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Few ideas are more deeply entrenched in our political culture than tha

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Few ideas are more deeply entrenched in our political culture than tha  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 05 Sep 2019, 07:41
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based on 72 sessions

72% (03:10) correct 28% (02:42) wrong

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Question 2
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D
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based on 81 sessions

57% (01:25) correct 43% (01:31) wrong

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based on 80 sessions

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E

based on 71 sessions

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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 312, Date : 05-Sep-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


Few ideas are more deeply entrenched in our political culture than that of impending ecological doom. Beginning in 1962, when Rachel Carson warned that pollution was a threat to all human and animal life on the planet, pessimistic appraisals of the health of the environment have been issued with increasing urgency.

And yet, thanks in large part to her warnings, a powerful political movement was born and a series of landmark environmental bills became law. These laws and their equivalents in Western Europe, along with a vast array of private efforts spurred by environmental consciousness that Carson helped raise, have been a stunning success in both the United States and Europe where environmental trends are, for the most part, positive; and environmental regulations, far from being burdensome and expensive, have proved to be strikingly effective, have cost less than was anticipated, and have made the economies of the countries that have put them into effect stronger, not weaker.

Recycling, which was a fringe idea a decade ago, is now a major growth industry, and is converting more than twenty per cent of America‘s municipal wastes into useful products. Emissions of chlorofluorocarbons, which deplete the ozone layer, have been declining since 1987. Dozens of American cities once dumped raw sludge into the ocean. Today, instead of being dumped into the ocean, municipal sludge is either disposed of in regulated landfills or, increasingly, put to good use as fertilizer.

America‘s record of protecting species threatened with extinction, which is often depicted as dismal, is in truth enviable. Since 1973, when the Endangered Species Act took effect, seven animal species in North America have disappeared. Several hundred others once considered certain to die out continue to exist in the wild. A number of species, including the bald eagle and the Arctic peregrine falcon have been or are being taken off the priority-protection list.

It‘s true, of course, that some environmental programs are muddled. For instance, the Endangered Species Act can have the unfair effect of penalizing landholders who discover rare creatures on their property, by prohibiting use of the land. In the main, though, conservation has been an excellent investment. Thanks to legislation, technical advances, and lawsuits that have forced polluters to pay liability costs, America‘s air and water are getting cleaner, forests are expanding, and many other environmental indicators are on the upswing.

Nevertheless, the vocabulary of environmentalism has continued to be dominated by images of futility, crisis, and decline. Nor are environmentalists the only people reluctant to acknowledge the good news; advocates at both ends of the political spectrum, each side for its reasons, seem to have tacitly agreed to play it down. The left is afraid of the environmental good news because it undercuts stylish pessimism; the right is afraid of the good news because it shows that governmental regulations might occasionally amount to something other than wickedness incarnate, and actually produce benefits at an affordable cost.

1. Which of the following statements is false as it pertains to the information given in the passage?

A. Chlorofluorocarbons no longer damage the ozone layer.
B. Technical advances have contributed to conservation.
C. Raw sludge is no longer a source of ocean pollution for the United States.
D. Recycling has had an impact on landfill dumping.
E. Some environmental programs are muddled


2. Based on information in the passage, each of the following statements is a plausible explanation of why pessimistic appraisals of the environment continue to be issued EXCEPT:

A. environmentalists and politicians are unaware of the successes of the movement.
B. an immense amount of work still needs to be done to save the environment.
C. optimistic evaluations would have unwanted political repercussions.
D. environmentalists garner support by arousing concerns and fears.
E. selfish interests of certain groups of people


3. If the claims made in the passage are correct, how would politicians on the political right be expected to react to America‘s program to protect endangered species from extinction?

