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During the 1940s and 1950s the United States government developed

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During the 1940s and 1950s the United States government developed  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 03 Feb 2019, 15:45
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During the 1940s and 1950s the United States government developed a new policy toward Native Americans, often known as "readjustment." Because the increased awareness of civil rights in these decades helped reinforce the belief that life on reservations prevented Native Americans from exercising the rights guaranteed to citizens under the United States Constitution, the readjustment movement advocated the end of the federal government's involvement in Native American affairs and encouraged the assimilation of Native Americans as individuals into mainstream society. However, the same years also saw the emergence of a Native American leadership and efforts to develop tribal institutions and reaffirm tribal identity. The clash of these two trends may be traced in the attempts on the part of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) to convince the Oneida tribe of Wisconsin to accept readjustment.

The culmination of BIA efforts to sway the Oneida occurred at a meeting that took place in the fall of 1956. The BIA suggested that it would be to the Oneida's benefit to own their own property and, like other homeowners, pay real estate taxes on it. The BIA also emphasized that, after readjustment, the government would not attempt to restrict Native Americans' ability to sell their individually owned lands. The Oneida were then offered a one-time lump-sum payment of $60,000 in lieu of the $500 annuity guaranteed in perpetuity to each member of the tribe under the Canandaigua Treaty.

The efforts of the BIA to "sell" readjustment to the tribe failed because the Oneida realized that they had heard similar offers before. The Oneida delegates reacted negatively to the BIA's first suggestion because taxation of Native American lands had been one past vehicle for dispossessing the Oneida: after the distribution of some tribal lands to individual Native Americans in the late nineteenth century, Native American lands became subject to taxation. resulting in new and impossible financial burdens, foreclosures, and subsequent tax sales of property. The Oneida delegates were equally suspicious of the BIA's emphasis on the rights of individual landowners, since in the late nineteenth century many individual Native Americans had been convinced by unscrupulous speculators to sell their lands. Finally, the offer of a lump-sum payment was unanimously opposed by the Oneida delegates, who saw that changing the terms of a treaty might jeopardize the many pending land claims based upon the treaty.
As a result of the 1956 meeting, the Oneida rejected readjustment. Instead, they determined to improve tribal life by lobbying for federal monies for postsecondary education, for the improvement of drainage on tribal lands, and for the building of a convalescent home for tribal members. Thus, by learning the lessons of history, the Oneida were able to survive as a tribe in their homeland.

1. Which one of the following would be most consistent with the policy of readjustment described in the Passage?

(A) the establishment among Native Americans of tribal system of elected government
(B) the creation of a national project to preserve Native American language and oral history
(C) the establishment of programs to encourage Native Americans to move from reservations to urban areas
(D) the development of a large-scale effort to restore Native American lands to their original tribes
(E) the reaffirmation of federal treaty obligations to Native American tribes

2. According to the passage, after the 1956 meeting the Oneida resolved to

(A) obtain improved social services and living conditions for members of the tribe
(B) pursue litigation designed to reclaim tribal Lands
(C) secure recognition of their unique status as a self-governing Native American nation within the United States
(D) establish new kinds of tribal institutions
(E) cultivate a life-style similar to that of other United States citizens


3.Which one of the following best describes the function of the first paragraph in the context of the passage as a whole

(A) It summarizes the basis of a conflict underlying negotiations described elsewhere in the passage.
(B) It presents two positions, one of which is defended by evidence provided in succeeding paragraphs
(C) lt compares competing interpretations of a historical conflict.
(D) It analyzes the causes of a specific historical event and predicts a future development.
(E) It outlines the history of a government agency.


4.The author refers to the increased awareness of civil rights during the 1940s and 1950s most probably in order to

(A) contrast the readjustment movement with other social phenomena
(B) account for the stance of the Native American leadership
(C) help explain the impetus for the readjustment movement
(D) explain the motives of BIA bureaucrats
(E) foster support for the policy of readjustment


5.The passage suggests that advocates of readjustment would most likely agree with which one of the following statements regarding the relationship between the federal government and Native Americans

(A) The federal government should work with individual Native Americans to improve life on reservations.
(B) The federal government should be no more involved in the affairs of Native Americans than in the affairs of other citizens.
(C) The federal government should assume more responsibility for providing social services to Native Americans.
(D) The federal government should share its responsibility for maintaining Native American territories with tribal leaders
(E)The federal government should observe all provisions of treaties made in the past with Native Americans


6.The passage suggests that the Oneida delegates viewed the Canandaigua Treaty as

(A) a valuable safeguard of certain Oneida rights and privileges
(B) the source of many past problems for the Oneida tribe
(C) a model for the type of agreement they hoped to reach with the federal government
(D) an important step toward recognition of their nation
(E) an obsolete agreement without relevance for their current condition


7.Which one of the following situations most closely parallels that of the Oneida delegates in refusing to accept a lump-sum payment of $60,000 ?

