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# Found throughout Central and South America, sloths hang from

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Found throughout Central and South America, sloths hang from [#permalink]

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Updated on: 29 Mar 2018, 07:13
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Found throughout Central and South America, sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs and sleep fifteen hours a day, moving infrequently enough that two species of algae grow on its coat and between its toes.

(A) sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs and sleep fifteen hours a day, moving infrequently enough
(B) sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs, they sleep fifteen hours a day, and with such infrequent movements
(C) sloths use their long rubbery limbs to hang from trees, sleep fifteen hours a day, and move so infrequently
(D) the sloth hangs from trees by its long rubbery limbs, sleeping fifteen hours a day and moving so infrequently
(E) the sloth hangs from trees by its long rubbery limbs, sleeps fifteen hours a day, and it moves infrequently enough

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Originally posted by noboru on 04 Sep 2009, 11:46.
Last edited by GMATNinjaTwo on 29 Mar 2018, 07:13, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: Found throughout Central and South America, sloths hang from [#permalink]

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23 Mar 2010, 18:22
42
24
Hey All,

Everyone got to the correct answer here for good reasons, but I just thought I'd give it the total treatment, because it's a REALLY interesting question.

313. Found throughout Central and South America, sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs and sleep fifteen hours a day, moving infrequently enough that two species of algae grow on its coat and between its toes.

(A) sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs and sleep fifteen hours a day, moving infrequently enough
(B) sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs, they sleep fifteen hours a day, and with such infrequent movements
(C) sloths use their long rubbery limbs to hang from trees, sleep fifteen hours a day, and move so infrequently
(D) the sloth hangs from trees by its long rubbery limbs, sleeping fifteen hours a day and moving so infrequently
(E) the sloth hangs from trees by its long rubbery limbs, sleeps fifteen hours a day, and it moves infrequently enough

The way to get great at Sentence Correction is to always be categorizing as you look at splits. In this case, the first split you'll probably notice is "sloths" versus "the sloth". Now, a split like this should TYPICALLY lead you towards the category of SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT, but if you look at all the verbs, they work fine (sloths hang and the sloth hangs). The only other category that might apply when you see singular and plural verbs in the splits is PRONOUNS. That's right! This is actually a common trope. So look elsewhere for a pronoun. This will get rid of A, B, and C, as many have said (because the pronoun "its" at the end can only go with singular "the sloth").

From there, you may notice PARALLELISM happening here. You should know this because you see a list (comma, comma, "and"). This is dangerous here, though not if you noticed the PRONOUN issue already. As many have stated, answer choice E is NOT parallel, because it puts the pronoun "it" before the third verb.

HOWEVER, even if that "it" weren't there, this would still be incorrect. Before reading my explanation of why, see if you can work it out for yourself. Ready?

Okay. So even though E would be very beautiful (three verbs in the same tense and form...what parallel!), it would not retain the original meaning of the sentence. When you have total parallelism like you see in answer choice C, it implies three things that happen in a serial fashion (one after the other, or at least all separately).

But the point here is that there IS a connection. Notice the last point, "algae grow...between its toes." Why would that happen? The only explanation is that the sloth sleeps and barely moves WHILE it is hanging. When you have that kind of construction, you want to use subordinate verbs to imply a subordinate relationship. Watch:

All day long he sits in that chair, reading the newspaper and sometimes falling asleep.

See how we use the -ing form of the verb (participles) to imply that the reading and sleeping occurs WHILE he sits. Because of this, we need the answer to look just as D does.

Hope that helps!

-t
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Re: Found throughout Central and South America, sloths hang from [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2009, 10:31
9
4
just concentrate on the last part of underlined part
moving infrequently enough
it shoud be "so...that" IDIOM
hence among C&D
also note the non underlined part at end ".....its coat and between its toes."
hence it must be singular SLOTH
its

noboru wrote:
313. Found throughout Central and South America, sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs and sleep fifteen hours a day, moving infrequently enough that two species of algae grow on its coat and between its toes.

(A) sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs and sleep fifteen hours a day, moving infrequently enough
(B) sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs, they sleep fifteen hours a day, and with such infrequent movements
(C) sloths use their long rubbery limbs to hang from trees, sleep fifteen hours a day, and move so infrequently
(D) the sloth hangs from trees by its long rubbery limbs, sleeping fifteen hours a day and moving so infrequently
(E) the sloth hangs from trees by its long rubbery limbs, sleeps fifteen hours a day, and it moves infrequently enough

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Re: Found throughout Central and South America, sloths hang from [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2009, 22:33
I was picking 'C', but see your point in 'D'.

