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# Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency marke

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Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency marke  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 26 Sep 2018, 01:56
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Question Stats:

64% (01:34) correct 36% (01:55) wrong based on 2351 sessions

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Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency markets, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have, according to some critics, continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected their intended beneficiaries in the developing world.

(A) continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected

(B) continually struggled as they try to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of

(C) continually struggled to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected that of

(D) had to struggle continually in trying to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of

(E) struggled continually in trying to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—and neglecting

Verbal Question of The Day: Day 239: Sentence Correction

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Originally posted by Sash143 on 16 Dec 2015, 00:18.
Last edited by Bunuel on 26 Sep 2018, 01:56, edited 4 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency marke  [#permalink]

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16 Dec 2015, 02:09
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The expressions ‘try to meet’ and ‘trying to meet’ in B, D and E are inappropriate since the institutions did not struggle in trying but struggled in meeting the expectations. In additions B, D and E use wrong transition conjunctions such as ‘while’ and ‘and’ to show a contrast. Therefore, B, D and E can be safely removed.
Between A and C: C has a problem of using the demonstrative pronoun’ that’ instead of the ‘those’ to denote the plural ‘expectations’.
So A.
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QOTD: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize  [#permalink]

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09 Mar 2018, 22:48
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I tend to get a lot of questions about dashes, and that’s part of why we chose this question for a QOTD. In general, I don’t think you need to waste much time worrying about them: I’ve never seen an official GMAT question in which the presence or absence of a dash was a deciding factor. (For more on dashes and colons and other punctuation on the GMAT, check out this video.)

And in this particular sentence, the dashes aren’t doing anything terribly interesting. They’re just separating a modifier from the rest of the sentence. So we’ll focus on more interesting stuff.

Quote:
(A) continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected

I don’t see any problems here at all. “Their” jumps out at me, but it seems to refer to the two organizations, so that’s perfectly OK. Let’s keep (A).

Quote:
(B) continually struggled as they try to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of

For starters, there are some unnecessary extra words in the beginning of the underlined portion: why say “struggled as they try to meet the expectations” when we could just say “struggled to meet the expectations”?

The bigger problem is the singular pronoun “that” at the end of the underlined portion. The trouble is, I don’t really see any singular nouns “that” could possibly refer to. Logically, “that” should refer to “the needs” (which is not stated anywhere in the sentence) or maybe “the expectations”, but those are both plural, anyway.

So we can eliminate (B).

Quote:
(C) continually struggled to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected that of

The first part of the underlined portion looks fine, but we still have exactly the same problem with the singular pronoun “that” at the end of the underlined section. “That” is singular, and there are no logical singular referents.

So we can eliminate (C), too.

Quote:
(D) had to struggle continually in trying to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of

Once again, the singular pronoun “that” has no logical referent. See the explanation for (B) for more on that issue.

The first part of the underlined section also has some problems. There’s really no reason to say that the organizations “had to struggle continually in trying to meet the expectations” when we could just say “continually struggled to meet the expectations”, as in (A).

So we have plenty of reasons to get rid of (D).

Quote:
(E) struggled continually in trying to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—and neglecting

We still have some wasted words at the beginning of the underlined portion: “struggled continually in trying to meet… expectations” is a lousy substitute for the version in (A), which just says “continually struggled to meet expectations.”

There’s also a parallelism problem after the dashes in (E). The parallelism trigger “and” is followed by the participle “neglecting” – and nothing could possibly be parallel to “neglecting” here. It makes much more sense to use a nice, normal verb form (“neglected”) that can be parallel to “struggled.”

So (E) can be eliminated, and we’re left with (A).
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Re: QOTD: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize  [#permalink]

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12 Apr 2018, 07:24
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svanbergh13 wrote:
If they were meeting major shareholders' expectations, but ignoring their intended beneficiaries, then I would agree with the contrast.

Hi svanbergh13, this is indeed the intended meaning and I can understand why the word struggled is creating a confusion here.

Here, struggled is used in the sense of strove (past tense of strive). So, replace struggled with strove, and the sentence would make sense.
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Re: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency marke  [#permalink]

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16 Dec 2015, 05:30
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Sash143 wrote:
Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency markets, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have, according to some critics, continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders- a group comprising many of the world's rich nations- but neglected their intended beneficiaries in the developing world.

A)....

