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Exports of United States wood pulp will rise considerably during this

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Exports of United States wood pulp will rise considerably during this  [#permalink]

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Exports of United States wood pulp will rise considerably during this year. The reason for the rise is that the falling value of the dollar will make it cheaper for paper manufacturers in Japan and Western Europe to buy American wood pulp than to get it from any other source.

Which of the following is an assumption made in drawing the conclusion above?


(A) Factory output of paper products in Japan and Western Europe will increase sharply during this year.

(B) The quality of the wood pulp produced in the United States would be adequate for the purposes of Japanese and Western European paper manufacturers.

(C) Paper manufacturers in Japan and Western Europe would prefer to use wood pulp produced in the United States if cost were not a factor.

(D) Demand for paper products made in Japan and Western Europe will not increase sharply during this year.

(E) Production of wood pulp by United States companies will not increase sharply during this year.


CR69561.01

Originally posted by marshpa on 22 Aug 2008, 19:06.
Last edited by Bunuel on 22 Sep 2019, 21:23, edited 2 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Exports of United States wood pulp will rise considerably during this  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Apr 2013, 00:48
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marshpa wrote:
Exports of United States wood pulp will rise considerably during this year. The reason for the rise is that the falling value of the dollar will make it cheaper for paper manufacturers in Japan and Western Europe to buy American wood pulp than to get it from any other source.

Which of the following is an assumption made in drawing the conclusion above?

(A) Factory output of paper products in Japan and Western Europe will increase sharply during this year.
(B) The quality of the wood pulp produced in the United States would be adequate for the purposes of Japanese and Western European paper manufacturers.
(C) Paper manufacturers in Japan and Western Europe would prefer to use wood pulp produced in the United States if cost were not a factor.
(D) Demand for paper products made in Japan and Western Europe will not increase sharply during this year.
(E) Production of wood pulp by United States companies will not increase sharply during this year.

I am not convinced with OA for this question..


Responding to a pm:
The correct answer is (B).
Why not (C)? Because (C) is a sufficient condition for the conclusion to be true while (B) is a necessary condition for the conclusion to be true. An assumption is a necessary premise for the conclusion so (B) is the correct option.

To elaborate:

Premises:
- Dollar is falling.
- It will be cheaper for paper manufacturers in Japan and Western Europe to buy American wood pulp than to get it from any other source.

Conclusion:
- Exports of United States wood pulp will rise considerably during this year.

The conclusion is linking 'Sale of pulp' to 'Cost of pulp'. It says since the cost will be lower, it will sell. We are assuming here that the American pulp is adequate in all other qualities that you look for while buying. Or that lower cost is all that matters while buying something.

Option (B) says that the quality is adequate and hence is an assumption. Notice that it is necessary for our conclusion. If the quality is not adequate, no matter what the cost, US pulp sale may not increase.

Option (C) says that Japanese and Europeans prefer to use US pulp if cost does not matter. Do we NEED this to be true? No. It is good if it is true because it means that if cost of US pulp goes down, US pulp will sell more (hence, it is sufficient for the conclusion to be true - assuming all else stays constant). But do we NEED them to prefer US pulp? No. It is not necessary for our conclusion to be true.

Beware of this difference between 'necessary' and 'sufficient' conditions. Remember that assumptions are NECESSARY conditions, they don't need to be sufficient. We end up incorrectly choosing sufficient because they cover a wider range. If sufficient is true, then conclusion has to be true. But mind you, that is not the question. THe question is looking for a necessary condition, not for a sufficient condition.