(A) A university offers a student a four-year scholarship with the stipulation that the student not accept any outside employment; the student refuses the offer and attends a different school because the amount of the scholarship would not have covered living expenses
(B) A company seeking to reduce its payroll obligations offers an employee a large bonus if he will accept early retirement; the employee refuses because he does not want to compromise an outstanding worker's compensation suit
(C) Parents of a teenager offer to pay her at the end of the month for performing weekly chores rather than paying her on a weekly basis; the teenager refuses because she has number of financial obligations that she must meet early in the month
(D) A car dealer offers a customer a S500 cash payment for buying a new car: the customer refuses because she does not want to pay taxes on the amount, and requests instead that her monthly payments be reduced by a proportionate amount.
(E) A landlord offers a tenant several months rent-free in exchange for the tenant's agreeing not to demand that her apartment be painted every two years, as is required by the lease the tenant refuses because she would have to spend her own time painting the apartment.



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Originally posted by pathy on 02 Feb 2019, 02:45.
Last edited by pathy on 03 Feb 2019, 15:45, edited 2 times in total.
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During the 1940s and 1950s the United States government developed  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 03 Feb 2019, 17:43
1
1. Which one of the following would be most consistent with the policy of readjustment described in the Passage?

Paragraph 1: the readjustment movement advocated the end of the federal government's involvement in Native American affairs and encouraged the assimilation of Native Americans as individuals into mainstream society

(A) the establishment among Native Americans of tribal system of elected government
Maybe that would be allowed. It doesn’t seem very assimilation-y, but it’s not government involvment
(B) the creation of a national project to preserve Native American language and oral history
Not explicit, but this could mean government involvement. Both A and B are bad, I think A is slightly less bad. A
(C) the establishment of programs to encourage Native Americans to move from reservations to urban areas
This does seem to have federal government involvement, at least in the short-term, to get the Natives off the reservations. But it definitely supports the latter half of readjustment – encouraging assimilation. C
(D) the development of a large-scale effort to restore Native American lands to their original tribes
This seems the complete opposite of readjustment. Large-scale effort presumably by government. Give them their land and have them separate, not assimilating. C
(E) the reaffirmation of federal treaty obligations to Native American tribes
This is opposing. Obligations means continued involvement. It may not stop assimilation, but it strong involvement. C

2. According to the passage, after the 1956 meeting the Oneida resolved to

Final part of Para 3: the Oneida rejected readjustment. Instead, they determined to improve tribal life by lobbying for federal monies for postsecondary education, for the improvement of drainage on tribal lands, and for the building of a convalescent home for tribal members

(A) obtain improved social services and living conditions for members of the tribe
Yes. Lobbying is a form of ‘resolving to’
(B) pursue litigation designed to reclaim tribal Lands
Not mentioned at all. It seems they already have some land A
(C) secure recognition of their unique status as a self-governing Native American nation within the United States
They seem to already have it. The Govt had to attempt a deal as it was already secure. Even if not the case, not mentioned that they will seek something legal A
(D) establish new kinds of tribal institutions
First paragraph mentions ‘However, the same years also saw the emergence of a Native American leadership and efforts to develop tribal institutions and reaffirm tribal identity’, but that isn’t after the 1956 meeting. A
(E) cultivate a life-style similar to that of other United States citizens
Secondary school, old age care etc may be ‘a lifestyle similar’, but they may already have a similar lifestyle, so not something only post-meeting. Can also be argued that living separately on tribal lands is not a similar lifestyle A

3.Which one of the following best describes the function of the first paragraph in the context of the passage as a whole

(A) It summarizes the basis of a conflict underlying negotiations described elsewhere in the passage.
Yes. We know what readjustment is (Govt policy), we know about the emergence of a Native American leadership and efforts to develop tribal institutions and reaffirm tribal identity
(B) It presents two positions, one of which is defended by evidence provided in succeeding paragraphs
The passage does present two positions (as noted in option A), but evidence is not defended in later paragraphs. Apparently the natives ‘won’, but I haven’t been convinced about their position (maybe readjustment would have been better) A
(C) lt compares competing interpretations of a historical conflict.
No. The two parties (Natives and Government) come to the ‘conflict’ with different viewpoints, but there is no indication that they come away from the ‘conflict’ with different interpretations A
(D) It analyzes the causes of a specific historical event and predicts a future development.
There is no prediction in the first paragraphA
(E) It outlines the history of a government agency.
No. It describes a period of time and differing views rather than a government agency (it may only be a small part of BIA anyway – their dealings with this particular group of Natives when there could be thousands)A

4. The author refers to the increased awareness of civil rights during the 1940s and 1950s most probably in order to
(A) contrast the readjustment movement with other social phenomena
Perhaps. We’d have to bring in a lot of prior knowledge. It does not seem to engender a comparison
(B) account for the stance of the Native American leadership
No. The civil rights movement pushed the Govt stance. The Native stance was “However, the same years also saw the emergence of a Native American leadership and efforts to develop tribal institutions and reaffirm tribal identity” with however showing it as opposing the civil rights movement position. This is emphasised by the ‘clash’ in the next sentence A
(C) help explain the impetus for the readjustment movement
This is good. ‘Because the increased awareness of civil rights, …the readjustment movement XXXX’. Much better than the completely unsupported ‘contrast’ in option A. C
(D) explain the motives of BIA bureaucrats
‘Motives’ isn’t a great word. The bureaucrats may have a different motivation and can use the civil rights movement as a cover (stuff the natives, civil rights to stop paying them money). This is supported by ‘helped reinforce’ – there was already an existing idea, the civil rights movement only acted as an impetus C
(E) foster support for the policy of readjustment
It could be construed that way: ‘associated with civil rights must be good’. But an appeal to justice etc wasn’t used. “helped reinforce the belief…” and what helped reinforce the belief ‘Because the increased awareness of civil rights in these decades’ C

