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# During the 1980s, many economic historians studying Latin America fo

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During the 1980s, many economic historians studying Latin America fo  [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2016, 13:37
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During the 1980s, many economic historians
studying Latin America focused on the impact of
the Great Depression of the 1930s. Most of these
historians argued that although the Depression
(5)
began earlier in Latin America than in the United
States, it was less severe in Latin America and did
not significantly impede industrial growth there.
The historians’ argument was grounded in national
government records concerning tax revenues and
(10)
censuses, from which historians have drawn
and profit levels across Latin America. However,
(15)
governments in the early twentieth century are
neither reliable nor consistent; this is especially
true of manufacturing data, which were gathered
from factory owners for taxation purposes and
which therefore may well be distorted. Moreover,
(20)
one cannot assume a direct correlation between
the output level and the profit level of a given
industry as these variables often move in opposite
directions. Finally, national and regional economies
are composed of individual firms and industries,
(25)
and relying on general, sweeping economic
indicators may mask substantial variations among
these different enterprises. For example, recent
analyses of previously unexamined data on textile
manufacturing in Brazil and Mexico suggest that the
(30)
Great Depression had a more severe impact on this
Latin American industry than scholars
(Book Question: 460)
The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. compare the impact of the Great Depression on Latin America with its impact on the United States
B. criticize a school of economic historians for failing to analyze the Great Depression in Latin America within a global context
C. illustrate the risks inherent in comparing different types of economic enterprises to explain economic phenomena
D. call into question certain scholars’ views concerning the severity of the Great Depression in Latin America
E. demonstrate that the Great Depression had a more severe impact on industry in Latin America than in certain other regions

(Book Question: 461)
Which of the following conclusions about the Great Depression is best supported by the passage?
A. It did not impede Latin American industrial growth as much as historians had previously thought.
B. It had a more severe impact on the Brazilian and the Mexican textile industries than it had on Latin America as a region.
C. It affected the Latin American textile industry more severely than it did any other industry in Latin America.
D. The overall impact on Latin American industrial growth should be reevaluated by economic historians.
E. Its impact on Latin America should not be compared with its impact on the United States

(Book Question: 462)
Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the author’s assertion regarding economic indicators in lines 25–27 ?
A. During an economic depression, European textile manufacturers’ profits rise while their industrial output remains steady.
B. During a national economic recession, United States microchips manufacturers’ profits rise sharply while United States steel manufacturers’ profits plunge.
C. During the years following a severe economic depression, textile manufacturers’ output levels and profit levels increase in Brazil and Mexico but not in the rest of Latin America.
D. Although Japanese industry as a whole recovers after an economic recession, it does not regain its previously high levels of production.
E. While European industrial output increases in the years following an economic depression, total output remains below that of Japan or the United States.

OG 2019 ID's:
RC00333-01
RC00333-02
RC00333-04

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Re: During the 1980s, many economic historians studying Latin America fo  [#permalink]

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27 Jul 2016, 22:26
7
2
1) The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. compare the impact of the Great Depression on Latin America with its impact on the United States - Incorrect. The passage does not compare the impact of Great Depression on Latin America with other nations. Rather the passage is focused on the impact of Great Depression on the industrial growth in Latin America.

B. criticize a school of economic historians for failing to analyze the Great Depression in Latin America within a global context - Incorrect. Global context?

C. illustrate the risks inherent in comparing different types of economic enterprises to explain economic phenomena - Incorrect. Out of context

D. call into question certain scholars’ views concerning the severity of the Great Depression in Latin America - Correct

E. demonstrate that the Great Depression had a more severe impact on industry in Latin America than in certain other regions - Incorrect. Same reason as A. The passage does not compare the impact of GD in Latin America with other regions.

2) Which of the following conclusions about the Great Depression is best supported by the passage?

Refer: Historians think that GD was less severe in Latin America and did not significantly impede industrial growth. The passage provides reasons to disprove the view of the historians.

3) Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the author’s assertion regarding economic indicators in lines 25–27 ?

Refer: "Finally, national and regional economies are composed of individual firms and industries, and relying on general, sweeping economic indicators may mask substantial variations among these different enterprises."

A. During an economic depression, European textile manufacturers’ profits rise while their industrial output remains steady. - Incorrect. Focus is only on textile manufacturers.

B. During a national economic recession, United States microchips manufacturers’ profits rise sharply while United States steel manufacturers’ profits plunge. - Correct. We have two different industries: Microchip and steel. There is a variation between the 2 industries profits.

C. During the years following a severe economic depression, textile manufacturers’ output levels and profit levels increase in Brazil and Mexico but not in the rest of Latin America. - Incorrect. Only textile manufacturers are considered.

