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For too many years scholars of African American history focused on the

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For too many years scholars of African American history focused on the  [#permalink]

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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 211, Date : 17-Jul-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


For too many years scholars of African American history focused on the harm done by slaveholders and by the institution of slavery, rather than on what Africans in the United States were able to accomplish despite the effects of that institution. In Myne Owne Ground, T. H. Breen and Stephen Innes contribute significantly to a recent, welcome shift from a white-centered to a blackcentered inquiry into the role of African Americans in the American colonial period. Breen and Innes focus not on slaves, but on a small group of freed indentured servants in Northampton County (in the Chesapeake Bay region of Virginia) who, according to the authors, maintained their freedom, secured property, and interacted with persons of different races and economic standing from 1620 through the 1670s. African Americans living on the Chesapeake were to some extent disadvantaged, say Breen and Innes, but this did not preclude the attainment of status roughly equal to that of certain white planters of the area. Continuously acting within black social networks, and forming economic relationships with white planters, local Native Americans, indentured servants, and white settlers outside the gentry class, the free African Americans of Northampton County held their own in the rough-hewn world of Chesapeake Bay.

The authors emphasize that in this early period, when the percentage of African Americans in any given Chesapeake county was still no more than 10 percent of the population, very little was predetermined so far as racial status or race relations were concerned. By schooling themselves in the local legal process and by working prodigiously on the land, African Americans acquired property, established families, and warded off contentious white neighbors. Breen and Innes do acknowledge that political power on the Chesapeake was asymmetrically distributed among black and white residents. However, they underemphasize much evidence that customary law, only gradually embodied in statutory law, was closing in on free African Americans well before the 1670s: during the 1660s, when the proportion of African Americans in Virginia increased dramatically, Virginia tightened a law regulating interracial relations (1662) and enacted a statute prohibiting baptism from altering slave status (1667). Anthony Johnson, a leader in the community of free African Americans in the Chesapeake Bay region, sold the land he had cultivated for more than twenty years and moved north with his family around 1665, an action that the authors attribute to a search for “fresh, more productive land.” But the answer to why the Johnsons left that area where they had labored so long may lie in their realization that their white neighbors were already beginning the transition from a largely white indentured labor force to reliance on a largely black slave labor force, and that the institution of slavery was threatening their descendants’ chances for freedom and success in Virginia.


1. The author of the passage objects to many scholarly studies of African American history for which one of the following reasons?

(A) Their emphases have been on statutory law rather than on customary law.
(B) They have ignored specific historical situations and personages in favor of broad interpretations.
(C) They have focused on the least eventful periods in African American history.
(D) They have underemphasized the economic system that was the basis of the institution of slavery.
(E) They have failed to focus to a sufficient extent on the achievements of African Americans.



2. Which one of the following can be inferred from the passage concerning the relationship between the African American population and the law in the Chesapeake Bay region of Virginia between 1650 and 1670?

(A) The laws affecting black citizens were embodied in statutes much more gradually than were laws affecting white citizens.
(B) As the percentage of black citizens in the population grew, the legal restrictions placed on them also increased.
(C) Because of discriminatory laws, black farmers suffered more economic setbacks than did white farmers.
(D) Because of legal constraints on hiring indentured servants, black farmers faced a chronic labor shortage on their farms.
(E) The adherence to customary law was more rigid in regions with relatively large numbers of free black citizens.