B) continually struggled as they try to meet the expectations of their major shareholders- a group comprising many of the world's rich nations- while neglecting that of

C) continually struggled to meet their major shareholders' expectations- a group comprising many of the world's rich nations- but neglected that of

D) had to struggle continually in trying to meet the expectations of their major shareholders- a group comprising many of the world's rich nations- while neglecting that of

E) struggled continually in trying to meet their major shareholders' expectations- a group comprising many of the world's rich nations- and neglecting

another point in addition to daagh post...
what does a group comprising many of the world's rich nations refers to.....
their major shareholders or their major shareholders' expectations...
C and E can be eliminated....
D has an extra 'had so D out..
B is out for changing meaning by usage of 'while" and struggled as is not correct ..
ans A
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Re: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency marke  [#permalink]

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16 Dec 2015, 11:00
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The fastest way for me though this question was to notice that "that" cannot refer to "expectations". Eliminate B, C and D. E can be eliminated on the basis of parallel structure. “Struggled” and “neglecting” are not parallel. Notice also the presence of a contrast in the sentence. They “struggled to meet”… “but neglected”. It is appropriate to have a contrast here. “Struggled to meet” and “neglected / or neglecting” would not work on this basis either.
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Re: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency marke  [#permalink]

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02 Jan 2016, 14:57
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stevekeating wrote:
The fastest way for me though this question was to notice that "that" cannot refer to "expectations". Eliminate B, C and D. E can be eliminated on the basis of parallel structure. “Struggled” and “neglecting” are not parallel. Notice also the presence of a contrast in the sentence. They “struggled to meet”… “but neglected”. It is appropriate to have a contrast here. “Struggled to meet” and “neglected / or neglecting” would not work on this basis either.

Hello Steve,
Would it be possible to expound why "That" cannot refer to "expectation"
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Re: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency marke  [#permalink]

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02 Jan 2016, 18:29
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The singular "that" cannot refer to the plural "expectations". It would have to be "those of" to refer to the expectations of their intended beneficiaries in the developing world. Be particularly careful of any "reference" words in GMAT sentence correction problems. Such words include this, that, these and those. Pronouns are also relevant here. You should check what these words refer to. Then ask yourself is there agreement in terms of singular / plural between the reference word and the thing it refers to.
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Re: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency marke  [#permalink]

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22 Jul 2017, 07:05
can anyone explain the change of meaning between BUT & WHILE ? I'm really confused here :/
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Re: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency marke  [#permalink]

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02 Aug 2017, 18:45
Hi Experts GMATNinja mikemcgarry
can any one please explain clearly the contrast in (A)?
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Re: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency marke  [#permalink]

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23 Aug 2017, 14:20
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Takdir wrote:
can anyone explain the change of meaning between BUT & WHILE ? I'm really confused here :/

Hello Takdir,

The word but is used to present a contrast. The word while is used to present either contrast or simultaneous action.

The official sentence in question intends to present the contrast. The World Bank and the the International Monetary Fund have struggled to meet the expectations of certain rich nations. But it has neglected those nations that were meant to be the beneficiary of these organizations.

However, use of while in Choices B and D seems to suggest simultaneous action. Usage of while seems to convey that the two organizations have struggled to meet the expectations of certain rich nations and neglected the intended beneficiaries at the same time. This is not the intended meaning of the sentence.

Hence, to clearly present the contrast with no room for any ambiguity, use of but is appropriate in this official sentence.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency marke  [#permalink]

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23 Aug 2017, 14:28
Hi Experts GMATNinja mikemcgarry
can any one please explain clearly the contrast in (A)?

Read the sentence very carefully. Right in the beginning, it presents the reason why the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund were created.

So the real beneficiaries of these two organizations should be the developing countries. But that is not the case.

These two organizations have struggled to keep certain rich nations happy and neglected the real beneficiaries.

However, it should be the other way round.

The two organizations have struggled to do what they are not meant to do but have neglected the real beneficiaries.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: QOTD: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize  [#permalink]

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10 Mar 2018, 04:12
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(A) continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected - Correct.

