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# GMAT Prep RC: Earth’s surface consists of rigid plates that are

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GMAT Prep RC: Earth’s surface consists of rigid plates that are  [#permalink]

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22 Jun 2016, 09:53
2
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Question 1
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based on 439 sessions

81% (03:02) correct 19% (02:58) wrong

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Question 2
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37% (01:22) correct 63% (01:29) wrong

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Question 3
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72% (00:41) correct 28% (01:08) wrong

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Question 4
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58% (01:21) correct 42% (01:33) wrong

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New GMAT Prep RC Project: 1 RC Every day. Don't forget to time yourself with the stopwatch below to earn kudos.

Earth’s surface consists of rigid plates that are constantly shifting and jostling one another. Plate movements are the surface expressions of motions in the mantle—the thick shell of rock that lies between Earth’s crust and its metallic core. Although the hot rock of the mantle is a solid, under the tremendous pressure of the crust and overlying rock of the mantle, it flows like a viscous liquid. The mantle’s motions, analogous to those in a pot of boiling water, cool the mantle by carrying hot material to the surface and returning cooler material to the depths. When the edge of one plate bends under another and its cooler material is consumed in the mantle, volcanic activity occurs as molten lava rises from the downgoing plate and erupts through the overlying one.

Most volcanoes occur at plate boundaries. However, certain “misplaced” volcanoes far from plate edges result from a second, independent mechanism that cools the deep interior of Earth. Because of its proximity to Earth’s core, the rock at the base of the mantle is much hotter than rock in the upper mantle. The hotter the mantle rock is, the less it resists flowing. Reservoirs of this hot rock collect in the base of the mantle. When a reservoir is sufficiently large, a sphere of this hot rock forces its way up through the upper mantle to Earth’s surface, creating a broad bulge in the topography. The “mantle plume” thus formed, once established, continues to channel hot material from the mantle base until the reservoir is emptied. The surface mark of an established plume is a hot spot—an isolated region of volcanoes and uplifted terrain located far from the edge of a surface plate. Because the source of a hot spot remains fixed while a surface plate moves over it, over a long period of time an active plume creates a chain of volcanoes or volcanic islands, a track marking the position of the plume relative to the moving plate. The natural history of the Hawaiian island chain clearly shows the movement of the Pacific plate over a fixed plume.

1. The passage is primarily concerned with discussing

(A) the composition of Earth’s mantle
(B) how the Hawaiian Islands were created
(C) what causes Earth’s surface plates to move
(D) two different mechanisms by which volcanoes are formed
(E) why most volcanoes occur at plate boundaries

2. It can be inferred from the passage that a chain of volcanoes created by a mantle plume would most likely be characterized by

(A) a curved outline
(B) constituent volcanoes that differ from each other in age
(C) occurrence near a plate boundary where one plate bends under another
(D) appearance near many other volcanic chains
(E) rocks with a wide range of chemical composition

3. The author’s reference to the Hawaiian Islands serves primarily to

(A) provide an example of a type of volcanic activity that does not occur elsewhere
(B) identify the evidence initially used to establish that the Pacific plate moves
(C) call into question a theory about the source of the volcanoes that created the Hawaiian Islands
(D) illustrate the distance from plate edges at which volcanoes typically appear
(E) provide an example of how mantle plumes manifest themselves on Earth’s surface

4) According to the passage, a hot spot on Earth’s surface is an indication of which of the following?

(A) An untapped reservoir of hot rock in the base of the mantle
(B) Volcanic activity at the edge of a plate
(C) Solid mantle rock under tremendous pressure
(D) The occurrence of a phenomenon unique to the Pacific plate
(E) A plume of hot mantle rock originating near Earth’s core

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Re: GMAT Prep RC: Earth’s surface consists of rigid plates that are  [#permalink]

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29 Jun 2017, 19:24
9
1
Earth - plates moving around, showing motions deeper down
like boiling water - hot stuff comes to the top and cooler stuff goes down
can cause volcanoes (usually at plate boundaries)
BUT there's another way to get volcanoes:
hotter rock = flows more easily
this hot rock collects deep down
when you get enough, it pushes up to make a bulge (volcano) even though it's not at a plate boundary
this kind can create chains or islands of volcanoes - eg Hawaii
Then I'd go back and label my first three lines "1 way" and the rest "the other way" (meaning the passage is split into two different ways to make a volcano)