3. The author of the passage most probably refers to Anthony Johnson and his family in order to

(A) provide a specific example of the potential shortcomings of Breen and Innes’s interpretation of historical events
(B) provide a specific example of relevant data overlooked by Breen and Innes in their discussion of historical events
(C) provide a specific example of data that Breen and Innes might profitably have used in proving their thesis
(D) argue that the standard interpretation of historical events is superior to Breen and Innes’s revisionist interpretation
(E) argue that a new historiographical method is needed to provide a full and coherent reading of historical events



4. The attitude of the author of the passage toward Breen and Innes’s study can best be described as one of

(A) condescending dismissal
(B) wholehearted acceptance
(C) contentious challenge
(D) qualified approval
(E) sincere puzzlement



5. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) summarize previous interpretations
(B) advocate a new approach
(C) propose and then illustrate a thesis
(D) present and evaluate an interpretation
(E) describe a historical event



  • Source: LSAT Official PrepTest 13 (December 1994)
  • Difficulty Level: 650

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Originally posted by SajjadAhmad on 17 Jul 2019, 08:48.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 03 Oct 2019, 20:47, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: For too many years scholars of African American history focused on the  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jul 2019, 21:37
5
All correct in 10 mins 30 seconds, including almost 5 mins to read.
Para 1- for a long time, scholars of African American history focused on the harm done by slaveholders and by the institution of slavery,
ground,Breen and Innes -a shift from a white-centered to a black centered inquiry into the role of African Americans in the American colonial period
Para 2- Breen and Innes- details, shortcoming- underemphasize much evidence that customary law, only gradually embodied in statutory law

1. The author of the passage objects to many scholarly studies of African American history for which one of the following reasons?
(E) They have failed to focus to a sufficient extent on the achievements of African Americans.- Correct
For too many years scholars of African American history focused on the harm done by slaveholders and by the institution of slavery, rather than on what Africans in the United States were able to accomplish despite the effects of that institution.

2. Which one of the following can be inferred from the passage concerning the relationship between the African American population and the law in the Chesapeake Bay region of Virginia between 1650 and 1670?

(B) As the percentage of black citizens in the population grew, the legal restrictions placed on them also increased.
during the 1660s, when the proportion of African Americans in Virginia increased dramatically, Virginia tightened a law regulating interracial relations (1662) and enacted a statute prohibiting baptism from altering slave status (1667).


3. The author of the passage most probably refers to Anthony Johnson and his family in order to

(A) provide a specific example of the potential shortcomings of Breen and Innes’s interpretation of historical events- Correct, so the picture portrayed by Breen and Inne's is not consistent with the following-

But the answer to why the Johnsons left that area where they had labored so long may lie in their realization that their white neighbors were already beginning the transition from a largely white indentured labor force to reliance on a largely black slave labor force, and that the institution of slavery was threatening their descendants’ chances for freedom and success in Virginia.


4. The attitude of the author of the passage toward Breen and Innes’s study can best be described as one of

(A) condescending dismissal- incorrect, the author does not dismiss it completely
(B) wholehearted acceptance- incorrect, the author does point toward a shortcoming
(C) contentious challenge- incorrect, the author does not challenge it
(D) qualified approval- Correct
(E) sincere puzzlement- incorrect, the author is not puzzled

In Myne Owne Ground, T. H. Breen and Stephen Innes contribute significantly to a recent, welcome shift from a white-centered to a black centered inquiry into the role of African Americans in the American colonial period.
Breen and Innes do acknowledge that political power on the Chesapeake was asymmetrically distributed among black and white residents. However, they underemphasize much evidence that customary law, only gradually embodied in statutory law, was closing in on free African Americans well before the 1670s

5. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(D) present and evaluate an interpretation- Correct, the author welcomes the shift and then evaluates it
In Myne Owne Ground, T. H. Breen and Stephen Innes contribute significantly to a recent, welcome shift from a white-centered to a black centered inquiry into the role of African Americans in the American colonial period.
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Re: For too many years scholars of African American history focused on the  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jul 2019, 21:04
question 4 is confusing to me. I don't get the reason for the answer D. Any explanation??
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Re: For too many years scholars of African American history focused on the  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jul 2019, 14:58
Hea234ven wrote:
question 4 is confusing to me. I don't get the reason for the answer D. Any explanation??