A. They would extol it because its success is not attributable to governmental regulation.
B. They would extol it because its success refutes the pessimistic claims of the political left.
C. They would criticize it because its success was due to costly regulations.
D. They would criticize it because it has not shown any measurable success.
E. They would be indifferent towards it


4. What is the main function of the 3rd paragraph in the passage?

A. to criticise industry for increased pollution
B. to urge the government to ban the dumping of effluents in rivers
C. to suggest that things are not bad as are made out to be by certain groups of people
D. to describe the positive impact of efforts to control environmental degradation
E. to provide an agenda for pollution control


Originally posted by asmit123 on 06 Apr 2011, 22:28.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 05 Sep 2019, 07:41, edited 2 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (431).
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New post 13 Apr 2011, 08:58
1. A - Emissions of chlorofluorocarbons, which deplete the ozone layer, have been declining since 1987

2. A - Nor are environmentalists the only people reluctant to acknowledge the good news

3. C or D - I don't truly understand the last sentence -pls explain

4. D It is a description of positive events
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New post 30 Jan 2019, 04:36
1
Hi there,

for question 4, answer C made more sense to me "C. to suggest that things are not bad as are made out to be by certain groups of people".
If we look the 1st sentence of paragraph 3: "America‘s record of protecting species threatened with extinction, which is often depicted as dismal, is in truth enviable. "

IMO the given example is to suggest that things are not as bad as some people depict. Does anyone agree?
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New post 19 Sep 2019, 09:15
SajjadAhmad Pls provide solution for Q3 ?

Also in Q2 ,option A ... I am confused with the wording of the option. Is it that "environmentalists and politicians are unaware of the successes of the movement." or they knew about the movement but were not ready to accept it ?
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New post 20 Sep 2019, 03:01
Alpha14 wrote:
SajjadAhmad Pls provide solution for Q3 ?

Also in Q2 ,option A ... I am confused with the wording of the option. Is it that "environmentalists and politicians are unaware of the successes of the movement." or they knew about the movement but were not ready to accept it ?


Please provide your reasoning for question #3, for your query about question #2

environmentalists and politicians are unaware of the successes of the movement is right

Thanks
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New post 20 Sep 2019, 06:51
in the third question the given answer is B.But the last passage clearly shows that the right always complain of regulations if there is success ,could someone explain how answer is B
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New post 20 Sep 2019, 08:29
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magnus07 wrote:
in the third question the given answer is B.But the last passage clearly shows that the right always complain of regulations if there is success ,could someone explain how answer is B

magnus07 , you are correct.

The answer to question #3 could not be B.

SajjadAhmad , would you please check the source? :)
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New post 20 Sep 2019, 09:06
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1. Which of the following statements is false as it pertains to the information given in the passage?

A. Chlorofluorocarbons no longer damage the ozone layer. They still damage, It is just the emissions are lowered down. False. Contender
B. Technical advances have contributed to conservation. Thanks to legislation, technical advances, and lawsuits that have forced polluters to pay liability cost, Not false for sure
C. Raw sludge is no longer a source of ocean pollution for the United States.True, instead of being dumped into the ocean, municipal sludge is either disposed of in regulated landfills or, increasingly, put to good use as fertilizer
D. Recycling has had an impact on landfill dumping. is converting more than twenty per cent of America‘s municipal wastes into useful products Not false for sure
E. Some environmental programs are muddled
It‘s true, of course, that some environmental programs are muddled


2. Based on information in the passage, each of the following statements is a plausible explanation of why pessimistic appraisals of the environment continue to be issued EXCEPT:

EXCEPT QUESTION
A. environmentalists and politicians are unaware of the successes of the movement.
As per Last Para, they are aware but they want to downplay the success - Definite Contender
B. an immense amount of work still needs to be done to save the environment.
Quite Possible
C. optimistic evaluations would have unwanted political repercussions.
That is the reason/ fear political left and right do not want to acknowledge it
D. environmentalists garner support by arousing concerns and fears.
Not mentioned - but quite possible - Still mark contender and then compare the other contender
E. selfish interests of certain groups of people
Definitely true


3. If the claims made in the passage are correct, how would politicians on the political right be expected to react to America‘s program to protect endangered species from extinction?

@sajjadahmad/ generis - I need clarity on this one. I am not sure how to approach this one as my answer does not match with OA

Below is How I assumed:-
A. They would extol it because its success is not attributable to governmental regulation.
It is attributable to governmental regulation, Government has made programs specific for this

B. They would extol it because its success refutes the pessimistic claims of the political left.
This would be appropriate for Political left, for Political right cost was one factor but again it has not cost much to the government - thats what i have inferred from -- the right is afraid of the good news because it shows that governmental regulations might occasionally amount to something other than wickedness incarnate, and actually produce benefits at an affordable cost.