Check out another question on the same logic:
since-mayor-drabble-always-repays-her-political-debts-as-98398.html?hilit=assumption%20necessary%20sufficient

and watch out for my this week's post. I will discuss this on my blog Quarter Wit Quarter Wisdom.
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Re: Exports of United States wood pulp will rise considerably during this  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Aug 2008, 19:36
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marshpa wrote:
Exports of United States wood pulp will rise considerably during this year. The reason for the rise is that the falling value of the dollar will make it cheaper for paper manufacturers in Japan and Western Europe to buy American wood pulp than to get it from any other source.
Which of the following is an assumption made in drawing the conclusion above?
(A) Factory output of paper products in Japan and Western Europe will increase sharply during this year.
(B) The quality of the wood pulp produced in the United States would be adequate for the purposes of Japanese and Western European paper manufacturers.
(C) Paper manufacturers in Japan and Western Europe would prefer to use wood pulp produced in the United States if cost were not a factor.
(D) Demand for paper products made in Japan and Western Europe will not increase sharply during this year.
(E) Production of wood pulp by United States companies will not increase sharply during this year.

I am not convinced with OA for this question..

If I can guess well you had selected C !!!!
B and C are close calls.
There a few ways to attack assumption questions. The easiest way is to try negetion. But while doing so do not pull in extra infos.

-B = The quality would NOT be adequate.
-C = Manufacturers would NOT preffer .

In -C even if they don't preffer , they can still do so.

When ever there is a confusion with a choice leave it, if u have a better one in hand.


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Re: Exports of United States wood pulp will rise considerably during this  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Aug 2008, 00:33
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marshpa wrote:
Exports of United States wood pulp will rise considerably during this year. The reason for the rise is that the falling value of the dollar will make it cheaper for paper manufacturers in Japan and Western Europe to buy American wood pulp than to get it from any other source.
Which of the following is an assumption made in drawing the conclusion above?
(A) Factory output of paper products in Japan and Western Europe will increase sharply during this year.
(B) The quality of the wood pulp produced in the United States would be adequate for the purposes of Japanese and Western European paper manufacturers.
(C) Paper manufacturers in Japan and Western Europe would prefer to use wood pulp produced in the United States if cost were not a factor.
(D) Demand for paper products made in Japan and Western Europe will not increase sharply during this year.
(E) Production of wood pulp by United States companies will not increase sharply during this year.

I am not convinced with OA for this question..


A) -> Out of place
B) -> Yes, can be assumption. If quality of wood is not adequate then no matter what the price it will not be bought
C) -> From para it is clear that decrease in cost only increases the export. However this is not assumption.
D) -> Out of place
E) -> Out of place

IMO B)
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New post 01 Sep 2008, 21:38
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IMO B.

C is in the lines of the premise stated in the argument , where as B is a clear assumption.
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Re: Exports of United States wood pulp will rise considerably during this  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Oct 2010, 06:09
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Answer should be B.

Conclusion of the Premises is :: "Exports of United States wood pulp will rise considerably during this year."

Now we have to look into the option which will increase exports of United states as per the question.

Our options are

A) Factory output of paper products in Japan and Western Europe will increase sharply during this year. => This will not increase export of unite state
(B) The quality of the wood pulp produced in the United States would be adequate for the purposes of Japanese and Western European paper manufacturers. => Since the quality of wood pul of US is good so Countries Japan and western europe will take wood from US rather than from other source and they will also consider dollar value which is less now.
(C) Paper manufacturers in Japan and Western Europe would prefer to use wood pulp produced in the United States if cost were not a factor. => This is not an assumption. Look like Inference.
(D) Demand for paper products made in Japan and Western Europe will not increase sharply during this year. => will not affect US export.
(E) Production of wood pulp by United States companies will not increase sharply during this year. => This is not an assumption.
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New post 22 Oct 2010, 21:31
Exports of United States wood pulp will rise considerably during this year. The reason for the rise is that the falling value of the dollar will make it cheaper for paper manufacturers in Japan and Western Europe to buy American wood pulp than to get it from any other source.

Which of the following is an assumption made in drawing the conclusion above?

(A) Factory output of paper products in Japan and Western Europe will increase sharply during this year. This is the conclusion, not the assumption
(B) The quality of the wood pulp produced in the United States would be adequate for the purposes of Japanese and Western European paper manufacturers.IF the quality of the US woodpupl is not adequate, no one will buy even if the prices are lowered as this wood pulp would be of no use to them.
(C) Paper manufacturers in Japan and Western Europe would prefer to use wood pulp produced in the United States if cost were not a factor. To me this one also means the same as the (B) options. it means that the quality of the wood pulp from US is good and they wold prefer to buy it if the cost is not the factor.
(D) Demand for paper products made in Japan and Western Europe will not increase sharply during this year. Out of scope
(E) Production of wood pulp by United States companies will not increase sharply during this year.
Does not address the issue.