(B) continually struggled as they try to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of - No proper antecedent to 'that'

(C) continually struggled to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected that of - Same as B

(D) had to struggle continually in trying to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of - Same as B

(E) struggled continually in trying to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—and neglecting - Parallelism error

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Re: QOTD: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize  [#permalink]

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03 Apr 2018, 13:55
1
Hi there, I am struggling with the logic of this particular contrast? My understanding is that these organizations have failed in two ways that are not in contrast with each other. One regarding major shareholders and the other intended beneficiaries. If they were meeting major shareholders' expectations, but ignoring their intended beneficiaries, then I would agree with the contrast. Thanks in advance.
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Re: QOTD: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize  [#permalink]

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12 Apr 2018, 06:34
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svanbergh13 wrote:
Hi there, I am struggling with the logic of this particular contrast? My understanding is that these organizations have failed in two ways that are not in contrast with each other. One regarding major shareholders and the other intended beneficiaries. If they were meeting major shareholders' expectations, but ignoring their intended beneficiaries, then I would agree with the contrast. Thanks in advance.

Hello svanbergh13,

Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize foreign currency markets, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have, according to some critics, continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected their intended beneficiaries in the developing world.

The sentence starts with the purpose why the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund were created. They were created to reduce poverty and to stabilize foreign currency markets. Now, these financial institutions struggled to meet the expectation of their major shareholders that comprised may rich nations. But they neglected their real beneficiaries in the developing world.

So the sentence intends to project that these institutions did what they were not meant to do but neglected to do what they were actually meant to do. The contrast brings out the irony presented in the sentence.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: QOTD: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize  [#permalink]

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05 Jun 2018, 20:36
Hi GMATNinja

"(C) continually struggled to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group "
Do you think that there is modifier error also in this... what does "a group" refer to?

GMATNinja wrote:
I tend to get a lot of questions about dashes, and that’s part of why we chose this question for a QOTD. In general, I don’t think you need to waste much time worrying about them: I’ve never seen an official GMAT question in which the presence or absence of a dash was a deciding factor. (For more on dashes and colons and other punctuation on the GMAT, check out this video.)

And in this particular sentence, the dashes aren’t doing anything terribly interesting. They’re just separating a modifier from the rest of the sentence. So we’ll focus on more interesting stuff.

Quote:
(A) continually struggled to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected

I don’t see any problems here at all. “Their” jumps out at me, but it seems to refer to the two organizations, so that’s perfectly OK. Let’s keep (A).

Quote:
(B) continually struggled as they try to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of

For starters, there are some unnecessary extra words in the beginning of the underlined portion: why say “struggled as they try to meet the expectations” when we could just say “struggled to meet the expectations”?

The bigger problem is the singular pronoun “that” at the end of the underlined portion. The trouble is, I don’t really see any singular nouns “that” could possibly refer to. Logically, “that” should refer to “the needs” (which is not stated anywhere in the sentence) or maybe “the expectations”, but those are both plural, anyway.

So we can eliminate (B).

Quote:
(C) continually struggled to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected that of

The first part of the underlined portion looks fine, but we still have exactly the same problem with the singular pronoun “that” at the end of the underlined section. “That” is singular, and there are no logical singular referents.

So we can eliminate (C), too.

Quote:
(D) had to struggle continually in trying to meet the expectations of their major shareholders—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—while neglecting that of

Once again, the singular pronoun “that” has no logical referent. See the explanation for (B) for more on that issue.

The first part of the underlined section also has some problems. There’s really no reason to say that the organizations “had to struggle continually in trying to meet the expectations” when we could just say “continually struggled to meet the expectations”, as in (A).

So we have plenty of reasons to get rid of (D).

Quote:
(E) struggled continually in trying to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—and neglecting

We still have some wasted words at the beginning of the underlined portion: “struggled continually in trying to meet… expectations” is a lousy substitute for the version in (A), which just says “continually struggled to meet expectations.”

There’s also a parallelism problem after the dashes in (E). The parallelism trigger “and” is followed by the participle “neglecting” – and nothing could possibly be parallel to “neglecting” here. It makes much more sense to use a nice, normal verb form (“neglected”) that can be parallel to “struggled.”

So (E) can be eliminated, and we’re left with (A).

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Re: QOTD: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize  [#permalink]

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09 Jun 2018, 19:35
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Quote:
Hi GMATNinja

"(C) continually struggled to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group "
Do you think that there is modifier error also in this... what does "a group" refer to?

Yup, there's a modifier error!

Quote:
continually struggled to meet their major shareholders’ expectations—a group comprising many of the world’s rich nations—but neglected that of

It sounds as though "a group" is referring to the "shareholders' expectations". And if "a group... of the world's rich nations" is describing "shareholders' expectations", that's pretty messed up, on all sorts of levels.

I hope this helps!
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Re: QOTD: Created in 1945 to reduce poverty and stabilize &nbs [#permalink] 09 Jun 2018, 19:35
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