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Drinking coffee may significantly reduce the risk of cirrhosis of the

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Drinking coffee may significantly reduce the risk of cirrhosis of the  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Aug 2015, 23:15
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Drinking coffee may significantly reduce the risk of cirrhosis of the liver and also aid for sufferers of migraine headaches, according to research studies recently published in major journals.

(A) significantly reduce the risk of cirrhosis of the liver and also aid for
(B) be significant in reducing the risk of cirrhosis of the liver and aid for
(C) significantly reduce the risk of cirrhosis of the liver and aid
(D) cause a significant reduction in the risk of cirrhosis of the liver and aid to
(E) significantly reduce the risk of cirrhosis of the liver as well as aiding
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Drinking coffee may significantly reduce the risk of cirrhosis of the  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Sep 2018, 13:34
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WaterFlowsUp wrote:
Drinking coffee may significantly reduce the risk of cirrhosis of the liver and also aid for sufferers of migraine headaches, according to research studies recently published in major journals.

A) significantly reduce the risk of cirrhosis of the liver and also aid for
B) be significant in reducing the risk of cirrhosis of the liver and aid for
C) significantly reduce the risk of cirrhosis of the liver and aid [no TO or FOR, and correctly coupled with direct object "sufferers" and hence parallel to "reduce"
D) cause a significant reduction in the risk of cirrhosis of the liver and aid to
E) significantly reduce the risk of cirrhosis of the liver as well as aiding

teaserbae , this question is harder than it appears.

The sentence intends to convey that the consumption of coffee may do two equally important things:
1) reduce risk (of contracting cirrhosis of the liver), and
2) aid (help) sufferers (of migraine headaches)

The biggest issue in all four incorrect answers is lack of parallelism, which in A, B, and D creates nonsensical meaning.

In A, B, and D, however, first we have to recognize that "aid" is used as a noun, a task that may be hard for non-native speakers.

SPLIT #1: "Easy" parallelism error
Incorrect: VERB and VERB-ING
(E) reduce . . . [as well as] aidING are not parallel

Eliminate (E)

Split #2: Parallelism error that is harder to spot: VERB/verb phrase and NOUN (phrase)

When aid is a noun: AID TO and AID FOR are correct. Both are idiomatic noun phrases.

In fact, those constructions signal that aid IS a noun.

We cannot use AID FOR or AID TO when aid is a verb
If you see AID FOR or AID TO, those phrases signal that AID is NOT a verb, but rather a noun (in a noun phrase)

Split #2, continued: Parallelism that may be hard to spot
VERB/VERB PHRASE ... NOUN (phrase)
are not parallel

(A) reduce ... and also aid for
-- FOR signals that aid is a noun
-- reduce (verb) ... and also aid (noun) for
-- VERB ... NOUN (phrase) => not parallel

P.S. whatever may have been the case previously,
"and also" is not automatically wrong on the GMAT unless the construction at issue is "both . . . and.".
Allowed: X and also Y. My neighbor mowed her lawn and also cleaned her porch.
Not allowed: Both X and also Y. My neighbor both mowed her lawn and also cleaned her porch.
If we have no other basis upon which to decide between two answers, choose the one that uses only "and" rather than the one that uses "and also."
Otherwise, find a different error. Correct official questions have used "and also."

(B) be significant in reducing ... and aid for
-- VERB PHRASE ... NOUN (phrase)
-- Same as (A)

D) cause ... and aid to
-- TO signals that aid is a noun
-- VERB ... NOUN (phrase)
-- Same as (A)
AID TO is similar to AID FOR.
The idiomatic construction "aid to" signals that AID is part of a noun phrase and is NOT a verb, just as "aid for" does.

Eliminate A, B, and D

Split #2a: Illogical and nonsensical meaning

Because A, B, and E use AID as a noun, they create a deceptive parallel between the noun RISK and the noun AID.
As a result, the sentences proclaim that drinking coffee may reduce both risk and aid.
Huh? May reduce aid?
How might drinking coffee reduce HELP?

Eliminate A, B, and D

By POE, Answer (C) is correct

Analysis of (C): Drinking coffee may significantly reduce the risk of cirrhosis of the liver and aid sufferers of migraine headaches ...

• The verbs reduce and aid are parallel
• The verb "aid" correctly is not followed by the prepositions TO or FOR
• Subject + aid + direct object construction is correct

In this case, aid is a transitive verb that requires a direct object (sufferers), which receives the action of the verb without being interrupted by TO or FOR.
The construction is correct.

ANSWER C

I hope that helps. :-)

AID as an idiom

NOUN
• Allowed: AID TO
aid to developing countries

• Allowed: AID FOR
aid for victims of the civil war

• Allowed: AID IN _____ ing
aid in finding a solution

INCORRECT: AID + infinitive

When aid is a noun, AID cannot be followed by an infinitive. Ever.

Incorrect: Her aid to fix the problem was essential.
Correct: Her aid in fixing the problem was essential.

VERB

• Allowed: Subject + aid + direct object

She aided the wounded people.
He aided a friend.