To me both B and C mean the same. I will prefer to go with B coz it directly indicate the issue ie the quality is the only issue which can stop the manufacturers to buy it.
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Re: Exports of United States wood pulp will rise considerably during this  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Oct 2010, 06:04
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punzo wrote:
Exports of United States wood pulp will rise considerably during this year. The reason for the rise is that the falling value of the dollar will make it cheaper for paper manufacturers in Japan and Western Europe to buy American wood pulp than to get it from any other source.

Which of the following is an assumption made in drawing the conclusion above?

(A) Factory output of paper products in Japan and Western Europe will increase sharply during this year. This is the conclusion, not the assumption
(B) The quality of the wood pulp produced in the United States would be adequate for the purposes of Japanese and Western European paper manufacturers.IF the quality of the US woodpupl is not adequate, no one will buy even if the prices are lowered as this wood pulp would be of no use to them.
(C) Paper manufacturers in Japan and Western Europe would prefer to use wood pulp produced in the United States if cost were not a factor. To me this one also means the same as the (B) options. it means that the quality of the wood pulp from US is good and they wold prefer to buy it if the cost is not the factor.
(D) Demand for paper products made in Japan and Western Europe will not increase sharply during this year. Out of scope
(E) Production of wood pulp by United States companies will not increase sharply during this year.
Does not address the issue.

To me both B and C mean the same. I will prefer to go with B coz it directly indicate the issue ie the quality is the only issue which can stop the manufacturers to buy it.


We all know that if quality is not good, people would not buy the product; but this is nowhere mentioned in the para. This is external information. Infact, the entire concept of quality is out of scope so far as this question is concerned. IMHO.
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New post 12 Dec 2010, 20:17
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I will go by B

It was either B or C ,

But C fails - as suppose If quality is not adequte for Japan and Europe and cost falls, so do Manufacturers will buy Wood pulp from US.
(Negating the assumption)
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New post 18 Jan 2013, 23:29
Exports of United States wood pulp will rise considerably during this year. The reason for the rise is that the falling value of the dollar will make it cheaper for paper manufacturers in Japan and Western Europe to buy American wood pulp than to get it from any other source.

The argument is like this. Oh my gosh, the MAC collection has gone cheaper. Thus, sales of MAC products will rise. Why? Because my girls would buy them. Hmm. Perhaps, these girls don't like MAC. My girls may be allergic to it. CHEAPER DOESN'T MEAN A PRODUCT IS COMPLETELY SOLD OUT TO A BUYER.

Negate (B) - The quality of the wood pulp produced in the US would not be sufficient for the purpose of Japs. THen no sale will materialize from Jap's end...

Answer: B
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New post 20 Jan 2013, 01:24
(B) is the correct answer, and there is in fact no uncertainty about it. I’ll try to explain why.

First of all, it is really important to realize that for most assumption questions (not all), there are many assumptions, not one. That is, there are many different additional pieces of information that are needed in order to really prove the conclusion, but that were left out of the argument. This question is definitely of that type. Here are a few of the things that are not mentioned, but that have to be true (that is, the assumptions) in order to prove the conclusion:

- American paper manufacturers won’t buy so much of the American wood pulp that there is not much left for export.
- Japanese and European manufacturers are not ALREADY buying as much American wood pulp as the US can export.
- There is no characteristic or limitation of American wood pulp that would prevent Japanese and European manufacturers from using it, even though it would cost them less if they did. (Note that answer choice (B) is part of this one.)

In this kind of assumption question, the correct answer is one of the things that NEEDS to be true in order to prove the conclusion - but this answer is not ENOUGH BY ITSELF to prove the conclusion. In LSAT language, the correct answer is necessary in order for the conclusion to be true, but not sufficient.