D. the sloth hangs from trees by its long rubbery limbs, sleeping fifteen hours a day and moving so infrequently

are 'hangs' ..., 'sleeping'......, 'moving' .. right??
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Re: Found throughout Central and South America, sloths hang from [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2009, 22:50
2
1
quoting from OG12#124

Agreement; Idiom

The plural sloths in the underlined section of the sentence does not agree with the singular
its (its coat, its toes) in the given section of the sentence, and so sloths must be replaced by the
sloth. When its is then inserted before long rubbery limbs, it becomes clear that the limbs belong to
the sloth, not the trees. The phrase moving infrequently enough that is not idiomatic. Th e
correct construction is so x that y: moving so infrequently that two species. …

D Correct. The sloth agrees with its; the
construction moving so x that y is properly
used in this sentence.

E Hangs … sleeps … it moves is not a parallel
construction; infrequently enough that is not a
correct idiom.

dolly12 wrote:
I was picking 'C', but see your point in 'D'.

D. the sloth hangs from trees by its long rubbery limbs, sleeping fifteen hours a day and moving so infrequently

are 'hangs' ..., 'sleeping'......, 'moving' .. right??

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Re: Found throughout Central and South America, sloths hang from [#permalink]

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24 Apr 2010, 07:51
My point here is that hangs, sleeps, and moves are at "the same level" so they must appear in the same tense, arent they??

I dont catch why do we have to subordinate sleeping as if it were like a consequence of the sloth hanging in the tree...

Thanks.
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Re: Found throughout Central and South America, sloths hang from [#permalink]

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24 Apr 2010, 13:16
2
5
Hey Noburu,

Actually they aren't at the same level, though the question tries to push it that way (and keep in mind, there's no correct answer choice that parallels them all at that level, so it's a bit of a non-issue).

The fact is, the sloths don't do three separate things: 1) hangs from trees, 2)sleeps 15 hours a day, 3) moves infrequently. That wouldn't be very interesting, and it wouldn't at all explain why algae grows between its toes. The point is that it sleeps 15 hours and barely moves WHILE hanging, which explains the algae.

Remember, participles (-ing words as adjectives) can be used either as the result of the previous clause (as you noted) OR as a description of things that occur WHILE the main verb is happening (For example: Dave traveled the world, visiting historic sites, eating crazy foods, and meeting exotic ladies.) In that example, "visiting", "eating" and "meeting" all occur WHILE Dave traveled.

Hope that helps!

-tommy
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Re: Found throughout Central and South America, sloths hang from [#permalink]

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Updated on: 26 Apr 2010, 00:33
2
1
Found throughout Central and South America, sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs and sleep fifteen hours a day, moving infrequently enough that two species of algae grow on its coat and between its toes.
(A) sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs and sleep fifteen hours a day, moving infrequently enough
(B) sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs, they sleep fifteen hours a day, and with such infrequent movements
(C) sloths use their long rubbery limbs to hang from trees, sleep fifteen hours a day, and move so infrequently
(D) the sloth hangs from trees by its long rubbery limbs, sleeping fifteen hours a day and moving so infrequently
(E) the sloth hangs from trees by its long rubbery limbs, sleeps fifteen hours a day, and it moves infrequently enough

Some thoughts:

1. Be careful about the non-underlined portion of the sentence:

See the blue colored portion of the sentence. Here, to refer to the sloth there is a pronoun ''its''. So, we should comply with this pronoun.

=> From this we can easily eliminate A, B, and C because they have the plural noun sloths, which does not fit with the singular its.

2. If a subject has more than one verbs, those verbs should be used one after another by using commas. Subject should not be repeated.
Example:
I have made it and won the prize.

Option E, unnecessarily keeps the pronoun it to refer to the sloth.

Again, option E, does not maintain ''so............that''. So,E is out.

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Originally posted by gmatisnothard on 25 Apr 2010, 05:09.
Last edited by gmatisnothard on 26 Apr 2010, 00:33, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Found throughout Central and South America, sloths hang from [#permalink]

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25 Apr 2010, 11:01
2
1
Hey Gmatisnothard,

Thanks for joining the discussion. However, I'd like to correct you on a couple things, so people don't get confused. In the future, please refrain from laying forth rules if you're not 100% sure about them, because people will take them as fact. Also, please don't use a giant font, as it dominates the page.

You said this: "2. If a subject has more than one verbs, those verbs should be used one after another by using commas. Subject should not be repeated.
Example: I have made it, and won the prize."