See the first para he likes the new approach adopted by the two dudes, then he just points out whats missing in last para that's y he accepts it but just like a good boy, tells them what more to do
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Re: For too many years scholars of African American history focused on the  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jul 2019, 22:33
2
Explanation


4. The attitude of the author of the passage toward Breen and Innes’s study can best be described as one of

Difficulty Level: 750

Explanation

(D) corresponds to the shift that occurs between the paras: Para 1 praises Breen’s and Innes’s book, and Para 2 then focuses on criticism. Only (D)—“qualified approval”—corresponds to the mixed review.

(A) Far too negative.
(B) Far too positive.
(C) Too negative.
(E) ??? No evidence anywhere for “puzzlement.”

• Pre-phrasing helps again. If you recall the outlines of the argument (the gist of each para) and roughly pre-phrase the likely answer (the author’s attitude is “mixed”), you can sidestep distracting choices like “contentious challenge” and “sincere puzzlement” and zero straight in on (D).

Answer: D


Hope it helps

Hea234ven wrote:
question 4 is confusing to me. I don't get the reason for the answer D. Any explanation??

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Re: For too many years scholars of African American history focused on the  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Aug 2019, 03:28
Skywalker18 wrote:
All correct in 10 mins 30 seconds, including almost 5 mins to read.
Para 1- for a long time, scholars of African American history focused on the harm done by slaveholders and by the institution of slavery,
ground,Breen and Innes -a shift from a white-centered to a black centered inquiry into the role of African Americans in the American colonial period
Para 2- Breen and Innes- details, shortcoming- underemphasize much evidence that customary law, only gradually embodied in statutory law

1. The author of the passage objects to many scholarly studies of African American history for which one of the following reasons?
(E) They have failed to focus to a sufficient extent on the achievements of African Americans.- Correct
For too many years scholars of African American history focused on the harm done by slaveholders and by the institution of slavery, rather than on what Africans in the United States were able to accomplish despite the effects of that institution.

2. Which one of the following can be inferred from the passage concerning the relationship between the African American population and the law in the Chesapeake Bay region of Virginia between 1650 and 1670?

(B) As the percentage of black citizens in the population grew, the legal restrictions placed on them also increased.
during the 1660s, when the proportion of African Americans in Virginia increased dramatically, Virginia tightened a law regulating interracial relations (1662) and enacted a statute prohibiting baptism from altering slave status (1667).


3. The author of the passage most probably refers to Anthony Johnson and his family in order to

(A) provide a specific example of the potential shortcomings of Breen and Innes’s interpretation of historical events- Correct, so the picture portrayed by Breen and Inne's is not consistent with the following-

But the answer to why the Johnsons left that area where they had labored so long may lie in their realization that their white neighbors were already beginning the transition from a largely white indentured labor force to reliance on a largely black slave labor force, and that the institution of slavery was threatening their descendants’ chances for freedom and success in Virginia.


4. The attitude of the author of the passage toward Breen and Innes’s study can best be described as one of

(A) condescending dismissal- incorrect, the author does not dismiss it completely
(B) wholehearted acceptance- incorrect, the author does point toward a shortcoming
(C) contentious challenge- incorrect, the author does not challenge it
(D) qualified approval- Correct
(E) sincere puzzlement- incorrect, the author is not puzzled

In Myne Owne Ground, T. H. Breen and Stephen Innes contribute significantly to a recent, welcome shift from a white-centered to a black centered inquiry into the role of African Americans in the American colonial period.
Breen and Innes do acknowledge that political power on the Chesapeake was asymmetrically distributed among black and white residents. However, they underemphasize much evidence that customary law, only gradually embodied in statutory law, was closing in on free African Americans well before the 1670s

5. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(D) present and evaluate an interpretation- Correct, the author welcomes the shift and then evaluates it
In Myne Owne Ground, T. H. Breen and Stephen Innes contribute significantly to a recent, welcome shift from a white-centered to a black centered inquiry into the role of African Americans in the American colonial period.