1)The answer here is D, because the text has two distinctive sections, discussing two different processes:
- volcanic activity molten lava rises from the down going plate and erupts through the overlying one
- volcanoes that appear far away from plate intersections, in the "mantle plume" situation
A is incorrect because the composition of the mantle is not discussed, rather its movements. B is also incorrect because the islands are only mentioned once as an example C is wrong because these surface plates are only discussed in the first part of the text. The second concerns that mantle plume situation, which is not a part of the "surface plates" topic. The last answer choice is similarly wrong, because this is only mentioned in the first part of the text.
or
Q1 Main idea
a couple of different ways to make volcanoes (can get this from my notes above). Answer D says almost exactly that.
Q2 inference - chain of volcanoes - I remember that's from towards the end of my notes, so I go scan the passage again.
"over a long period of time an active plume creates a chain of volcanoes"
So, if it takes place over a long period of time, those volcanoes must be different in age relative to each other. A is tempting because I remember seeing maps of volcano chains... but that's not in the passage. C is contradicted by the passage. D and E aren't discussed - I have no idea (so, therefore, I can't infer the info).
Hence B.
Q3 why does the author refer to Hawaii
From my notes - Hawaii is an example of the chain thing
A is fine until we get to "does not occur elsewhere" - this is one of the major two ways of making volcanoes
scanning down... E matches my original idea (which I developed before looking at the choices) - it's an example of how this alternate way works
Q4 specific detail - a "hot spot" is an example of what?
That's about the "hotter rock" which was also talked about in the second way (chains), so scanning the passage...
"the surface mark of an established plume is a hot spot - an isolated region of volcanoes and uplifted terrain located far from the edge of a surface plate."
So, not B. Not D - says nothing about being unique to Pacific. Need a little more info - back to the passage. So the "hot spot" is this "established plume" thing and a "plume" is the result of a reservoir of very hot rock from the mantle.
A says the reservoir is "untapped" - but if it's coming up to the surface, then we can't call it "untapped." C says the rock is under enormous pressure - and I generally believe that, but I'm not finding a place in the passage where it specifically says that.
E calls it a plume, which the passage does say, and also says it's mantle rock, which is true according to the passage. And E says that this mantle rock comes from near the core and the passage does say that this stuff comes from the "base" of the mantle and describes it as having "proximity to Earth's core." So this one looks right!
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Re: GMAT Prep RC: Earth’s surface consists of rigid plates that are  [#permalink]

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22 Jun 2016, 12:21
1
Timer - 9min: 32sec

1) The passage is primarily concerned with discussing
A. the composition of Earth’s mantle
B. how the Hawaiian Islands were created
C. what causes Earth’s surface plates to move
D. two different mechanisms by which volcanoes are formed
E. why most volcanoes occur at plate boundaries

2) It can be inferred from the passage that a chain of volcanoes created by a mantle plume would most likely be characterized by
A. a curved outline
B. constituent volcanoes that differ from each other in age Correct, Because the source of a hot spot remains fixed while a surface plate moves over it, over a long period of time
C. occurrence near a plate boundary where one plate bends under another
D. appearance near many other volcanic chains
E. rocks with a wide range of chemical composition

3)The author’s reference to the Hawaiian Islands serves primarily to
A. provide an example of a type of volcanic activity that does not occur elsewhere
B. identify the evidence initially used to establish that the Pacific plate moves
C. call into question a theory about the source of the volcanoes that created the Hawaiian Islands
D. illustrate the distance from plate edges at which volcanoes typically appear
E. provide an example of how mantle plumes manifest themselves on Earth’s surfaceCorrect - the natural history of the Hawaiian island chain clearly shows the movement of the Pacific plate over a fixed plume.

4) According to the passage, a hot spot on Earth’s surface is an indication of which of the following?
A. An untapped reservoir of hot rock in the base of the mantle
B. Volcanic activity at the edge of a plate
C. Solid mantle rock under tremendous pressure
D. The occurrence of a phenomenon unique to the Pacific plate
E. A plume of hot mantle rock originating near Earth’s core Correct, Because of its proximity to Earth’s core, the rock at the base of the mantle is much hotter than rock in the upper mantle.

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Re: GMAT Prep RC: Earth’s surface consists of rigid plates that are  [#permalink]

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25 May 2018, 07:34
Good passage.All correct in 8 mins

souvik101990 wrote:
New GMAT Prep RC Project: 1 RC Every day. Don't forget to time yourself with the stopwatch below to earn kudos.