D. Although Japanese industry as a whole recovers after an economic recession, it does not regain its previously high levels of production. - Incorrect. Japanese industry as a whole is considered.

E. While European industrial output increases in the years following an economic depression, total output remains below that of Japan or the United States. - Incorrect. Same reason as before.

##### General Discussion
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Re: During the 1980s, many economic historians studying Latin America fo  [#permalink]

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29 Jun 2017, 06:56
1
Vyshak wrote:
1) The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. compare the impact of the Great Depression on Latin America with its impact on the United States - Incorrect. The passage does not compare the impact of Great Depression on Latin America with other nations. Rather the passage is focused on the impact of Great Depression on the industrial growth in Latin America.

B. criticize a school of economic historians for failing to analyze the Great Depression in Latin America within a global context - Incorrect. Global context?

C. illustrate the risks inherent in comparing different types of economic enterprises to explain economic phenomena - Incorrect. Out of context

D. call into question certain scholars’ views concerning the severity of the Great Depression in Latin America - Correct

E. demonstrate that the Great Depression had a more severe impact on industry in Latin America than in certain other regions - Incorrect. Same reason as A. The passage does not compare the impact of GD in Latin America with other regions.

2) Which of the following conclusions about the Great Depression is best supported by the passage?

Refer: Historians think that GD was less severe in Latin America and did not significantly impede industrial growth. The passage provides reasons to disprove the view of the historians.

3) Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the author’s assertion regarding economic indicators in lines 25–27 ?

Refer: "Finally, national and regional economies are composed of individual firms and industries, and relying on general, sweeping economic indicators may mask substantial variations among these different enterprises."

A. During an economic depression, European textile manufacturers’ profits rise while their industrial output remains steady. - Incorrect. Focus is only on textile manufacturers.

B. During a national economic recession, United States microchips manufacturers’ profits rise sharply while United States steel manufacturers’ profits plunge. - Correct. We have two different industries: Microchip and steel. There is a variation between the 2 industries profits.

C. During the years following a severe economic depression, textile manufacturers’ output levels and profit levels increase in Brazil and Mexico but not in the rest of Latin America. - Incorrect. Only textile manufacturers are considered.

D. Although Japanese industry as a whole recovers after an economic recession, it does not regain its previously high levels of production. - Incorrect. Japanese industry as a whole is considered.

E. While European industrial output increases in the years following an economic depression, total output remains below that of Japan or the United States. - Incorrect. Same reason as before.

I am unable to figure out how AO is B in question no. 3? The passage talks about the US only in the beginning and nowhere mentions about steel and microchip industry of the US.
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Re: During the 1980s, many economic historians studying Latin America fo  [#permalink]

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08 Jul 2017, 03:02
sanjana90 wrote:
Vyshak wrote:
1) The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. compare the impact of the Great Depression on Latin America with its impact on the United States - Incorrect. The passage does not compare the impact of Great Depression on Latin America with other nations. Rather the passage is focused on the impact of Great Depression on the industrial growth in Latin America.

B. criticize a school of economic historians for failing to analyze the Great Depression in Latin America within a global context - Incorrect. Global context?

C. illustrate the risks inherent in comparing different types of economic enterprises to explain economic phenomena - Incorrect. Out of context

D. call into question certain scholars’ views concerning the severity of the Great Depression in Latin America - Correct

E. demonstrate that the Great Depression had a more severe impact on industry in Latin America than in certain other regions - Incorrect. Same reason as A. The passage does not compare the impact of GD in Latin America with other regions.

2) Which of the following conclusions about the Great Depression is best supported by the passage?

Refer: Historians think that GD was less severe in Latin America and did not significantly impede industrial growth. The passage provides reasons to disprove the view of the historians.

3) Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the author’s assertion regarding economic indicators in lines 25–27 ?

Refer: "Finally, national and regional economies are composed of individual firms and industries, and relying on general, sweeping economic indicators may mask substantial variations among these different enterprises."

A. During an economic depression, European textile manufacturers’ profits rise while their industrial output remains steady. - Incorrect. Focus is only on textile manufacturers.

B. During a national economic recession, United States microchips manufacturers’ profits rise sharply while United States steel manufacturers’ profits plunge. - Correct. We have two different industries: Microchip and steel. There is a variation between the 2 industries profits.

C. During the years following a severe economic depression, textile manufacturers’ output levels and profit levels increase in Brazil and Mexico but not in the rest of Latin America. - Incorrect. Only textile manufacturers are considered.

D. Although Japanese industry as a whole recovers after an economic recession, it does not regain its previously high levels of production. - Incorrect. Japanese industry as a whole is considered.

E. While European industrial output increases in the years following an economic depression, total output remains below that of Japan or the United States. - Incorrect. Same reason as before.

