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# Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as

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Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as [#permalink]

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26 Apr 2010, 13:13
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Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White Americans to develop high blood pressure. This likelihood also holds for westernized Black Africans when compared to White Africans.
Researchers have hypothesized that this predisposition in westernized Blacks may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets and genes that adapted to an environmental scarcity of salt.
Which of the following statements about present-day, westernized Black Africans, if true, would most tend to confirm the researchers’ hypothesis?

(A) The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low.
(B) The unusually high salt consumption in certain areas of Africa represents a serious health problem.
(C) Because of their blood pressure levels, most White Africans have markedly decreased their salt consumption.
(D) Blood pressures are low among the Yoruba, who, throughout their history, have been situated far inland from sources of sea salt and far south of Saharan salt mines.
(E) No significant differences in salt metabolism have been found between those people who have had salt available throughout their history and those who have not.
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Last edited by carcass on 09 Mar 2014, 12:30, edited 1 time in total.
The title of the post
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Re: No way for me to catch this one [#permalink]

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26 Apr 2010, 13:59
noboru wrote:
No way for me to catch this one:

Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White Americans to develop high blood pressure. This likelihood also holds for westernized Black Africans when compared to White Africans.
Researchers have hypothesized that this predisposition in westernized Blacks may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets and genes that adapted to an environmental scarcity of salt.
Which of the following statements about present-day, westernized Black Africans, if true, would most tend to confirm the researchers’ hypothesis?

(A) The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low.
(B) The unusually high salt consumption in certain areas of Africa represents a serious health problem.
(C) Because of their blood pressure levels, most White Africans have markedly decreased their salt consumption.
(D) Blood pressures are low among the Yoruba, who, throughout their history, have been situated far inland from sources of sea salt and far south of Saharan salt mines.
(E) No significant differences in salt metabolism have been found between those people who have had salt available throughout their history and those who have not.

My guess is A. What is OA?
A) A because we are ruling out hereditary problems and also that previous generations had access to salt.
b) B is beyond the scope
C)This is also beyond the scope as it talks about a reaction to high BP
D) We need a general answer rather than narrow scope
E) E is too broad, we are only discussing one race.
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Re: No way for me to catch this one [#permalink]

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26 Apr 2010, 14:00
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noboru wrote:
No way for me to catch this one:

Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White Americans to develop high blood pressure. This likelihood also holds for westernized Black Africans when compared to White Africans.
Researchers have hypothesized that this predisposition in westernized Blacks may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets and genes that adapted to an environmental scarcity of salt.
Which of the following statements about present-day, westernized Black Africans, if true, would most tend to confirm the researchers’ hypothesis?

researchers' hypothesized that the findings may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets that are available in western areas and the genes that are adapted to salt scarcity. If any of the below statement shows that people with the same gene are having low blood pressure in the areas where salt is a scarcity, the hypothesis will be confirmed.

(A) The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low. correct
(B) The unusually high salt consumption in certain areas of Africa represents a serious health problem.talking only about findings in certain areas
(C) Because of their blood pressure levels, most White Africans have markedly decreased their salt consumption. no effect in the hypothesis
(D) Blood pressures are low among the Yoruba, who, throughout their history, have been situated far inland from sources of sea salt and far south of Saharan salt mines.
doesn't help to strength the hypothesis
(E) No significant differences in salt metabolism have been found between those people who have had salt available throughout their history and those who have not.
does not speak anything about the gene etc.
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Re: No way for me to catch this one [#permalink]

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26 Apr 2010, 15:41
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Thinking a little bit more I came with this reasoning:

This is a cause and effect problem: high salt diets + genes adapted to salt scarcity (cause) has the effect of HBP.

By showing that when the cause does not occur (salt availability), the effect does not occur (Blood pressure low), the argument is therefore strengthened.

Is that correct?
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Re: No way for me to catch this one [#permalink]

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26 Apr 2010, 16:09
I did it by elimination. All the others are beyond the scope- either too narrow or too broad
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Re: No way for me to catch this one [#permalink]

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26 Apr 2010, 17:22
i really thought it would be D but again after reading other replies, it seems A (my second choice) is the right answer.

D if more generic would be best.
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Re: No way for me to catch this one [#permalink]

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26 Apr 2010, 17:37
pranrasvij wrote:
i really thought it would be D but again after reading other replies, it seems A (my second choice) is the right answer.

D if more generic would be best.

D cannot be the best because the original argument limits its scope to Westernized Blacks as opposed to one tribe. Hence we cannot assume this will even hold true for this tribe. I believe this a classic question.

Cause-effect being applied to a totally different subset than the one discussed in the excerpt. Check 1012 GMAT for the CR qn type.
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Re: No way for me to catch this one [#permalink]

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20 May 2010, 00:22
What is the OA?
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Re: No way for me to catch this one [#permalink]

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20 May 2010, 08:20
msand wrote:
noboru wrote:
No way for me to catch this one:

Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White Americans to develop high blood pressure. This likelihood also holds for westernized Black Africans when compared to White Africans.
Researchers have hypothesized that this predisposition in westernized Blacks may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets and genes that adapted to an environmental scarcity of salt.
Which of the following statements about present-day, westernized Black Africans, if true, would most tend to confirm the researchers’ hypothesis?

researchers' hypothesized that the findings may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets that are available in western areas and the genes that are adapted to salt scarcity. If any of the below statement shows that people with the same gene are having low blood pressure in the areas where salt is a scarcity, the hypothesis will be confirmed.