Your overall point is dangerous, because this isn't a hard and fast rule. For example: "The man bought a lot of bacon, but he couldn't eat it all." There's nothing wrong with that sentence, even though we used the pronoun "he" where it wasn't strictly required. Also, your example sentence has another error. You don't use "and" after a comma in a list of two items.

The bigger problem with E in the sloth question is NOT the notion of repeating a subject, but the lack of parallelism. We don't want "it" after the final "and" because we didn't get it after the first comma. Obviously, we're better off not repeating the subject, but it's safer to think of this under the rubric of parallelism.

Finally, the problem isn't that E doesn't have "so infrequently that", but that the version it does have is wrong. We could have said "it moves infrequently enough to allow two species of algae...". But "infrequently enough that..." is an incorrect idiom.

Hope that helps!

-tommy
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Re: Found throughout Central and South America, sloths hang from [#permalink]

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26 Apr 2010, 00:37
TommyWallach wrote:
Hey Gmatisnothard,

Thanks for joining the discussion. However, I'd like to correct you on a couple things, so people don't get confused. In the future, please refrain from laying forth rules if you're not 100% sure about them, because people will take them as fact. Also, please don't use a giant font, as it dominates the page.

You said this: "2. If a subject has more than one verbs, those verbs should be used one after another by using commas. Subject should not be repeated.
Example: I have made it, and won the prize."

Your overall point is dangerous, because this isn't a hard and fast rule. For example: "The man bought a lot of bacon, but he couldn't eat it all." There's nothing wrong with that sentence, even though we used the pronoun "he" where it wasn't strictly required. Also, your example sentence has another error. You don't use "and" after a comma in a list of two items. => Yes, you are correct. Thanks for the correction. I have corrected it.

The bigger problem with E in the sloth question is NOT the notion of repeating a subject, but the lack of parallelism. We don't want "it" after the final "and" because we didn't get it after the first comma. Obviously, we're better off not repeating the subject, but it's safer to think of this under the rubric of parallelism.

Finally, the problem isn't that E doesn't have "so infrequently that", but that the version it does have is wrong. We could have said "it moves infrequently enough to allow two species of algae...". But "infrequently enough that..." is an incorrect idiom.

Hope that helps!

-tommy

Thanks for your valuable feedback. I appreciate your effort. I will be happy if you very often join discussion on this board. your expertise will help us. We are the beginners. So, we have lots of things to know.

1. For a list of three verbs we use comma.
Example:
I have made it, done it, and won the prize. [Am I right?]
Thanks.
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Re: Found throughout Central and South America, sloths hang from [#permalink]

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15 May 2010, 07:42
Very insightful discussion.

Thanks!
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Re: Found throughout Central and South America, sloths hang from [#permalink]

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11 Jul 2010, 11:42
Very detailed discussion , thanks ....
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Re: Found throughout Central and South America, sloths hang from [#permalink]

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04 Apr 2014, 23:14
noboru wrote:
313. Found throughout Central and South America, sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs and sleep fifteen hours a day, moving infrequently enough that two species of algae grow on its coat and between its toes.

(A) sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs and sleep fifteen hours a day, moving infrequently enough
(B) sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs, they sleep fifteen hours a day, and with such infrequent movements
(C) sloths use their long rubbery limbs to hang from trees, sleep fifteen hours a day, and move so infrequently
(D) the sloth hangs from trees by its long rubbery limbs, sleeping fifteen hours a day and moving so infrequently
(E) the sloth hangs from trees by its long rubbery limbs, sleeps fifteen hours a day, and it moves infrequently enough

I have a doubt that if option E is rephrased as
(E) the sloth hangs from trees by its long rubbery limbs, sleeps fifteen hours a day, and improves infrequently enough

Will this answer choice be correct ?

Or is it still incorrect because of enough that ??The Idiom should be so x that y .

Does it mean that énought that 'is a checkpoint for idiom 'so x that y 'and the idiom is preferred.
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Re: Found throughout Central and South America, sloths hang from [#permalink]

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08 Apr 2014, 07:52
2
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purnima wrote:
Found throughout Central and South America, sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs and sleep fifteen hours a day, moving infrequently enough that two species of algae grow on its coat and between its toes.