Hi Skywalker18

Can you please explain why ans choice C is wrong in question 5?
I was confused in C and D and finally marked C. :(
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Re: For too many years scholars of African American history focused on the  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Oct 2019, 07:52
SajjadAhmad wrote:
New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 211, Date : 17-Jul-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


For too many years scholars of African American history focused on the harm done by slaveholders and by the institution of slavery, rather than on what Africans in the United States were able to accomplish despite the effects of that institution. In Myne Owne Ground, T. H. Breen and Stephen Innes contribute significantly to a recent, welcome shift from a white-centered to a blackcentered inquiry into the role of African Americans in the American colonial period. Breen and Innes focus not on slaves, but on a small group of freed indentured servants in Northampton County (in the Chesapeake Bay region of Virginia) who, according to the authors, maintained their freedom, secured property, and interacted with persons of different races and economic standing from 1620 through the 1670s. African Americans living on the Chesapeake were to some extent disadvantaged, say Breen and Innes, but this did not preclude the attainment of status roughly equal to that of certain white planters of the area. Continuously acting within black social networks, and forming economic relationships with white planters, local Native Americans, indentured servants, and white settlers outside the gentry class, the free African Americans of Northampton County held their own in the rough-hewn world of Chesapeake Bay.

The authors emphasize that in this early period, when the percentage of African Americans in any given Chesapeake county was still no more than 10 percent of the population, very little was predetermined so far as racial status or race relations were concerned. By schooling themselves in the local legal process and by working prodigiously on the land, African Americans acquired property, established families, and warded off contentious white neighbors. Breen and Innes do acknowledge that political power on the Chesapeake was asymmetrically distributed among black and white residents. However, they underemphasize much evidence that customary law, only gradually embodied in statutory law, was closing in on free African Americans well before the 1670s: during the 1660s, when the proportion of African Americans in Virginia increased dramatically, Virginia tightened a law regulating interracial relations (1662) and enacted a statute prohibiting baptism from altering slave status (1667). Anthony Johnson, a leader in the community of free African Americans in the Chesapeake Bay region, sold the land he had cultivated for more than twenty years and moved north with his family around 1665, an action that the authors attribute to a search for “fresh, more productive land.” But the answer to why the Johnsons left that area where they had labored so long may lie in their realization that their white neighbors were already beginning the transition from a largely white indentured labor force to reliance on a largely black slave labor force, and that the institution of slavery was threatening their descendants’ chances for freedom and success in Virginia.

1. The author of the passage objects to many scholarly studies of African American history for which one of the following reasons?

(A) Their emphases have been on statutory law rather than on customary law.
(B) They have ignored specific historical situations and personages in favor of broad interpretations.
(C) They have focused on the least eventful periods in African American history.
(D) They have underemphasized the economic system that was the basis of the institution of slavery.
(E) They have failed to focus to a sufficient extent on the achievements of African Americans.



2. Which one of the following can be inferred from the passage concerning the relationship between the African American population and the law in the Chesapeake Bay region of Virginia between 1650 and 1670?

(A) The laws affecting black citizens were embodied in statutes much more gradually than were laws affecting white citizens.
(B) As the percentage of black citizens in the population grew, the legal restrictions placed on them also increased.
(C) Because of discriminatory laws, black farmers suffered more economic setbacks than did white farmers.
(D) Because of legal constraints on hiring indentured servants, black farmers faced a chronic labor shortage on their farms.
(E) The adherence to customary law was more rigid in regions with relatively large numbers of free black citizens.



