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During the 1980s, many economic historians studying Latin America fo

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During the 1980s, many economic historians studying Latin America fo  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 11 Aug 2019, 04:18
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    During the 1980s, many economic historians
    studying Latin America focused on the impact of
    the Great Depression of the 1930s. Most of these
    historians argued that although the Depression
(5)
    began earlier in Latin America than in the United
    States, it was less severe in Latin America and did
    not significantly impede industrial growth there.
    The historians’ argument was grounded in national
    government records concerning tax revenues and
(10)
    exports and in government-sponsored industrial
    censuses, from which historians have drawn
    conclusions about total manufacturing output
    and profit levels across Latin America. However,
    economic statistics published by Latin American
(15)
    governments in the early twentieth century are
    neither reliable nor consistent; this is especially
    true of manufacturing data, which were gathered
    from factory owners for taxation purposes and
    which therefore may well be distorted. Moreover,
(20)
    one cannot assume a direct correlation between
    the output level and the profit level of a given
    industry as these variables often move in opposite
    directions. Finally, national and regional economies
    are composed of individual firms and industries,
(25)
    and relying on general, sweeping economic
    indicators may mask substantial variations among
    these different enterprises. For example, recent
    analyses of previously unexamined data on textile
    manufacturing in Brazil and Mexico suggest that the
(30)
    Great Depression had a more severe impact on this
    Latin American industry than scholars
    had recognized.
(Book Question: 460)
The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. compare the impact of the Great Depression on Latin America with its impact on the United States
B. criticize a school of economic historians for failing to analyze the Great Depression in Latin America within a global context
C. illustrate the risks inherent in comparing different types of economic enterprises to explain economic phenomena
D. call into question certain scholars’ views concerning the severity of the Great Depression in Latin America
E. demonstrate that the Great Depression had a more severe impact on industry in Latin America than in certain other regions


(Book Question: 461)
Which of the following conclusions about the Great Depression is best supported by the passage?
A. It did not impede Latin American industrial growth as much as historians had previously thought.
B. It had a more severe impact on the Brazilian and the Mexican textile industries than it had on Latin America as a region.
C. It affected the Latin American textile industry more severely than it did any other industry in Latin America.
D. The overall impact on Latin American industrial growth should be reevaluated by economic historians.
E. Its impact on Latin America should not be compared with its impact on the United States


(Book Question: 462)
Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the author’s assertion regarding economic indicators in lines 25–27 ?
A. During an economic depression, European textile manufacturers’ profits rise while their industrial output remains steady.
B. During a national economic recession, United States microchips manufacturers’ profits rise sharply while United States steel manufacturers’ profits plunge.
C. During the years following a severe economic depression, textile manufacturers’ output levels and profit levels increase in Brazil and Mexico but not in the rest of Latin America.
D. Although Japanese industry as a whole recovers after an economic recession, it does not regain its previously high levels of production.
E. While European industrial output increases in the years following an economic depression, total output remains below that of Japan or the United States.




OG 2019 ID's:
RC00333-01
RC00333-02
RC00333-04

Originally posted by AbdurRakib on 26 Jul 2016, 13:37.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 11 Aug 2019, 04:18, edited 1 time in total.
Updated - Complete topic (116).
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Re: During the 1980s, many economic historians studying Latin America fo  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jul 2016, 22:26
8
2
1) The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. compare the impact of the Great Depression on Latin America with its impact on the United States - Incorrect. The passage does not compare the impact of Great Depression on Latin America with other nations. Rather the passage is focused on the impact of Great Depression on the industrial growth in Latin America.

B. criticize a school of economic historians for failing to analyze the Great Depression in Latin America within a global context - Incorrect. Global context?

C. illustrate the risks inherent in comparing different types of economic enterprises to explain economic phenomena - Incorrect. Out of context

D. call into question certain scholars’ views concerning the severity of the Great Depression in Latin America - Correct

E. demonstrate that the Great Depression had a more severe impact on industry in Latin America than in certain other regions - Incorrect. Same reason as A. The passage does not compare the impact of GD in Latin America with other regions.

Answer: D

2) Which of the following conclusions about the Great Depression is best supported by the passage?