So although it is true that (B) does not prove the conclusion, that doesn’t make it the wrong answer. (B) does have to be true in order to allow the conclusion to be even possible, and that makes it a necessary assumption, and therefore the right answer. Because we are looking for a necessary assumption, the “denial test” works for this question, as several people have already pointed out. The denial test works by contradicting the answer choice, and then seeing whether the CONTRADICTED version makes the conclusion impossible. If the contradicted answer choice makes the conclusion impossible, then the UNcontradicted answer choice must have been necessary in order to allow the conclusion. Thus, the uncontradicted answer choice must have been a necessary assumption.

The other choices are not necessary in order to allow the conclusion to be true:

A: They do not have to produce more paper in order to make American pulp exports go up. They could produce the same amount, but buy a lot more American pulp and a lot less of other countries’ pulp to do it.

C: They don’t have to prefer American pulp at an EQUAL price (or ignoring price) in order to make American pulp exports go up. We know from the evidence that American pulp will be really cheap. In order to make the exports go up, they only need to be willing to buy it AT THIS REALLY CHEAP PRICE.

D: I don’t think this one fooled anybody. It would be a reason NOT to buy more pulp from anyone, American or otherwise.

E: Production of American wood pulp does NOT have to stay at its present level in order to make exports go up. In fact, if the US is not able to increase its production of wood pulp, that might PREVENT wood pulp exports from going up. This one (like choice D) actually hurts the argument rather than helping it. The moral of this story is – every time you see the word “not”, make sure you know which way the statement is going.
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Re: Exports of United States wood pulp will rise considerably during this  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jan 2013, 00:45
Answer is Choice B

A) Not Relevant

B) Demand will be increased if the price falls and it is usable for the japanese …. Manufacturers. Correct.

C) This choice attributes the quality of wood pulp to the demand generated for it. However it is difficult to find support for this from the passage. So incorrect

D) Incorrect. When the demand doesn't increase if it remained same then the conclusion might hold true but if it drcreased then conclusion would be weakened.

E)Not relevant
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New post 26 Nov 2013, 07:24
It is nice to see various CR questions but I just want to take an attention about low quality questions such as this one. These questions just throw you in the wrong-path of thinking. Solving an official problem over and over again still has an advantage over solving unknown and debatable such as this one. Do not bother if you missed
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Re: Exports of United States wood pulp will rise considerably during this  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Nov 2013, 21:17
zazoz wrote:
It is nice to see various CR questions but I just want to take an attention about low quality questions such as this one. These questions just throw you in the wrong-path of thinking. Solving an official problem over and over again still has an advantage over solving unknown and debatable such as this one. Do not bother if you missed


I do not know the source of this question since the original poster hasn't given it but it is not a low quality question. Also, the OA is not debatable. It is a good tricky question and brings forward the essential difference between "necessary" and "sufficient" conditions which is something we focus a lot on in the first Veritas class. It is absolutely essential for you to understand this difference since you will find it useful not only in Verbal but also in Quant.
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Re: Exports of United States wood pulp will rise considerably during this  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Oct 2014, 05:56
B is correct

In order to ensure that the answer is correct, we can use the negation test for Assumption questions, it means that if we negate the correct answer it will weaken the conclusion of the argument. Let´s look the answer B, if we negate it, it will say that wood pulp produced in the United States would not be adequate. So it will weaken the conclusion related to the increase in export from USA, because if it does not meet the criteria of Japan and WE, they will not import the wood pulp, therefore, export will not increase as it is expected.
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Re: Exports of United States wood pulp will rise considerably during this  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Nov 2014, 23:57
marshpa wrote:
Exports of United States wood pulp will rise considerably during this year. The reason for the rise is that the falling value of the dollar will make it cheaper for paper manufacturers in Japan and Western Europe to buy American wood pulp than to get it from any other source.

Which of the following is an assumption made in drawing the conclusion above?