3. The author of the passage most probably refers to Anthony Johnson and his family in order to

(A) provide a specific example of the potential shortcomings of Breen and Innes’s interpretation of historical events
(B) provide a specific example of relevant data overlooked by Breen and Innes in their discussion of historical events
(C) provide a specific example of data that Breen and Innes might profitably have used in proving their thesis
(D) argue that the standard interpretation of historical events is superior to Breen and Innes’s revisionist interpretation
(E) argue that a new historiographical method is needed to provide a full and coherent reading of historical events



4. The attitude of the author of the passage toward Breen and Innes’s study can best be described as one of

(A) condescending dismissal
(B) wholehearted acceptance
(C) contentious challenge
(D) qualified approval
(E) sincere puzzlement



5. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) summarize previous interpretations
(B) advocate a new approach
(C) propose and then illustrate a thesis
(D) present and evaluate an interpretation
(E) describe a historical event



  • Source: LSAT Official PrepTest 13 (December 1994)
  • Difficulty Level: 650


SajjadAhmad can you please post OE of question 3
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New post 29 Oct 2019, 22:42
zac123 wrote:

Hi Skywalker18

Can you please explain why ans choice C is wrong in question 5?
I was confused in C and D and finally marked C. :(


Explanation


5. The primary purpose of the passage is to

Difficulty Level: 600

Explanation

Only (D) jibes with the fact that this is a review of somebody’s book—it’s as simple as that.

(A) is far too narrow; only in the opening sentence does the author “summarize previous interpretations.” The focus then changes.

(B) Also too narrow. The author praises a new historiographical approach in the passage’s second sentence, but then zeroes in on Breen’s and Innes’s book, which he isn’t advocating, but evaluating.

(C) The verb “propose” is wrong: The author isn’t proposing a thesis (of his own); he’s describing somebody else’s.

(E) The author’s discussing a book, not a “historical event.”

Answer: D


Hope it helps
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New post 29 Oct 2019, 22:44
Quote:
SajjadAhmad can you please post OE of question 3


Explanation


3. The author of the passage most probably refers to Anthony Johnson and his family in order to

Difficulty Level: 650

Explanation

Details are usually mentioned to support bigger points. According to the passage, the Johnsons moved to escape worsening conditions in Virginia. The bigger point is that Breen and Innes underestimated those conditions. The Johnson’s situation, then, is mentioned to illustrate a shortcoming of B’s and I’s thesis (A).

(B) is tempting, but the point is not that Breen and Innes failed to note the specific case of the Johnsons. To “underemphasize” is not to “overlook.”

(C) Distortion: The Johnsons’ story is cited to criticize, not add support to, B’s and I’s thesis.

(D) Au contraire: According to the opening lines, the author is critical of the standard interpretation.

(E) Another distortion. The author cites a new historiographical approach (and praises Breen’s and Innes’s book for applying it) in the opening lines.

Answer: A


Hope it helps
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For too many years scholars of African American history focused on the  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Nov 2019, 12:39
1
Hi everyone,
All correct in a little less than 10 minutes.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


P1

Paragraph one starts with the author opinion about a general trend related to historians. She (the author) says that in general historians focus only on the "tragedies" of black american people and not on their achievements. Then we are given that two authors (B&I) are somehow two outliers who describe the achievements of african american people in the colonial age in some region of the north. They say that, even if Blakeys people were somehow disadvantaged, if black people worked hard enough, they could attain the same results as white people.

Brief summary: B&I study is presented

P2

Paragraph 2 states that the B&I show in their study that african american people had mote or less than same opportunities as white people even though the political power was not so well distributed.
Here the author introduces a contrast by stating that B&I might have overlooked some laws that discriminated African American people already before 1670. These laws were made when the percentage of African Americans started growing and it seems that such laws were discriminant. Plus we are given that an African American named Anthony moved to another place and while B&I interpret this as a simple reflection of the will to find new fortunes, the author suggests that Anthony might have acknowledged that for Afrian American people things started getting worse.

Brief summary: African America people according to B&I versus according to the author

Main Point

The main point is to evaluate B&I study

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


1. The author of the passage objects to many scholarly studies of African American history for which one of the following reasons?