(A) sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs and sleep fifteen hours a day, moving infrequently enough
(B) sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs, they sleep fifteen hours a day, and with such infrequent movements
(C) sloths use their long rubbery limbs to hang from trees, sleep fifteen hours a day, and move so infrequently
(D) the sloth hangs from trees by its long rubbery limbs, sleeping fifteen hours a day and moving so infrequently
(E) the sloth hangs from trees by its long rubbery limbs, sleeps fifteen hours a day, and it moves infrequently enoug

I have a doubt that if option E is rephrased as
(E) the sloth hangs from trees by its long rubbery limbs, sleeps fifteen hours a day, and improves infrequently enough

Will this answer choice be correct ?

Or is it still incorrect because of enough that ??The Idiom should be so x that y .

Does it mean that énought that 'is a checkpoint for idiom 'so x that y 'and the idiom is preferred.

Hi Purnima,

Choice E is certainly incorrect for the usage of "enough that" because this is not the correct idiom. In the context of this sentence, we need the idiom "so X that Y". The "that Y" part is already mentioned in the non-underlined portion of the sentence. That's the indicator that we need to use the idiom "so X that Y" in its correct form to convey the intended meaning.

Also, when we write all the verbs in parallel form - "hangs, sleeps, and moves", they all become independent events. However, from the original senetnce, we know that at least "moving..." is the result of "sleeps 15 hours..." as this entity is written as the comma + verb-ing modifier that presents the result of the preceding action. So here we have the cause and effect relationship between the actions. this cause and effect relationship is lost when we make all the verbs parallel to each other. Such changes lead to change in the intended meaning of the sentence.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Found throughout Central and South America, sloths hang from [#permalink]

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02 Jun 2015, 20:42
TommyWallach wrote:
Hey All,

Everyone got to the correct answer here for good reasons, but I just thought I'd give it the total treatment, because it's a REALLY interesting question.

313. Found throughout Central and South America, sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs and sleep fifteen hours a day, moving infrequently enough that two species of algae grow on its coat and between its toes.

(A) sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs and sleep fifteen hours a day, moving infrequently enough
(B) sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs, they sleep fifteen hours a day, and with such infrequent movements
(C) sloths use their long rubbery limbs to hang from trees, sleep fifteen hours a day, and move so infrequently
(D) the sloth hangs from trees by its long rubbery limbs, sleeping fifteen hours a day and moving so infrequently
(E) the sloth hangs from trees by its long rubbery limbs, sleeps fifteen hours a day, and it moves infrequently enough

The way to get great at Sentence Correction is to always be categorizing as you look at splits. In this case, the first split you'll probably notice is "sloths" versus "the sloth". Now, a split like this should TYPICALLY lead you towards the category of SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT, but if you look at all the verbs, they work fine (sloths hang and the sloth hangs). The only other category that might apply when you see singular and plural verbs in the splits is PRONOUNS. That's right! This is actually a common trope. So look elsewhere for a pronoun. This will get rid of A, B, and C, as many have said (because the pronoun "its" at the end can only go with singular "the sloth").

From there, you may notice PARALLELISM happening here. You should know this because you see a list (comma, comma, "and"). This is dangerous here, though not if you noticed the PRONOUN issue already. As many have stated, answer choice E is NOT parallel, because it puts the pronoun "it" before the third verb.

HOWEVER, even if that "it" weren't there, this would still be incorrect. Before reading my explanation of why, see if you can work it out for yourself. Ready?

Okay. So even though E would be very beautiful (three verbs in the same tense and form...what parallel!), it would not retain the original meaning of the sentence. When you have total parallelism like you see in answer choice C, it implies three things that happen in a serial fashion (one after the other, or at least all separately).

But the point here is that there IS a connection. Notice the last point, "algae grow...between its toes." Why would that happen? The only explanation is that the sloth sleeps and barely moves WHILE it is hanging. When you have that kind of construction, you want to use subordinate verbs to imply a subordinate relationship. Watch:

All day long he sits in that chair, reading the newspaper and sometimes falling asleep.

See how we use the -ing form of the verb (participles) to imply that the reading and sleeping occurs WHILE he sits. Because of this, we need the answer to look just as D does.

Hope that helps!

-t

their are 3 kind of errors in sc, I categorize. this categorization is for attacking questions.

minors errors are simple to explain but hard to find in the test room. your explanation is correct.

I approach differently this approach is semantic.

on basis of meaning relation between comma+doing and the main clause, this relation different from that in grammar book and following the gmat standard, I realize the D is correct immediately

it is hard to understand my explanation above. but to understand above explanation, you need first to understand the meaning relation above. this job is not easy. you need to analyse the semamtic relation beteem doing and main clause in og books and read some grammar books for this point before you come to conclude about the sematic realation which gmat accept.

a lot of work even for prep company.

the more I study og books , the more I see the excellence of the writers of gmat

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Re: Found throughout Central and South America, sloths hang from [#permalink]

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10 Jun 2017, 13:04
Hi all,

Another point to add: Option B can not form a complete sentence because a comma is not sufficient to join two clauses. Hence option B is a run-on.