(A) The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low. correct
(B) The unusually high salt consumption in certain areas of Africa represents a serious health problem.talking only about findings in certain areas
(C) Because of their blood pressure levels, most White Africans have markedly decreased their salt consumption. no effect in the hypothesis
(D) Blood pressures are low among the Yoruba, who, throughout their history, have been situated far inland from sources of sea salt and far south of Saharan salt mines.
doesn't help to strength the hypothesis
(E) No significant differences in salt metabolism have been found between those people who have had salt available throughout their history and those who have not.
does not speak anything about the gene etc.

You said «If any of the below statement shows that people with the same gene are having low blood pressure in the areas where salt is a scarcity, the hypothesis will be confirmed.»

But in A), we can read that «where salt was always available». This mean that there is no scarcity of salt? No?

Sorry for my mistakes, I'm a non-native english speaker..

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Re: No way for me to catch this one [#permalink]

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20 May 2010, 10:13
noboru wrote:
Thinking a little bit more I came with this reasoning:

This is a cause and effect problem: high salt diets + genes adapted to salt scarcity (cause) has the effect of HBP.

By showing that when the cause does not occur (salt availability), the effect does not occur (Blood pressure low), the argument is therefore strengthened.

Is that correct?

I have the same reasoning but in A), the cause occur (the salt is available) and the effect does not occur (BP low).

I'm right or not?
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Re: No way for me to catch this one [#permalink]

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20 May 2010, 10:53
mbafall2011 wrote:
I did it by elimination. All the others are beyond the scope- either too narrow or too broad

I agree. After reading A first I was convinced that it did strengthen the argument, and was on the lookout for something that was even more compelling. As you said, everything else is way out of scope.

Here's my reasoning:
noboru wrote:
Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White Americans to develop high blood pressure. This likelihood also holds for westernized Black Africans when compared to White Africans.
Researchers have hypothesized that this predisposition in westernized Blacks may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets and genes that adapted to an environmental scarcity of salt.
Which of the following statements about present-day, westernized Black Africans, if true, would most tend to confirm the researchers’ hypothesis?

(A) The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low. The hypothesis is based on gene adaptation to salt scarcity. In places where salt was always available (i.e. no scarcity) the argument would suppose that no gene adaption to scarcity took place. Therefore American Blacks whose descendants are from Senegal and Gambia are genetically different than all other Blacks. The manifestation of the difference would be in the prevalence of HBP... the observed low blood pressures confirms this manifestation, so this sentence supports the hypothesis. Now we just have to see if another sentence supports it more fully.

(B) The unusually high salt consumption in certain areas of Africa represents a serious health problem. This makes no connection between genes or HBP. Out of scope.

(C) Because of their blood pressure levels, most White Africans have markedly decreased their salt consumption. Again, no mention of genes. Also no mention of American Blacks. Out of scope.

(D) Blood pressures are low among the Yoruba, who, throughout their history, have been situated far inland from sources of sea salt and far south of Saharan salt mines. This actually weakens the argument, showing that there may not be a connection between salt scarcity and HBP.

(E) No significant differences in salt metabolism have been found between those people who have had salt available throughout their history and those who have not. Salt metabolism was not the key point, it was gene adaptation.
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Re: No way for me to catch this one [#permalink]

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20 May 2010, 11:19
dalmba wrote:
mbafall2011 wrote:
I did it by elimination. All the others are beyond the scope- either too narrow or too broad

I agree. After reading A first I was convinced that it did strengthen the argument, and was on the lookout for something that was even more compelling. As you said, everything else is way out of scope.

Here's my reasoning:
noboru wrote:
Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White Americans to develop high blood pressure. This likelihood also holds for westernized Black Africans when compared to White Africans.
Researchers have hypothesized that this predisposition in westernized Blacks may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets and genes that adapted to an environmental scarcity of salt.
Which of the following statements about present-day, westernized Black Africans, if true, would most tend to confirm the researchers’ hypothesis?

(A) The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low. The hypothesis is based on gene adaptation to salt scarcity. In places where salt was always available (i.e. no scarcity) the argument would suppose that no gene adaption to scarcity took place. Therefore American Blacks whose descendants are from Senegal and Gambia are genetically different than all other Blacks. The manifestation of the difference would be in the prevalence of HBP... the observed low blood pressures confirms this manifestation, so this sentence supports the hypothesis. Now we just have to see if another sentence supports it more fully.

(B) The unusually high salt consumption in certain areas of Africa represents a serious health problem. This makes no connection between genes or HBP. Out of scope.

(C) Because of their blood pressure levels, most White Africans have markedly decreased their salt consumption. Again, no mention of genes. Also no mention of American Blacks. Out of scope.