C. They would criticize it because its success was due to costly regulations.
It is mentioned it has worked well with being affordable
D. They would criticize it because it has not shown any measurable success.
There are definite numbers given for the success-- "America‘s air and water are getting cleaner, forests are expanding, and many other environmental indicators are on the upswing".
E. They would be indifferent towards it
This appears to be correct to me, as POE method and also as by personalizing the argument


4. What is the main function of the 3rd paragraph in the passage?



Recycling, which was a fringe idea a decade ago, is now a major growth industry, and is converting more than twenty per cent of America‘s municipal wastes into useful products. Emissions of chlorofluorocarbons, which deplete the ozone layer, have been declining since 1987. Dozens of American cities once dumped raw sludge into the ocean. Today, instead of being dumped into the ocean, municipal sludge is either disposed of in regulated landfills or, increasingly, put to good use as fertilizer.

A. to criticise industry for increased pollution
Does not talk about increased pollution
B. to urge the government to ban the dumping of effluents in rivers
It talks about the bans/ policies/ laws are already in place and now the effects of them
C. to suggest that things are not bad as are made out to be by certain groups of people
Not really in this Paragraph, In this paragraph only details about the changes brought by the policies are talked about
D. to describe the positive impact of efforts to control environmental degradation
Correct - It talks about Positive impact of the policies - Contender
E. to provide an agenda for pollution control
again Not an agenda but the changes brought by the policies are talked about
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New post 20 Sep 2019, 10:24
SajjadAhmad For Q3 ...the last sentence of last passage tells " the right is afraid of the good news because it shows that governmental regulations might occasionally amount to something other than wickedness incarnate, and actually produce benefits at an affordable cost."

so a/c to this the and should be option c
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New post 20 Sep 2019, 10:45
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QUESTION #3 - SOLUTION (As I see the matter, for Question #3, no answer is correct)

Alpha14 magnus07 and dushyanta

Relevant portions of the passage include:
environmental regulations, far from being burdensome and expensive, have proved to be strikingly effective, have cost less than was anticipated, and have made the economies of the countries that have put them into effect stronger, not weaker.
-- environmental regulations are effective, have cost less than anticipated, and have strengthened the economy

America‘s record of protecting species threatened with extinction, which is often depicted as dismal, is in truth enviable. Since 1973, when the Endangered Species Act took effect,
-- Since 1973, when a law went into effect, protecting endangered species in the U.S. has been resoundingly successful—enviably so.

advocates at both ends of the political spectrum play [] down [the good news: environmental laws have been successful]. . . . the right is afraid of the good news because it shows that governmental regulations might occasionally amount to something other than wickedness incarnate, and actually produce benefits at an affordable cost.
-- the right does not want to acknowledge good news that shows (proves) that government regulations
(1) are not wickedness incarnate = are beneficial and successful
(2) are affordable (do not cost too much)

THE QUESTION
Quote:
3. If the claims made in the passage are correct, how would politicians on the political right be expected to react to America‘s program to protect endangered species from extinction?

THE OPTIONS
Quote:
A. They would extol it because its success is not attributable to governmental regulation.

• No. The passage explains that government regulations, passed in response to heightened consciousness about dangers to the environment, have been central to the successful address of threats to the environment
• The passage credits the Endangered Species act of 1973 (a governmental regulation) with many successes and lists them.
• NOT attributable to government regulation? Barely mentioned.
-- It is true that "the laws, along with private efforts, have been a stunning success" (P2) and that "technical advances" are partly responsible for success (P5)
But those mentions of non-governmental action are general and not tied to preservation of species.
-- A government regulation, The Endangered Species Act of 1973, is credited with success.
• The regulations are mostly responsible for success generally. These regulations are so effective that the right does not want to talk about them
-- "environmental regulations, far from being burdensome and expensive, have proved to be strikingly effective"
• The passage gives us no reason to believe that the right would (1) talk about success or (2) lie about the basis of success
Eliminate A

Quote:
B. They would extol it because its success refutes the pessimistic claims of the political left.