Refer: Historians think that GD was less severe in Latin America and did not significantly impede industrial growth. The passage provides reasons to disprove the view of the historians.

Answer: D

3) Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the author’s assertion regarding economic indicators in lines 25–27 ?

Refer: "Finally, national and regional economies are composed of individual firms and industries, and relying on general, sweeping economic indicators may mask substantial variations among these different enterprises."

A. During an economic depression, European textile manufacturers’ profits rise while their industrial output remains steady. - Incorrect. Focus is only on textile manufacturers.

B. During a national economic recession, United States microchips manufacturers’ profits rise sharply while United States steel manufacturers’ profits plunge. - Correct. We have two different industries: Microchip and steel. There is a variation between the 2 industries profits.

C. During the years following a severe economic depression, textile manufacturers’ output levels and profit levels increase in Brazil and Mexico but not in the rest of Latin America. - Incorrect. Only textile manufacturers are considered.

D. Although Japanese industry as a whole recovers after an economic recession, it does not regain its previously high levels of production. - Incorrect. Japanese industry as a whole is considered.

E. While European industrial output increases in the years following an economic depression, total output remains below that of Japan or the United States. - Incorrect. Same reason as before.

Answer: B
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Re: During the 1980s, many economic historians studying Latin America fo  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jul 2017, 03:02
sanjana90 wrote:
Vyshak wrote:
1) The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. compare the impact of the Great Depression on Latin America with its impact on the United States - Incorrect. The passage does not compare the impact of Great Depression on Latin America with other nations. Rather the passage is focused on the impact of Great Depression on the industrial growth in Latin America.

B. criticize a school of economic historians for failing to analyze the Great Depression in Latin America within a global context - Incorrect. Global context?

C. illustrate the risks inherent in comparing different types of economic enterprises to explain economic phenomena - Incorrect. Out of context

D. call into question certain scholars’ views concerning the severity of the Great Depression in Latin America - Correct

E. demonstrate that the Great Depression had a more severe impact on industry in Latin America than in certain other regions - Incorrect. Same reason as A. The passage does not compare the impact of GD in Latin America with other regions.

Answer: D

2) Which of the following conclusions about the Great Depression is best supported by the passage?

Refer: Historians think that GD was less severe in Latin America and did not significantly impede industrial growth. The passage provides reasons to disprove the view of the historians.

Answer: D

3) Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the author’s assertion regarding economic indicators in lines 25–27 ?

Refer: "Finally, national and regional economies are composed of individual firms and industries, and relying on general, sweeping economic indicators may mask substantial variations among these different enterprises."

A. During an economic depression, European textile manufacturers’ profits rise while their industrial output remains steady. - Incorrect. Focus is only on textile manufacturers.

B. During a national economic recession, United States microchips manufacturers’ profits rise sharply while United States steel manufacturers’ profits plunge. - Correct. We have two different industries: Microchip and steel. There is a variation between the 2 industries profits.

C. During the years following a severe economic depression, textile manufacturers’ output levels and profit levels increase in Brazil and Mexico but not in the rest of Latin America. - Incorrect. Only textile manufacturers are considered.

D. Although Japanese industry as a whole recovers after an economic recession, it does not regain its previously high levels of production. - Incorrect. Japanese industry as a whole is considered.

E. While European industrial output increases in the years following an economic depression, total output remains below that of Japan or the United States. - Incorrect. Same reason as before.

Answer: B



I am unable to figure out how AO is B in question no. 3? The passage talks about the US only in the beginning and nowhere mentions about steel and microchip industry of the US.


The question only asks for a strengthener of the argument in lines 25-27 - that economic indicators such as profits vary among different industries.
Only choice B mentioned 2 different industries (steel and manufacturing) with varying economic indicators.

The passage does not have to talk about the answer choices in order for them to be correct. Same as what we have learned in critical reasoning, a strengthener should be new information not previously stated in the question stimulus.
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Re: During the 1980s, many economic historians studying Latin America fo  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jul 2017, 07:42
6
sanjana90 wrote:
Vyshak wrote:
1) The primary purpose of the passage is to






Answer: B



I am unable to figure out how AO is B in question no. 3? The passage talks about the US only in the beginning and nowhere mentions about steel and microchip industry of the US.