I am unable to figure out how AO is B in question no. 3? The passage talks about the US only in the beginning and nowhere mentions about steel and microchip industry of the US.

The question only asks for a strengthener of the argument in lines 25-27 - that economic indicators such as profits vary among different industries.
Only choice B mentioned 2 different industries (steel and manufacturing) with varying economic indicators.

The passage does not have to talk about the answer choices in order for them to be correct. Same as what we have learned in critical reasoning, a strengthener should be new information not previously stated in the question stimulus.
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Re: During the 1980s, many economic historians studying Latin America fo  [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2017, 07:42
6
sanjana90 wrote:
Vyshak wrote:
1) The primary purpose of the passage is to

I am unable to figure out how AO is B in question no. 3? The passage talks about the US only in the beginning and nowhere mentions about steel and microchip industry of the US.

This is an analogy Question (type).
You need to find out what the given condition / situation is , here it is- sweeping economic
indicators may mask substantial variations among
these different enterprises
.
Now we need to use this idea to find our analogy.
Only in option B. Different enterprises are being talked about (United States microchips manufacturers& United States steel manufacturers) and the substantial variations . Ones profits rise sharply and the others plunge.
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Re: During the 1980s, many economic historians studying Latin America fo  [#permalink]

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27 Nov 2017, 10:31
1
nice passage , took 6 mins 30 seconds, including 2 mins 30 seconds to read the passage . All correct
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Re: During the 1980s, many economic historians studying Latin America fo  [#permalink]

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28 Nov 2017, 08:32
Nice passage. Got all correct in about 6 minutes 30 seconds.
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Re: During the 1980s, many economic historians studying Latin America fo  [#permalink]

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02 Dec 2017, 09:48
Time taken - 7 mins

Got 2/3 correct. Missed the global context part while reading the options quickly and hence marked B as the answer choice for 1st ques
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Re: During the 1980s, many economic historians studying Latin America fo  [#permalink]

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19 Dec 2017, 23:07
Spent 5 minutes 31 sec; though wrong on the last question
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Re: During the 1980s, many economic historians studying Latin America fo  [#permalink]

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07 Jun 2018, 23:42
*IN THE LAST QUESTION*
So we have chosen B as it is the only option that is talking about different enterprises .....and remaining are not having different enterprise analogies?

Please correct me if my understanding of the poe is wrong
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Re: During the 1980s, many economic historians studying Latin America fo  [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2018, 09:32
GMATNinja KarishmaB

Can anyone explain (Book Question: 462)
Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the author’s assertion regarding economic indicators in lines 25–27 ?
A. During an economic depression, European textile manufacturers’ profits rise while their industrial output remains steady.
B. During a national economic recession, United States microchips manufacturers’ profits rise sharply while United States steel manufacturers’ profits plunge.
C. During the years following a severe economic depression, textile manufacturers’ output levels and profit levels increase in Brazil and Mexico but not in the rest of Latin America.
D. Although Japanese industry as a whole recovers after an economic recession, it does not regain its previously high levels of production.
E. While European industrial output increases in the years following an economic depression, total output remains below that of Japan or the United States.

I failed to identify the main conclusion and supporting premise here.
I understood below:
Author seems to be disagreeing with historians that
• Great depression was was less severe in Latin America than in US
and did not significantly impede industrial growth there

Supporting premise used by author against historians
• The premise used by historians ie economic statistics are neither accurate
nor reliable

Additional supporting premise used by author against historians
• one cannot assume a direct correlation between
the output level and the profit level of a given
industry as these variables often move in opposite
directions

I could not proceed further.
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Re: During the 1980s, many economic historians studying Latin America fo  [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2018, 17:01
1
GMATNinja KarishmaB

Can anyone explain (Book Question: 462)
Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the author’s assertion regarding economic indicators in lines 25–27 ?
A. During an economic depression, European textile manufacturers’ profits rise while their industrial output remains steady.
B. During a national economic recession, United States microchips manufacturers’ profits rise sharply while United States steel manufacturers’ profits plunge.
C. During the years following a severe economic depression, textile manufacturers’ output levels and profit levels increase in Brazil and Mexico but not in the rest of Latin America.
D. Although Japanese industry as a whole recovers after an economic recession, it does not regain its previously high levels of production.
E. While European industrial output increases in the years following an economic depression, total output remains below that of Japan or the United States.

I failed to identify the main conclusion and supporting premise here.
I understood below:
Author seems to be disagreeing with historians that
• Great depression was was less severe in Latin America than in US
and did not significantly impede industrial growth there

Supporting premise used by author against historians
• The premise used by historians ie economic statistics are neither accurate
nor reliable

Additional supporting premise used by author against historians
• one cannot assume a direct correlation between
the output level and the profit level of a given
industry as these variables often move in opposite
directions

I could not proceed further.