• if the claims in the passage are true, the right is not going to extol ANY success achieved by government regulation.
-- They have been silent. Why would they change?
• nothing in the passage suggests that the right cares about the alleged pessimism on the left.
-- We have no idea what the right thinks about the left's alleged pessimism.
-- We do know that the right does not talk about environmentalism's success.
• This cannot be the answer.
Eliminate B

Quote:
C. They would criticize it because its success was due to costly regulations.

• probably the best of 5 bad answers, though I think (C) is not even remotely close to accurate

• the passage says that the regulations (1) cost less than anticipated; (2) strengthened the economy; and (3) "actually produce benefits at an affordable cost"
• the passage also says that "conservation has been an excellent investment."

• I suppose that the right could lie about "affordable costs" and "strengthened economies" and "excellent investment(s)"
• I suppose that the right could lie or exaggerate and say that ANY cost is too costly
-- Example #1: the right could argue that one externality is too costly: private landowners who discover a rare animal on their lands are prohibited from using those lands [not actually true but we take the passage at its word -- the government rewards landowners who cooperate with conservation efforts]
-- Example #2: the right could argue that polluters should not have to pay for polluting.

• nothing in this passage says that the regulations are "costly" or that the right believes the regulations are costly.
-- The right is shutting up about the "good news" of environmental regulation because this regulation is not evil incarnate and IS affordable (last line)
KEEP C? ELIMINATE C? (My call: Eliminate C.)

Quote:
D. They would criticize it because it has not shown any measurable success.

• if the claims in the passage are correct, then the governmental regulatory program to protect endangered species from extinction has been a measurable success.
From the passage: [only] seven animal species in North America have disappeared. Several hundred others once considered certain to die out continue to exist in the wild. A number of species, including the bald eagle and the Arctic peregrine falcon have been or are being taken off the priority-protection list.
• I suppose that the right could lie about these successes.
-- If such lying were likely, then why is the right not lying NOW?
-- Why is the right being quiet about environmentalism's success now?
Eliminate D

Quote:
E. They would be indifferent towards it

• the right cannot simultaneously be afraid of/hostile towards and indifferent towards something.
-- To be indifferent is not to care.
-- The right cares. They don't want to talk about good environmental news because government regulation created it.
They are "afraid." Afraid is not "indifferent."
Eliminate E

Conclusion: The only answer that stands a chance is (C), but its accuracy turns on a guarantee that the right would lie and exaggerate about the program to protect endangered species. So far the right has remained silent. Nothing in the passage suggests that the right is NOT silent or would not be silent about endangered species programs.

This question is not well written.
I think that no answer to #3 is correct.

Hope that helps.



(Am I really writing "success of environmentalism" on a day during which schoolkids are leading strikes in order to protect the planet? I'll be clear: I'm with the kids. )
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New post 20 Sep 2019, 11:37
My dissection of Passage:-

If the claims made in the passage are correct, how would politicians on the political right be expected to react to America‘s program to protect endangered species from extinction?

A. They would extol it because its success is not attributable to governmental regulation.
B. They would extol it because its success refutes the pessimistic claims of the political left.
C. They would criticize it because its success was due to costly regulations.
D. They would criticize it because it has not shown any measurable success.
E. They would be indifferent towards it

If the claims made in the passage are correct, and the claims are

1. the right is afraid of the good news because it shows that governmental regulations might occasionally amount to something other than wickedness incarnate, and actually produce benefits at an affordable cost

2. a. Nor are environmentalists the only people reluctant to acknowledge the good news
b. seem to have tacitly agreed to play it down.

3. seven animal species in North America have disappeared. Several hundred others once considered certain to die out continue to exist in the wild.