(A) Factory output of paper products in Japan and Western Europe will increase sharply during this year.
(B) The quality of the wood pulp produced in the United States would be adequate for the purposes of Japanese and Western European paper manufacturers.
(C) Paper manufacturers in Japan and Western Europe would prefer to use wood pulp produced in the United States if cost were not a factor.
(D) Demand for paper products made in Japan and Western Europe will not increase sharply during this year.
(E) Production of wood pulp by United States companies will not increase sharply during this year.

I am not convinced with OA for this question..



In sum, this question boils down to two options, namely B and C.
There is a fine distinction between the two, which we tend to ignore.
What makes B an assumption is the element of addition of the 'unstated idea' that is necessary to hold the conclusion.

What makes C falter is that C is more of an inference than an assumption, it uses similarly worded terms that are not 'NECESSARY' but a mere inference or rather an extended premise of what is already stated in the passage.

Hence, B it is.
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New post 30 Dec 2015, 01:34
Premise: US $ fall value – cheaper for Japan and Europe to import.
Conclusion: Exports US’s wood pulp will rise.
Choice C and E are out of scope, Choice D does no impact the argument, Choice A uses too strong words, and it does not need to increase sharply in output of paper products – the output unchanged is enough to increase export US’s wood pulp.
Choice B is correct answer, it strengthens the argument and negate choice B will weaken the conclusion, not adequate quality– not increase exports.
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Re: Exports of United States wood pulp will rise considerably during this  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Sep 2019, 21:24
marshpa wrote:
Exports of United States wood pulp will rise considerably during this year. The reason for the rise is that the falling value of the dollar will make it cheaper for paper manufacturers in Japan and Western Europe to buy American wood pulp than to get it from any other source.

Which of the following is an assumption made in drawing the conclusion above?


(A) Factory output of paper products in Japan and Western Europe will increase sharply during this year.

(B) The quality of the wood pulp produced in the United States would be adequate for the purposes of Japanese and Western European paper manufacturers.

(C) Paper manufacturers in Japan and Western Europe would prefer to use wood pulp produced in the United States if cost were not a factor.

(D) Demand for paper products made in Japan and Western Europe will not increase sharply during this year.

(E) Production of wood pulp by United States companies will not increase sharply during this year.


CR69561.01


Official Explanation

Argument Construction

Which one of the statements gives an assumption on which the argument depends?

The argument claims that exports of U.S. wood pulp will increase this year. Support for this claim is provided by the suggestion that as a result of the falling value of the dollar, paper manufacturers in Japan and Western Europe will be able to purchase wood pulp (the raw material for paper) more cheaply from the United States than from any other source.

This would be true because, if the dollar prices of U.S. wood pulp did not increase, firms in Europe and Japan would pay a smaller dollar-equivalent of their own currencies.

Note that this argument can easily fail: if U.S. wood pulp does not meet the minimum quality requirements of any paper manufacturers in Japan or Western Europe, then those manufacturers will purchase elsewhere. It follows that the reasoning depends on assuming that U.S. wood pulp does in fact meet those quality standards.

A. Even if factory output of paper products did not increase this year, manufacturers in Japan and Europe might import more U.S. wood pulp this year as raw materials for next year's production.

B. Correct. The predicted increase would likely not occur unless U.S. wood pulp met the manufacturers' minimum-quality standards.

C. The reasoning does not have to assume that cost is the sole factor. However, it clearly assumes that cost is an important factor. Nevertheless, it does not make any assumption regarding what the relative importance of cost and other factors might be. For this reason, it neither assumes nor implies what might happen in the case that cost is not a significant factor.

D. The reasoning does not need to assume that no such sharp increase will occur this year. In fact, if such an increase were to occur, it would be even more likely that exports of
U.S. wood pulp would increase this year if U.S. wood pulp became internationally more competitive on price this year.

E. Given the prediction that U.S. wood-pulp exports will increase, there is no reason to assume no sharp increase in U.S. wood pulp production during this year. Such an increase might even be likely if exports were to rise considerably. Therefore, option E is not assumed by the argument.

The correct answer is B.
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Re: Exports of United States wood pulp will rise considerably during this   [#permalink] 22 Sep 2019, 21:24
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