and military precursors have yet to be discovered.
(E) The revival of the Byzantine Empire between the eighth and eleventh centuries shows cultural rebirth preceding economic and military revival, the reverse of the commonly accepted order of progress.

2. The primary purpose of the second paragraph is which of the following?
(A) To establish the uniqueness of the Byzantine revival
(B) To show that Augustan Rome and fifth-century Athens are examples of cultural, economic, and military expansion against which all subsequent cases must be measured
(C) To suggest that cultural, economic. and military advances have tended to be closely interrelated in different societies.
(D) To argue that, while the revivals of Augustan Rome and fifth-century Athens were similar, they are unrelated to other historical examples
(E) To indicate that, wherever possible, historians should seek to make comparisons with the earliest chronological examples of revival

3. It can be inferred from the passage that by the eleventh century the Byzantine military forces
(A) had reached their peak and begun to decline
(B) had eliminated the Bulgarian army
(C) were comparable in size to the army of Rome under Augustus
(D) were strong enough to withstand the Abbasid Caliphate’s military forces
(E) had achieved control of Byzantine governmental structures

4. It can be inferred from the passage that the Byzantine Empire sustained significant territorial losses
(A) in 600
(B) during the seventh century
(C) a century after the cultural achievements of the Byzantine Empire had been lost
(D) soon after the revival of Byzantine learning
(E) in the century after 873

5. In the third paragraph, the author most probably provides an explanation of the apparent connections among economic, military, and cultural development in order to
(A) suggest that the process of revival in Byzantium accords with this model
(B) set up an order of events that is then shown to be not generally applicable to the case of Byzantium
(C) cast aspersions on traditional historical scholarship about Byzantium
(D) suggest that Byzantium represents a case for which no historical precedent exists
(E) argue that military conquest is the paramount element in the growth of empires

6. Which of the following does the author mention as crucial evidence concerning the manner in which the Byzantine revival began?
(A) The Byzantine military revival of the 860’s led to economic and cultural advances.
(B) The Byzantine cultural revival lasted until 1453.
(C) The Byzantine economic recovery began in the 900’s.
(D) The revival of Byzantine learning began toward the end of the eighth century.
(E) By the early eleventh century the Byzantine Empire had regained much of its lost territory.

7. According to the author, “The common explanation” (line 28) of connections between economic, military, and cultural development is
(A) revolutionary and too new to have been applied to the history of the Byzantine Empire
(B) reasonable, but an antiquated theory of the nature of progress
(C) not applicable to the Byzantine revival as a whole, but does perhaps accurately describe limited periods during the revival
(D) equally applicable to the Byzantine case as a whole and to the history of military, economic, and cultural advances in ancient Greece and Rome
(E) essentially not helpful, because military, economic, and cultural advances are part of a single phenomenon

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Originally posted by Gnpth on 04 Oct 2017, 10:18.
Last edited by broall on 04 Oct 2017, 17:22, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Between the eighth and eleventh centuries a.d., the  [#permalink]

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07 Oct 2017, 19:54
Got this whole correct after a long time
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11 Aug 2018, 04:46
1. which of the following best states the central idea of the passage?
(a) the byzantine empire was a unique case in which the usual order of military and economic revival preceding cultural revival was reversed. 'unique' is not justified
(b) the economic, cultural, and military revival in the byzantine empire between the eighth and eleventh centuries was similar in its order to the sequence of revivals in augustan rome and fifth-century Athens. the order is not discussed in that part of the text - economic, cultural, and military are factors that can explain the revival as they did explain the revivals in Augustan Rome and fifth-century Athens
(c) after 810 byzantine economic recovery spurred a military and, later, cultural expansion that lasted until 1453. that's the common notion that is not applicable to the case of Byzantine revival
(d) the eighth-century revival of byzantine learning is an inexplicable phenomenon, and its economic and military precursors have yet to be discovered. actually the economy and military were themselves precursors to the revival of Byzantine empire
(e) the revival of the Byzantine empire between the eighth and eleventh centuries shows cultural rebirth preceding economic and military revival, the reverse of the commonly accepted order of progress. correct

2. the primary purpose of the second paragraph is which of the following? relevant text: "To consider the Byzantine military, cultural, and economic advances as differentiated aspects of a single phenomenon is reasonable."
(a) to establish the uniqueness of the byzantine revival if anything, this part talks about the common order
(b) to show that Augustan Rome and fifth-century Athens are examples of cultural, economic, and military expansion against which all subsequent cases must be measured those two examples are mentioned to give a reason to address the three factors because they helped to explain the revivals of the two examples
(c) to suggest that cultural, economic. and military advances have tended to be closely interrelated in different societies. correct, although there's also a description given about how the aspects interrelated in Byzantine empire
(d) to argue that, while the revivals of Augustan Rome and fifth-century Athens were similar, they are unrelated to other historical examples the opposite is suggested
(e) to indicate that, wherever possible, historians should seek to make comparisons with the earliest chronological examples of revival this could be more relevant to the third passage