What i understood is

As per historians, great depression was less severe in Latin America than USA and great depression didn't delay Industrial Growth in Latin America.
Historians used data from National government records and government-sponsored industrial censuses to claim their assertion.

National Government Records--> Tax revenues and Exports
Government-sponsored industrial censuses--> Total Manufacturing Output and Profit Levels.

But as per Author, Historians claim is not reliable and not consistent.
Author specifically points out that Historian claim is not valid for MANUFACTURING DATA.

Then Author says:
1. Manufacturing data may be distorted
2. CANNOT assume a direct correlation between the output level and the profit level of a given industry. These variables often move in opposite directions.
3. National and Regional Economies are consist of Individual firms and Industry. Economic Indicator, which is very wide, may hide substantial variation among DIFFERENT Firms/Enterprises.

Then Author gives example of textile manufacturing of Brazil and Mexico and says GD has more impact in Latin America than historians considered.

adkikani to your question, please note "DIFFERENT Enterprises" which author mentioned in 3rd point. Only option B considers two different firms i.e. USA microchips manufacturers’ and USA steel manufacturers profits’
Other options talk about one industry only. So option B is correct.
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Re: During the 1980s, many economic historians studying Latin America fo  [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2018, 20:23
Thanks ammuseeru for your two cents. I have a small f/u query.
You wrote:
Quote:
3. National and Regional Economies are consist of Individual firms and Industry. Economic Indicator, which is very wide, may hide substantial variation among DIFFERENT Firms/Enterprises.

And here is (B) again
Quote:
B. During a national economic recession, United States microchips manufacturers’ profits rise sharply while United States steel manufacturers’ profits plunge .

How did you link the underlined part in your quote with (B) ?
Your reply shall help in inferring the context of (B) from the perspective of passage.
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Re: During the 1980s, many economic historians studying Latin America fo  [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2018, 20:33
1
Thanks ammuseeru for your two cents. I have a small f/u query.
You wrote:
Quote:
3. National and Regional Economies are consist of Individual firms and Industry. Economic Indicator, which is very wide, may hide substantial variation among DIFFERENT Firms/Enterprises.

And here is (B) again
Quote:
B. During a national economic recession, United States microchips manufacturers’ profits rise sharply while United States steel manufacturers’ profits plunge .

How did you link the underlined part in your quote with (B) ?
Your reply shall help in inferring the context of (B) from the perspective of passage.

Different Enterprises: Microchip and steel.
Variations: 2 Industries Profits.
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Re: During the 1980s, many economic historians studying Latin America fo  [#permalink]

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11 Oct 2018, 15:15
Got 3/3 correct but took 8 minutes including 4 min to read the passage!
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Re: During the 1980s, many economic historians studying Latin America fo  [#permalink]

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25 Feb 2019, 19:27
3/3

1- 02:40, 2 - 01:20, 3-02:06

Total - 06:06
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Re: During the 1980s, many economic historians studying Latin America fo  [#permalink]

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11 May 2019, 19:24
GMATNinja

Hello.

My thought process in Question 3 is that I eliminated C, D, E, because it all talks about situations that occur AFTER the depression has happened. And between A and B, B is a better choice because the situation talks about 2 different industries, hence matching with the passage.

Can anyone comment if this is a correct assessment?

Thanks.
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11 May 2019, 22:37
LA hit GD before us but negligible effect on industries 1) not reliable 2) variables opp 3) individual firms and industries blue real scene ex- B and M had impact

3/3

7:35mins.
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Re: During the 1980s, many economic historians studying Latin America fo  [#permalink]

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25 May 2019, 20:56
(Book Question: 461)
Which of the following conclusions about the Great Depression is best supported by the passage?
A. It did not impede Latin American industrial growth as much as historians had previously thought.
B. It had a more severe impact on the Brazilian and the Mexican textile industries than it had on Latin America as a region.
C. It affected the Latin American textile industry more severely than it did any other industry in Latin America.
D. The overall impact on Latin American industrial growth should be reevaluated by economic historians.
E. Its impact on Latin America should not be compared with its impact on the United States

I still don't understand why B is wrong in Question No.2.
the passage says, using general data would mask the variation among different industries, implying that the historians are considering the textile industries at the same level as the whole Latin America.
And then the passage says, Brazil and Mexico textile industries suffered more severe impact than historians had recognized. Doesn't this mean the impact on the Brazilian and the Mexican textile industries is more severe than that is on Latin America as a region?

Can anyone help? Thanks!
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Re: During the 1980s, many economic historians studying Latin America fo  [#permalink]

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26 May 2019, 11:00
Thanks for sharing it with us.
Re: During the 1980s, many economic historians studying Latin America fo   [#permalink] 26 May 2019, 11:00
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