Sloths hang........COMMA they sleep........
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Re: Found throughout Central and South America, sloths hang from [#permalink]

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12 Jun 2017, 02:52
Found throughout Central and South America, sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs and sleep fifteen hours a day, moving infrequently enough that two species of algae grow on its coat and between its toes.

(A) sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs and sleep fifteen hours a day, moving infrequently enough
(B) sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs, they sleep fifteen hours a day, and with such infrequent movements
(C) sloths use their long rubbery limbs to hang from trees, sleep fifteen hours a day, and move so infrequently
(D) the sloth hangs from trees by its long rubbery limbs, sleeping fifteen hours a day and moving so infrequently
(E) the sloth hangs from trees by its long rubbery limbs, sleeps fifteen hours a day, and it moves infrequently enough
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Re: Found throughout Central and South America, sloths hang from [#permalink]

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24 Sep 2017, 10:10

(A) sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs and sleep fifteen hours a day, moving infrequently enough
(B) sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs, they sleep fifteen hours a day, and with such infrequent movements
(C) sloths use their long rubbery limbs to hang from trees, sleep fifteen hours a day, and move so infrequently
(D) the sloth hangs from trees by its long rubbery limbs, sleeping fifteen hours a day and moving so infrequently => perfectly parallel ,ing modifiers.
(E) the sloth hangs from trees by its long rubbery limbs, sleeps fifteen hours a day, and it moves infrequently enough
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Re: Found throughout Central and South America, sloths hang from [#permalink]

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20 Oct 2017, 07:21
noboru wrote:
Found throughout Central and South America, sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs and sleep fifteen hours a day, moving infrequently enough that two species of algae grow on its coat and between its toes.

(A) sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs and sleep fifteen hours a day, moving infrequently enough
(B) sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs, they sleep fifteen hours a day, and with such infrequent movements
(C) sloths use their long rubbery limbs to hang from trees, sleep fifteen hours a day, and move so infrequently
(D) the sloth hangs from trees by its long rubbery limbs, sleeping fifteen hours a day and moving so infrequently
(E) the sloth hangs from trees by its long rubbery limbs, sleeps fifteen hours a day, and it moves infrequently enough

Scanning through the options we can see 3:2 split. Now to decide "sloths" VS "the sloth" look at the non-underlined portion, which shows the usage of the pronoun its. Therefore, eliminate choices A, B, and C.

(D) the sloth hangs from trees by its long rubbery limbs, sleeping fifteen hours a day and moving so infrequently
The VERB-ing modifier is used correctly here, it describes the preceding clause.

(E) the sloth hangs from trees by its long rubbery limbs, sleeps fifteen hours a day, and it moves infrequently enough
the presence of the AND marker leads us to think parallelism. The three verbs are not parallel. "and it" distorts the parallelism. Also, as per the intended meaning of the sentence the three actions are not parallel. Instead its only a one action and the rest are just describing that one action.
ALso, the non underlined portion shows the usage of that, so we need a "so" before that which completes the so.. that structure and also implies the intended meaning.
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Re: Found throughout Central and South America, sloths hang from [#permalink]

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25 Nov 2017, 16:10
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noboru wrote:
Found throughout Central and South America, sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs and sleep fifteen hours a day, moving infrequently enough that two species of algae grow on its coat and between its toes.

(A) sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs and sleep fifteen hours a day, moving infrequently enough
(B) sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs, they sleep fifteen hours a day, and with such infrequent movements
(C) sloths use their long rubbery limbs to hang from trees, sleep fifteen hours a day, and move so infrequently
(D) the sloth hangs from trees by its long rubbery limbs, sleeping fifteen hours a day and moving so infrequently
(E) the sloth hangs from trees by its long rubbery limbs, sleeps fifteen hours a day, and it moves infrequently enough

D.
The non underlined part mentions its so use of plural sloths is incorrect. Hence, A,B and C can be eliminated.
E - This says that it moves frequently enough that two species of algae grow. Here, we are focusing on the outcome; this implies that they moved infrequently so that the algae grow , however this is not the intended meaning.
D gets this correct by using the idiom "so X that". Sleeping and moving as a modifiers after comma describe what the sloth does while hanging from trees.
Re: Found throughout Central and South America, sloths hang from   [#permalink] 25 Nov 2017, 16:10
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