3. it can be inferred from the passage that by the eleventh century the Byzantine military forces
(a) had reached their peak and begun to decline "Between the eighth and eleventh centuries A. D., the Byzantine Empire staged an almost unparalleled economic and cultural revival, <...> it followed a long period of severe internal decline." - fell for the trap: no mention of military
(b) had eliminated the Bulgarian army regained the territory - yes - but there's indication of elimination
(c) were comparable in size to the army of Rome under Augustus not given
(d) were strong enough to withstand the abbasid caliphate's military forces "<...> its remaining area was being raided by Arabs and Bulgarians <...>. By the early eleventh century, however, the empire had regained almost half of its lost possessions, its new frontiers were secure, and its influence extended far beyond its borders." - this seems true
(e) had achieved control of byzantine governmental structures not sure about the part of the text that this at least tries to refer to

4. it can be inferred from the passage that the byzantine empire sustained significant territorial losses relevant text: "By the early eighth century, the empire had lost roughly two-thirds of the territory it had possessed in the year 600"
(a) in 600 refers to the date when it had a large area
(b) during the seventh century correct
(c) a century after the cultural achievements of the Byzantine Empire had been lost "In the 860’s the Byzantine Empire began to recover from Arab incursions <...>
(d) soon after the revival of Byzantine learning the revival of learning caused to improve the military that in turn caused the overall recovery, so it can't be true
(e) in the century after 873 " <...>by 872 the military balance with the Abbasid Caliphate had been permanently altered in the empire’s favor." - so this marks the revival, not a decline

5. in the third paragraph, the author most probably provides an explanation of the apparent connections among economic, military, and cultural development in order to
(a) suggest that the process of revival in Byzantium accords with this model the model was reversed
(b) set up an order of events that is then shown to be not generally applicable to the case of Byzantium correct
(c) cast aspersions on traditional historical scholarship about Byzantium if anything, this answer turns away from the central idea -scholarship was just a detail
(d) suggest that Byzantium represents a case for which no historical precedent exists too strong: other occurrences were not discussed
(e) argue that military conquest is the paramount element in the growth of empires too broad, and in this case, it wasn't the paramount factor

6. which of the following does the author mention as crucial evidence concerning the manner in which the Byzantine revival began? relevant text: Finally, the Byzantine revival of learning appears to have begun even earlier. <...> Thus the commonly expected order of military revival followed by economic and then by cultural recovery was reversed in Byzantium.
(a) the Byzantine military revival of the 860's led to economic and cultural advances.
(b) the Byzantine cultural revival lasted until 1453.
(c) the Byzantine economic recovery began in the 900's.
(d) the revival of Byzantine learning began toward the end of the eighth century. correct
(e) by the early eleventh century the Byzantine empire had regained much of its lost territory.

7. according to the author, "the common explanation" (line 28) of connections between economic, military, and cultural development is relevant text: The common explanation of these apparent connections in the case of Byzantium would run like this: <...> Therefore, Byzantine military achievements led to economic advances, which in turn led to cultural revival.
(a) revolutionary and too new to have been applied to the history of the Byzantine empire actually the common explanation was introduced as possibly suitable to explain the revival of Byzantine empire
(b) reasonable, but an antiquated theory of the nature of progress not old, but incorrect theory as the connection was reversed
(c) not applicable to the byzantine revival as a whole, but does perhaps accurately describe limited periods during the revival No doubt this hypothetical pattern did apply at times during the course of the recovery. <...> In fact, the revival of Byzantine learning may itself have influenced the subsequent economic and military expansion - so this choice is correct
(d) equally applicable to the Byzantine case as a whole and to the history of military, economic, and cultural advances in ancient Greece and Rome if the case of Byzantine was reverse, then clearly this cannot be so
(e) essentially not helpful, because military, economic, and cultural advances are part of a single phenomenon they were indeed helpful
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Re: Between the eighth and eleventh centuries a.d., the  [#permalink]

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21 Nov 2018, 20:34
did anyone attemp this in 2018? if you can answer Q3, Q4, Q5, Q6 - would be really great. workout
Re: Between the eighth and eleventh centuries a.d., the   [#permalink] 21 Nov 2018, 20:34

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