5.The passage suggests that advocates of readjustment would most likely agree with which one of the following statements regarding the relationship between the federal government and Native Americans

the readjustment movement advocated the end of the federal government's involvement in Native American affairs and encouraged the assimilation of Native Americans as individuals into mainstream society

(A) The federal government should work with individual Native Americans to improve life on reservations.
Readjustment is about Govt getting out of Natives lives and Native integration into society. This is opposed
(B) The federal government should be no more involved in the affairs of Native Americans than in the affairs of other citizens.
Yes. B
(C) The federal government should assume more responsibility for providing social services to Native Americans.
This is govt involvement B
(D) The federal government should share its responsibility for maintaining Native American territories with tribal leaders
This may or may not be less government involvement. This may or may not be mainstream society. It doesn’t particularly advocate like B does. B
(E)The federal government should observe all provisions of treaties made in the past with Native Americans
This is out of scope. Not mentioned that govt is ignoring provisions prior to 1956. B

6.The passage suggests that the Oneida delegates viewed the Canandaigua Treaty as

(A) a valuable safeguard of certain Oneida rights and privileges
Yes. The right to get 500 in perpetuity. The privilege to not pay real estate tax.
(B) the source of many past problems for the Oneida tribe
Not refuted. Maybe it caused big problems in the past. It could even be construed that the rights and privileges given under Canandaigua have ostracised the natives and created a barrier to exercising rights under the Constitution. But that is construed, not suggested. A
(C) a model for the type of agreement they hoped to reach with the federal government
The Natives already have this agreement A
(D) an important step toward recognition of their nation
See C A
(E) an obsolete agreement without relevance for their current condition
No. It’s not obsolete as they still get money and no tax. Those are clearly relevant to the current conditionA

7.Which one of the following situations most closely parallels that of the Oneida delegates in refusing to accept a lump-sum payment of $60,000 ?

The BIA suggested that it would be to the Oneida's benefit to own their own property and, like other homeowners, pay real estate taxes on it. The BIA also emphasized that, after readjustment, the government would not attempt to restrict Native Americans' ability to sell their individually owned lands. The Oneida were then offered a one-time lump-sum payment of $60,000 in lieu of the $500 annuity guaranteed in perpetuity to each member of the tribe
So. Lump sum (short term). No perpetuity (long term). Gain option to sell land (short-term)Lose tax-free (long-term). Short-term gain for long-term pain both money and rights. All offers by government.

(A) A university offers a student a four-year scholarship with the stipulation that the student not accept any outside employment; the student refuses the offer and attends a different school because the amount of the scholarship would not have covered living expenses
This has the money aspect, but the are no long-term rights
(B) A company seeking to reduce its payroll obligations offers an employee a large bonus if he will accept early retirement; the employee refuses because he does not want to compromise an outstanding worker's compensation suit

Money, yes (lump sum for wages). Rights, yes (no work, no lawsuit). B
(C) Parents of a teenager offer to pay her at the end of the month for performing weekly chores rather than paying her on a weekly basis; the teenager refuses because she has number of financial obligations that she must meet early in the month
This is delayed payment, not upfront paymentB
(D) A car dealer offers a customer a S500 cash payment for buying a new car: the customer refuses because she does not want to pay taxes on the amount, and requests instead that her monthly payments be reduced by a proportionate amount.
This is a request and not an offer from the car dealerB
(E) A landlord offers a tenant several months rent-free in exchange for the tenant's agreeing not to demand that her apartment be painted every two years, as is required by the lease the tenant refuses because she would have to spend her own time painting the apartment.
No lumpsum payment (long-term rent reduction). No short-term rights gain.B

Originally posted by philipssonicare on 03 Feb 2019, 15:26.
Last edited by philipssonicare on 03 Feb 2019, 17:43, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: During the 1940s and 1950s the United States government developed  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Feb 2019, 15:47
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philipssonicare wrote:
There is something seriously wrong with question 4. contrast and then only option A offers a contrast.

I'll edit this post with explanations for the other answers



sorry about a major error in the question. Yes, you are right. The answer choices were awkard. I have corrected the question now:

The author refers to the increased awareness of civil rights during the 1940s and 1950s most probably in order to
(A) contrast the readjustment movement with other social phenomena
(B) account for the stance of the Native American leadership
(C) help explain the impetus for the readjustment movement
(D) explain the motives of BIA bureaucrats
(E) foster support for the policy of readjustment
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Re: During the 1940s and 1950s the United States government developed   [#permalink] 03 Feb 2019, 15:47
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During the 1940s and 1950s the United States government developed

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