This is an analogy Question (type).
You need to find out what the given condition / situation is , here it is- sweeping economic
indicators may mask substantial variations among
these different enterprises
.
Now we need to use this idea to find our analogy.
Only in option B. Different enterprises are being talked about (United States microchips manufacturers& United States steel manufacturers) and the substantial variations . Ones profits rise sharply and the others plunge.
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New post 14 Jul 2018, 09:32
generis ammuseeru nightblade354 pikolo2510
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Can anyone explain (Book Question: 462)
Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the author’s assertion regarding economic indicators in lines 25–27 ?
A. During an economic depression, European textile manufacturers’ profits rise while their industrial output remains steady.
B. During a national economic recession, United States microchips manufacturers’ profits rise sharply while United States steel manufacturers’ profits plunge.
C. During the years following a severe economic depression, textile manufacturers’ output levels and profit levels increase in Brazil and Mexico but not in the rest of Latin America.
D. Although Japanese industry as a whole recovers after an economic recession, it does not regain its previously high levels of production.
E. While European industrial output increases in the years following an economic depression, total output remains below that of Japan or the United States.

I failed to identify the main conclusion and supporting premise here.
I understood below:
    Author seems to be disagreeing with historians that
  • Great depression was was less severe in Latin America than in US
    and did not significantly impede industrial growth there

    Supporting premise used by author against historians
  • The premise used by historians ie economic statistics are neither accurate
    nor reliable

    Additional supporting premise used by author against historians
  • one cannot assume a direct correlation between
    the output level and the profit level of a given
    industry as these variables often move in opposite
    directions

I could not proceed further.
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Re: During the 1980s, many economic historians studying Latin America fo  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jul 2018, 17:01
1
adkikani wrote:
generis ammuseeru nightblade354 pikolo2510
GMATNinja KarishmaB

Can anyone explain (Book Question: 462)
Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the author’s assertion regarding economic indicators in lines 25–27 ?
A. During an economic depression, European textile manufacturers’ profits rise while their industrial output remains steady.
B. During a national economic recession, United States microchips manufacturers’ profits rise sharply while United States steel manufacturers’ profits plunge.
C. During the years following a severe economic depression, textile manufacturers’ output levels and profit levels increase in Brazil and Mexico but not in the rest of Latin America.
D. Although Japanese industry as a whole recovers after an economic recession, it does not regain its previously high levels of production.
E. While European industrial output increases in the years following an economic depression, total output remains below that of Japan or the United States.

I failed to identify the main conclusion and supporting premise here.
I understood below:
    Author seems to be disagreeing with historians that
  • Great depression was was less severe in Latin America than in US
    and did not significantly impede industrial growth there

    Supporting premise used by author against historians
  • The premise used by historians ie economic statistics are neither accurate
    nor reliable

    Additional supporting premise used by author against historians
  • one cannot assume a direct correlation between
    the output level and the profit level of a given
    industry as these variables often move in opposite
    directions

I could not proceed further.


What i understood is

As per historians, great depression was less severe in Latin America than USA and great depression didn't delay Industrial Growth in Latin America.
Historians used data from National government records and government-sponsored industrial censuses to claim their assertion.

National Government Records--> Tax revenues and Exports
Government-sponsored industrial censuses--> Total Manufacturing Output and Profit Levels.

But as per Author, Historians claim is not reliable and not consistent.
Author specifically points out that Historian claim is not valid for MANUFACTURING DATA.

Then Author says:
1. Manufacturing data may be distorted
2. CANNOT assume a direct correlation between the output level and the profit level of a given industry. These variables often move in opposite directions.
3. National and Regional Economies are consist of Individual firms and Industry. Economic Indicator, which is very wide, may hide substantial variation among DIFFERENT Firms/Enterprises.