• Allowed: Subject + aid + "in ______ING" [IN + gerund VERB-ING]

She aided in comforting the wounded people.
(the "in ___ ING" phrase is okay because it describes the activity or event in which she is helping)

He aided in catching the criminal.

• Not allowed: When aid is a VERB it CANNOT be followed by FOR or TO

INCORRECT: She aided to the wounded people.
INCORRECT: She aided for the wounded people.
INCORRECT: She aided to comforting the wounded people.

*In this OG question, the last two options are incorrect because they are constructed this way:
• the goddess Bona Dea's aid TO HELP
• "to help" is an infinitive (not okay!). The correct answer has this construction: aid in helping

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Re: Drinking coffee may significantly reduce the risk of cirrhosis of the  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Aug 2015, 23:58
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A) significantly reduce the risk of cirrhosis of the liver and also aid for --- 'aid for' is a noun; ‘also’ is implied in ‘and’ – wrong
B) be significant in reducing the risk of cirrhosis of the liver and aid for – as in A, 'aid for' is wrong idiom
C)significantly reduce the risk of cirrhosis of the liver and aid ---Though apparently correct grammatically, still may not be the best choice; let’s discuss at the end
D)cause a significant reduction in the risk of cirrhosis of the liver and aid to – aid to is a noun
E)significantly reduce the risk of cirrhosis of the liver as well as aiding – this is a strong contender.

Between C and E: 'and' is a parallelism marker, which is used to combine two equal factors. If one of the factors is only a subsidiary or less equal one, then we have to choose a prepositional joiner such as, in addition to, together with, as well as, along with etc. While using a prepositional phrase to join two nouns, we have to use ‘verb+ing’ after the prepositional conjunction, such as in as well as aiding, along with aiding or in addition to aiding and so on.
IMO, E is a better choice than C

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Re: Drinking coffee may significantly reduce the risk of cirrhosis of the  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Sep 2018, 22:20
Hi daagh
the OA here is C instead of E

Other experts please help
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Re: Drinking coffee may significantly reduce the risk of cirrhosis of the  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Oct 2018, 22:54
Drinking coffee may significantly reduce the risk of cirrhosis of the liver and also aid for sufferers of migraine headaches, according to research studies recently published in major journals.

(A) significantly reduce the risk of cirrhosis of the liver and also aid for
(B) be significant in reducing the risk of cirrhosis of the liver and aid for
(C) significantly reduce the risk of cirrhosis of the liver and aid
(D) cause a significant reduction in the risk of cirrhosis of the liver and aid to
(E) significantly reduce the risk of cirrhosis of the liver as well as aiding

There are parallelism errors in all the incorrect answer choices.
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Re: Drinking coffee may significantly reduce the risk of cirrhosis of the  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Mar 2019, 18:12
(A) significantly reduce the risk of cirrhosis of the liver and also aid for - no parallelism
(B) be significant in reducing the risk of cirrhosis of the liver and aid for - no parallelism(-ing form and simple tense)
(C) significantly reduce the risk of cirrhosis of the liver and aid
(D) cause a significant reduction in the risk of cirrhosis of the liver and aid to - no parallelism( passive and simple tense)
(E) significantly reduce the risk of cirrhosis of the liver as well as aiding - no parallelism(simple tense and -ing form)
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Re: Drinking coffee may significantly reduce the risk of cirrhosis of the  [#permalink]

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New post 24 May 2019, 23:39
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generis wrote:
WaterFlowsUp wrote:
Drinking coffee may significantly reduce the risk of cirrhosis of the liver and also aid for sufferers of migraine headaches, according to research studies recently published in major journals.

A) significantly reduce the risk of cirrhosis of the liver and also aid for
B) be significant in reducing the risk of cirrhosis of the liver and aid for
C) significantly reduce the risk of cirrhosis of the liver and aid [no TO or FOR, and correctly coupled with direct object "sufferers" and hence parallel to "reduce"
D) cause a significant reduction in the risk of cirrhosis of the liver and aid to
E) significantly reduce the risk of cirrhosis of the liver as well as aiding

teaserbae , this question is harder than it appears.

The sentence intends to convey that the consumption of coffee may do two equally important things:
1) reduce risk (of contracting cirrhosis of the liver), and
2) aid sufferers (of migraine headaches)

The biggest issue in all four incorrect answers is lack of parallelism, which in A, B, and D creates nonsensical meaning.

In A, B, and D, however, first we have to recognize that "aid" is used as a noun, a task that may be hard for non-native speakers.

SPLIT #1: "Easy" parallelism error
Incorrect: VERB and VERB-ING
(E) reduce . . . [as well as] aidING are not parallel

Eliminate (E)

Split #2: Parallelism error that is harder to spot: VERB/verb phrase and NOUN (phrase)

When aid is a noun: AID TO and AID FOR are correct. Both are idiomatic noun phrases.

In fact, those constructions signal that aid IS a noun.