(D) Blood pressures are low among the Yoruba, who, throughout their history, have been situated far inland from sources of sea salt and far south of Saharan salt mines. This actually weakens the argument, showing that there may not be a connection between salt scarcity and HBP.

(E) No significant differences in salt metabolism have been found between those people who have had salt available throughout their history and those who have not. Salt metabolism was not the key point, it was gene adaptation.

Ok I got it.. Thanks a lot for your explanation!
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Re: No way for me to catch this one [#permalink]

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22 May 2010, 07:07
I am bit confused with the statement.

What do we need to prove ?
Westernized Blacks have high blood pressure or they have low blood pressure ?

I feel we need to prove they have High Blood Pressure b'cos of high salt diets and genes adapted to low salt diets.

A says BP of those from the places where salt is available(no scarcity) is low

D Says BP of those from the places where salt is scare is low

Both says their genes ( westernized blacks) are adapted to low BP.
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Re: No way for me to catch this one [#permalink]

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26 Jun 2010, 07:37
Perfect....

noboru wrote:
Thinking a little bit more I came with this reasoning:

This is a cause and effect problem: high salt diets + genes adapted to salt scarcity (cause) has the effect of HBP.

By showing that when the cause does not occur (salt availability), the effect does not occur (Blood pressure low), the argument is therefore strengthened.

Is that correct?
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Re: No way for me to catch this one: Black Americans are, on the [#permalink]

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19 Mar 2012, 23:49
(A) The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low.

(D) Blood pressures are low among the Yoruba, who, throughout their history, have been situated far inland from sources of sea salt and far south of Saharan salt mines.

A shows that access to salty diets did not result in high BP , this is not what the passage suggests.. the passage says that people whose genes have been conditioned to low salt diets and who start eating high salt foods develop BP issues.

IMO A.

noboru wrote:
No way for me to catch this one:

Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White Americans to develop high blood pressure. This likelihood also holds for westernized Black Africans when compared to White Africans.
Researchers have hypothesized that this predisposition in westernized Blacks may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets and genes that adapted to an environmental scarcity of salt.
Which of the following statements about present-day, westernized Black Africans, if true, would most tend to confirm the researchers’ hypothesis?

(A) The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low.
(B) The unusually high salt consumption in certain areas of Africa represents a serious health problem.
(C) Because of their blood pressure levels, most White Africans have markedly decreased their salt consumption.
(D) Blood pressures are low among the Yoruba, who, throughout their history, have been situated far inland from sources of sea salt and far south of Saharan salt mines.
(E) No significant differences in salt metabolism have been found between those people who have had salt available throughout their history and those who have not.
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Re: No way for me to catch this one: Black Americans are, on the [#permalink]

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21 Mar 2012, 00:26
Will go with A it is the best
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Re: No way for me to catch this one: Black Americans are, on the [#permalink]

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09 Mar 2014, 05:57
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Re: No way for me to catch this one: Black Americans are, on the [#permalink]

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09 Mar 2014, 06:29
noboru wrote:
No way for me to catch this one:

Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White Americans to develop high blood pressure. This likelihood also holds for westernized Black Africans when compared to White Africans.
Researchers have hypothesized that this predisposition in westernized Blacks may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets and genes that adapted to an environmental scarcity of salt.
Which of the following statements about present-day, westernized Black Africans, if true, would most tend to confirm the researchers’ hypothesis?

(A) The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low.
(B) The unusually high salt consumption in certain areas of Africa represents a serious health problem.
(C) Because of their blood pressure levels, most White Africans have markedly decreased their salt consumption.
(D) Blood pressures are low among the Yoruba, who, throughout their history, have been situated far inland from sources of sea salt and far south of Saharan salt mines.
(E) No significant differences in salt metabolism have been found between those people who have had salt available throughout their history and those who have not.

As per the argument we need to find a strengthener which suggests that when salt is unavailable their blood pressure will be low. The genes interact with western high-salt diets and as result westernized black africans or americans are more likely to develop high blood pressure. If their blood pressure in salt free environment is less then their genes in new environment would react with salty foods .
(A) The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low. Blood pressures are low in more salty environment where water and diet may contain more salt.So when they are exposed to salty environment it may not change as they are already accustomed
(B) The unusually high salt consumption in certain areas of Africa represents a serious health problem. not related
(C) Because of their blood pressure levels, most White Africans have markedly decreased their salt consumption.says white africans have high blood pressure
(D) Blood pressures are low among the Yoruba, who, throughout their history, have been situated far inland from sources of sea salt and far south of Saharan salt mines.when people are situated far from salt resources they have less chance of having salty foods.-----correct
(E) No significant differences in salt metabolism have been found between those people who have had salt available throughout their history and those who have not if no significant differences..... weakener
I am linking salty environment to consumption of salt. question options seems to be confused. Please correct me if I am wrong
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Re: No way for me to catch this one: Black Americans are, on the [#permalink]

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09 Mar 2014, 07:06
OA is A and well deserved.

http://www.urch.com/forums/gmat-critica ... ly-as.html
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Re: No way for me to catch this one: Black Americans are, on the   [#permalink] 09 Mar 2014, 07:06
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