Then Author gives example of textile manufacturing of Brazil and Mexico and says GD has more impact in Latin America than historians considered.

adkikani to your question, please note "DIFFERENT Enterprises" which author mentioned in 3rd point. Only option B considers two different firms i.e. USA microchips manufacturers’ and USA steel manufacturers profits’
Other options talk about one industry only. So option B is correct.
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Re: During the 1980s, many economic historians studying Latin America fo  [#permalink]

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New post 25 May 2019, 20:56
(Book Question: 461)
Which of the following conclusions about the Great Depression is best supported by the passage?
A. It did not impede Latin American industrial growth as much as historians had previously thought.
B. It had a more severe impact on the Brazilian and the Mexican textile industries than it had on Latin America as a region.
C. It affected the Latin American textile industry more severely than it did any other industry in Latin America.
D. The overall impact on Latin American industrial growth should be reevaluated by economic historians.
E. Its impact on Latin America should not be compared with its impact on the United States


I still don't understand why B is wrong in Question No.2.
the passage says, using general data would mask the variation among different industries, implying that the historians are considering the textile industries at the same level as the whole Latin America.
And then the passage says, Brazil and Mexico textile industries suffered more severe impact than historians had recognized. Doesn't this mean the impact on the Brazilian and the Mexican textile industries is more severe than that is on Latin America as a region?

Can anyone help? Thanks!
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New post 21 Aug 2019, 08:06
pollymonkey wrote:
(Book Question: 461)
Which of the following conclusions about the Great Depression is best supported by the passage?
A. It did not impede Latin American industrial growth as much as historians had previously thought.
B. It had a more severe impact on the Brazilian and the Mexican textile industries than it had on Latin America as a region.
C. It affected the Latin American textile industry more severely than it did any other industry in Latin America.
D. The overall impact on Latin American industrial growth should be reevaluated by economic historians.
E. Its impact on Latin America should not be compared with its impact on the United States


I still don't understand why B is wrong in Question No.2.
the passage says, using general data would mask the variation among different industries, implying that the historians are considering the textile industries at the same level as the whole Latin America.
And then the passage says, Brazil and Mexico textile industries suffered more severe impact than historians had recognized. Doesn't this mean the impact on the Brazilian and the Mexican textile industries is more severe than that is on Latin America as a region?

Can anyone help? Thanks!


This is a trap they are trying to draw you into. The key words referenced in the answer are similar to those in the passage, but the conclusion cannot be directly inferred from/supported by the passage.

The passage merely states that "recent analyses of previously unexamined data on textile manufacturing in Brazil and Mexico suggest that the Great Depression had a more severe impact on this Latin American industry than scholars had recognized."

This simply means that scholars originally thought (as an example) the Brazil + Mexico textile industry declined by 1% but actually it declined by 2% as a result of the Great Depression.

The answer is suggesting that this impact (the decline above as an example) was greater than the impact on Latin America as a region. In our example that would imply LatAm declined by <1%.
BUT the passage does not make any comparison between the two so that you could infer this.

For example it is perfectly possible that LatAm declined by 50%. In this case the passage would still support the fact that the decline in Brazil + Mexico textile industry was greater than originally thought, BUT NOT greater than the decline in LatAm as a region.

Hope this helps explain why B is wrong.
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During the 1980s, many economic historians studying Latin America fo  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Nov 2019, 10:08
Here is my approach to question 3:

My understanding of "Finally, national and regional economies are composed of individual firms and industries,and relying on general, sweeping economic indicators may mask substantial variations among these different enterprises." is that the author is implying that by only looking at general indicators, one might overlook varied data of component firms. (same as pollymonkey 's understanding)

A. During an economic depression, European textile manufacturers’ profits rise while their industrial output remains steady.
=> I think this choice is meant to strengthen the given statament as it demonstrates a similar case of divergent textile manufacturers out of the total industry, but the only flaw that makes it out is that it compares "profits" and "output" (if it had compared either "manufacturers' profit" with "industrial profits" or "manufacturers' output" with "industrial output", this choice would be worth considering.)

B. During a national economic recession, United States microchips manufacturers’ profits rise sharply while United States steel manufacturers’ profits plunge.
=> Though this choice doesn't address the "general-component" key point, it does tackle the part "substantial variations among these different enterprises.". Thus it's correct.
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During the 1980s, many economic historians studying Latin America fo   [#permalink] 09 Nov 2019, 10:08
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