We cannot use AID FOR or AID TO when aid is a verb
If you see AID FOR or AID TO, those phrases signal that AID is NOT a verb, but rather a noun (in a noun phrase)

Split #2, continued: Parallelism that may be hard to spot
VERB/VERB PHRASE ... NOUN (phrase)
are not parallel

(A) reduce ... and also aid for
-- FOR signals that aid is a noun
-- reduce (verb) ... and also aid (noun) for
-- VERB ... NOUN (phrase) => not parallel

P.S. whatever may have been the case previously,
"and also" is not automatically wrong on the GMAT unless the construction at issue is "both . . . and.".
Allowed: X and also Y. My neighbor mowed her lawn and also cleaned her porch.
Not allowed: Both X and also Y. My neighbor both mowed her lawn and also cleaned her porch.
If we have no other basis upon which to decide between two answers, choose the one that uses only "and" rather than the one that uses "and also."
Otherwise, find a different error. Correct official questions have used "and also."

(B) be significant in reducing ... and aid for
-- VERB PHRASE ... NOUN (phrase)
-- Same as (A)

D) cause ... and aid to
-- TO signals that aid is a noun
-- VERB ... NOUN (phrase)
-- Same as (A)
AID TO is similar to AID FOR.
The idiomatic construction "aid to" signals that AID is part of a noun phrase and is NOT a verb, just as "aid for" does.

Eliminate A, B, and D

Split #2a: Illogical and nonsensical meaning

Because A, B, and E use AID as a noun, they create a deceptive parallel between the noun RISK and the noun AID.
As a result, the sentences proclaim that drinking coffee may reduce both risk and aid.
Huh? Reduce aid?
How might drinking coffee reduce HELP?

Eliminate A, B, and D

By POE, Answer (C) is correct

Analysis of (C): Drinking coffee may significantly reduce the risk of cirrhosis of the liver and aid sufferers of migraine headaches ...

• The verbs reduce and aid are parallel
• The verb "aid" correctly is not followed by the prepositions TO or FOR
• Subject + aid + direct object construction is correct

In this case, aid is a transitive verb that requires a direct object (sufferers), which receives the action of the verb without being interrupted by TO or FOR.
The construction is correct.

ANSWER C

I hope that helps. :-)

AID as an idiom

NOUN
• Allowed: AID TO
aid to developing countries

• Allowed: AID FOR
aid for victims of the civil war

• Allowed: AID IN _____ ing
aid in finding a solution

INCORRECT: AID + infinitive

When aid is a noun, AID cannot be followed by an infinitive. Ever.

Incorrect: Her aid to fix the problem was essential.
Correct: Her aid in fixing the problem was essential.

VERB

• Allowed: Subject + aid + direct object

She aided the wounded people.
He aided a friend.

• Allowed: Subject + aid + "in ______ING" [IN + gerund VERB-ING]

She aided in comforting the wounded people.
(the "in ___ ING" phrase is okay because it describes the activity or event in which she is helping)

He aided in catching the criminal.

• Not allowed: When aid is a VERB it CANNOT be followed by FOR or TO

INCORRECT: She aided to the wounded people.
INCORRECT: She aided for the wounded people.
INCORRECT: She aided to comforting the wounded people.

*In this OG question, the last two options are incorrect because they are constructed this way:
• the goddess Bona Dea's aid TO HELP
• "to help" is an infinitive (not okay!). The correct answer has this construction: aid in helping


You have too much stamina to write such detailed posts. :thumbup: :thumbup:

Your posts are amazing. Thanks for helping all.

Cheers.
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Re: Drinking coffee may significantly reduce the risk of cirrhosis of the  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Aug 2019, 13:26
E is perfectly parallel. when using as well as with verbs, the second verb is verb+ing. VeritasKarishma - please clarify why E is wrong
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Re: Drinking coffee may significantly reduce the risk of cirrhosis of the  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Aug 2019, 13:33
WaterFlowsUp wrote:
Drinking coffee may significantly reduce the risk of cirrhosis of the liver and also aid for sufferers of migraine headaches, according to research studies recently published in major journals.

(A) significantly reduce the risk of cirrhosis of the liver and also aid for
(B) be significant in reducing the risk of cirrhosis of the liver and aid for
(C) significantly reduce the risk of cirrhosis of the liver and aid
(D) cause a significant reduction in the risk of cirrhosis of the liver and aid to
(E) significantly reduce the risk of cirrhosis of the liver as well as aiding


(C) is the only answer choice that creates a parallel structure between "reduce" and "aid"

(A) inappropriately uses the prepositional phrase "aid for" (could be fixed by making it "and provide aid to")
(B) inappropriately uses the prepositional phrase "aid for" (could be fixed by making it "and aiding")
(D) inappropriately uses the prepositional phrase "aid to" (could be fixed by removing "to", to match "cause")
(E) inappropriately uses the participle "aiding" (could be fixed by changing it to the conjugated verb "aid")
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Re: Drinking milk enriched with vitamin D may significantly   [#permalink] 08 Sep 2019, 22:07
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