Now, if i personalize this argument as a Political Right person .. I understand that
1) It is government effort that brought this change,
2) Lefts are the Pessimistic people not us
3) It is not at all costly as highlighted above - everything achieved in affordable cost
4) As discussed above there are specific examples of measurable success
5) Now I dont really have options I ll try to act reluctant to acknowledge the good news..unless i have a better option to talk about the unfair penalizing of landlords

I am still not able to see why C can be better answer than others.. it is perfect Opposite answer case; while E still has some merit
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New post 20 Sep 2019, 11:41
Alpha14 wrote:
SajjadAhmad For Q3 ...the last sentence of last passage tells " the right is afraid of the good news because it shows that governmental regulations might occasionally amount to something other than wickedness incarnate, and actually produce benefits at an affordable cost."

so a/c to this the and should be option c

Alpha14 , i do not quite follow.

The paragraph says that both ends of the political spectrum (left and right) "play down the good news."
To "play down" something means to minimize its importance.
The right is afraid of the good news. They "play it down." [One implication: they do not discuss it. They're not going to bring attention to something they're afraid of people knowing.]
They do not want it known that government regulations can be beneficial and affordable.

The passage never mentions that the regs are too costly or that the right thinks that the regs have been too costly.
The right is playing down the good news precisely because the regs are successful not too costly.

How do we get to "the right will criticize the species protection plan as "too costly"?
Am I missing a logical link in your argument?
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New post 20 Sep 2019, 11:45
dushyanta wrote:
@generis- Thoughts?

dushyanta - I don't understand the "personalization" thing. What is it?

Please see my response HERE.

I think that Question #3 has no correct answer or that it has been typed incorrectly.
Something is wrong.

The question is not official. I would not worry about it. :)

(I know that "don't worry" is not a satisfactory answer, but it's the only one I can give when a question is not accurate.)
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New post 20 Sep 2019, 11:53
generis wrote:
dushyanta wrote:
@generis- Thoughts?

dushyanta - I don't understand the "personalization" thing. What is it?

Please see my response HERE.

I think that Question #3 has no correct answer or that it has been typed incorrectly.
Something is wrong.

The question is not official. I would not worry about it. :)

(I know that "don't worry" is not a satisfactory answer, but it's the only one I can give when a question is not accurate.)


Personalization as in How I am approaching the RCs
By considering if I would be the Political Right person what would I do, given the things presented in the Passage
I would either act indifferent about it showing my reluctance or I would talk about something else which is the problems of landlords who had to leave their lands if any endangered species made its habitat in their lands

Now the latter option is not available I will chose the former.. i ll act indifferently..
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New post 20 Sep 2019, 12:38
dushyanta wrote:
generis wrote:
dushyanta wrote:
@generis- Thoughts?

dushyanta - I don't understand the "personalization" thing. What is it?

Please see my response HERE.

I think that Question #3 has no correct answer or that it has been typed incorrectly.
Something is wrong.

The question is not official. I would not worry about it. :)

(I know that "don't worry" is not a satisfactory answer, but it's the only one I can give when a question is not accurate.)


Personalization as in How I am approaching the RCs
By considering if I would be the Political Right person what would I do, given the things presented in the Passage
I would either act indifferent about it showing my reluctance or I would talk about something else which is the problems of landlords who had to leave their lands if any endangered species made its habitat in their lands

Now the latter option is not available I will chose the former.. i ll act indifferently..

The argument is very sensible and creative but I do not think it has enough support from the passage.
The right has not been indifferent; they've been too afraid of political ramifications to be indifferent.

I would agree with you if the language in option E said that the right would ACT as if they were indifferent (that phrasing is very similar to yours).
I would base my agreement on this very thin evidence from the passage: [the left and right have been] reluctant to acknowledge the good news.

The right has not been (felt) indifferent. The right has been afraid.
In English, the distinction between being indifferent and acting indifferent is quite a difference.

I can be (= feel) afraid or worried or angry but I can act as though I am indifferent.
If I actually am indifferent, I do not care at all. The right cares. They're afraid of regulatory success of any kind.

Your analysis is interesting. Nice work.
I'm still writing this question off as wrong.
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New post 20 Sep 2019, 21:49
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Hello Alpha14 and generis

I have read all the replies, in my opinion C could not be the answer and yes no option could be taken as answer, i will not remove the question from the passage because generis has analyse it thoroughly. I cannot confirm the source and poster of the question was last logged in in 2011 :) so can't contact him/her too. I have added "debatable OA" tag. We have three more questions so don,t need to bother for this one.

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