Pre-thinking

Detail question

Let's refer to the first lines of P1

"For too many years scholars of African American history focused on the harm done by slaveholders and by the institution of slavery, rather than on what Africans in the United States were able to accomplish despite the effects of that institution. "


(A) Their emphases have been on statutory law rather than on customary law.
Not in line with pre-thinking and out of context

(B) They have ignored specific historical situations and personages in favor of broad interpretations.
Not in line with pre-thinking

(C) They have focused on the least eventful periods in African American history.
Not in line with pre-thinking

(D) They have underemphasized the economic system that was the basis of the institution of slavery.
Not in line with pre-thinking

(E) They have failed to focus to a sufficient extent on the achievements of African Americans.
in line with pre-thinking

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


2. Which one of the following can be inferred from the passage concerning the relationship between the African American population and the law in the Chesapeake Bay region of Virginia between 1650 and 1670?

Pre-thinking

Inference question

Let's refer to P2

" during the 1660s, when the proportion of African Americans in Virginia increased dramatically, Virginia tightened a law regulating interracial relations (1662) and enacted a statute prohibiting baptism from altering slave status (1667)."

We could infer that as the population of AA increased the laws were enacted


(A) The laws affecting black citizens were embodied in statutes much more gradually than were laws affecting white citizens.
We don't know this and cannot infer this

(B) As the percentage of black citizens in the population grew, the legal restrictions placed on them also increased.
Seems a reasonable inference

(C) Because of discriminatory laws, black farmers suffered more economic setbacks than did white farmers.
The information given does not allow us to draw such a conclusion

(D) Because of legal constraints on hiring indentured servants, black farmers faced a chronic labor shortage on their farms.
Cannot be inferred

(E) The adherence to customary law was more rigid in regions with relatively large numbers of free black citizens.
the adherence is not discussed


-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


3. The author of the passage most probably refers to Anthony Johnson and his family in order to

Pre-thinking

Purpose question

The author clearly wants to contrast with the reasoning offered by B&I study. They fought he simply wanted to look for more opportunities but the author suggests that he was worried about the application of the laws


(A) provide a specific example of the potential shortcomings of Breen and Innes’s interpretation of historical events
in line with pre-thinking

(B) provide a specific example of relevant data overlooked by Breen and Innes in their discussion of historical events
Not in line with pre-thinking. The data is not overlooked

(C) provide a specific example of data that Breen and Innes might profitably have used in proving their thesis
Not in line with pre-thinking

(D) argue that the standard interpretation of historical events is superior to Breen and Innes’s revisionist interpretation
Not in line with pre-thinking

(E) argue that a new historiographical method is needed to provide a full and coherent reading of historical events
Not in line with pre-thinking

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


4. The attitude of the author of the passage toward Breen and Innes’s study can best be described as one of

Pre-thinking

Author's attitude question

The authors initially argues against the fact that most of historians do not look sufficiently at the achievements of AAs. B&I do that so the author is favorable towards their study. Nonetheless the author pinpoints a shortcoming in their study.



(A) condescending dismissal
The author is favorable towards their study

(B) wholehearted acceptance
"Nonetheless the author pinpoints a shortcoming in their study."

(C) contentious challenge
The author never challenges their study

(D) qualified approval
The authors indeed approves of their study.

(E) sincere puzzlement
Out of scope

I was not super convinced about choice D but I marked it as the correct answer since all the other choices clearly don't make sense

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


5. The primary purpose of the passage is to

Pre-thinking

Main point question

Refer to main point above


(A) summarize previous interpretations
No summary

(B) advocate a new approach
no new suggestion

(C) propose and then illustrate a thesis
no proposition

(D) present and evaluate an interpretation
In line with pre-thinking

(E) describe a historical event
The passage describes a study.


-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



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For too many years scholars of African American history focused on the   [#permalink] 09 Nov 2019, 12:39

For too many years scholars of African American history focused on the

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