Earth’s surface consists of rigid plates that are constantly shifting and jostling one another. Plate movements are the surface expressions of motions in the mantle—the thick shell of rock that lies between Earth’s crust and its metallic core. Although the hot rock of the mantle is a solid, under the tremendous pressure of the crust and overlying rock of the mantle,it flows like a viscous liquid. The mantle’s motions, analogous to those in a pot of boiling water, cool the mantle by carrying hot material to the surface and returning cooler material to the depths. When the edge of one plate bends under another and its cooler material is consumed in the mantle, volcanic activity occurs as molten lava rises from the downgoing plate and erupts through the overlying one. Most volcanoes occur at plate boundaries. However, certain “misplaced” volcanoes far from plate edges result from a second, independent mechanism that cools the deep interior of Earth. Because of its proximity to Earth’s core, the rock at the base of the mantle is much hotter than rock in the upper mantle. The hotter the mantle rock is, the less it resists flowing. Reservoirs of this hot rock collect in the base of the mantle. When a reservoir is sufficiently large, a sphere of this hot rock forces its way up through the upper mantle to Earth’s surface, creating a broad bulge in the topography. The “mantle plume” thus formed, once established, continues to channel hot material from the mantle base until the reservoir is emptied. The surface mark of an established plume is a hot spot—an isolated region of volcanoes and uplifted terrain located far from the edge of a surface plate. Because the source of a hot spot remains fixed while a surface plate moves over it, over a long period of time an active plume creates a chain of volcanoes or volcanic islands, a track marking the position of the plume relative to the moving plate. The natural history of the Hawaiian island chain clearly shows the movement of the Pacific plate over a fixed plume.

1) The passage is primarily concerned with discussing
A. the composition of Earth’s mantle
B. how the Hawaiian Islands were created
C. what causes Earth’s surface plates to move
D. two different mechanisms by which volcanoes are formed
E. why most volcanoes occur at plate boundaries

2) It can be inferred from the passage that a chain of volcanoes created by a mantle plume would most likely be characterized by
A. a curved outline
B. constituent volcanoes that differ from each other in age
C. occurrence near a plate boundary where one plate bends under another
D. appearance near many other volcanic chains
E. rocks with a wide range of chemical composition

3)The author’s reference to the Hawaiian Islands serves primarily to
A. provide an example of a type of volcanic activity that does not occur elsewhere
B. identify the evidence initially used to establish that the Pacific plate moves
C. call into question a theory about the source of the volcanoes that created the Hawaiian Islands
D. illustrate the distance from plate edges at which volcanoes typically appear
E. provide an example of how mantle plumes manifest themselves on Earth’s surface

4) According to the passage, a hot spot on Earth’s surface is an indication of which of the following?
A. An untapped reservoir of hot rock in the base of the mantle
B. Volcanic activity at the edge of a plate
C. Solid mantle rock under tremendous pressure
D. The occurrence of a phenomenon unique to the Pacific plate
E. A plume of hot mantle rock originating near Earth’s core

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Re: GMAT Prep RC: Earth’s surface consists of rigid plates that are  [#permalink]

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06 Jun 2018, 01:47
Hi Experts - could you please provide some tips on tackling such RCs. I usually get a bit confused in RCs that discuss rocks, topography etc. maybe because they have technical information. Would it help if I skip the technical part? (I got 2/4 correct on this one.)
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Re: GMAT Prep RC: Earth’s surface consists of rigid plates that are  [#permalink]

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20 Jun 2018, 21:30
charlotte345 wrote:
Hi Experts - could you please provide some tips on tackling such RCs. I usually get a bit confused in RCs that discuss rocks, topography etc. maybe because they have technical information. Would it help if I skip the technical part? (I got 2/4 correct on this one.)

You have no option! You should fall in love the topic you are reading if you want to be successful in RC.
Start from reading more scientific articles in Scientific American or similar, watch more National Geographic.
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GMAT Prep RC: Earth’s surface consists of rigid plates that are  [#permalink]

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09 Sep 2018, 06:17
Got 4/4 correct in 8 min including 3:45 min to read the passage!
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Re: GMAT Prep RC: Earth’s surface consists of rigid plates that are  [#permalink]

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29 Oct 2018, 03:47
5:38.
3/4.
Got second one wrong. I guess I could have spent a bit more time on that. Rushed to an answer.
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Re: GMAT Prep RC: Earth’s surface consists of rigid plates that are  [#permalink]

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24 Nov 2018, 09:36
Top Contributor
souvik101990 wrote:
New GMAT Prep RC Project: 1 RC Every day. Don't forget to time yourself with the stopwatch below to earn kudos.

Earth’s surface consists of rigid plates that are constantly shifting and jostling one another. Plate movements are the surface expressions of motions in the mantle—the thick shell of rock that lies between Earth’s crust and its metallic core. Although the hot rock of the mantle is a solid, under the tremendous pressure of the crust and overlying rock of the mantle, it flows like a viscous liquid. The mantle’s motions, analogous to those in a pot of boiling water, cool the mantle by carrying hot material to the surface and returning cooler material to the depths. When the edge of one plate bends under another and its cooler material is consumed in the mantle, volcanic activity occurs as molten lava rises from the downgoing plate and erupts through the overlying one.

Most volcanoes occur at plate boundaries. However, certain “misplaced” volcanoes far from plate edges result from a second, independent mechanism that cools the deep interior of Earth. Because of its proximity to Earth’s core, the rock at the base of the mantle is much hotter than rock in the upper mantle. The hotter the mantle rock is, the less it resists flowing. Reservoirs of this hot rock collect in the base of the mantle. When a reservoir is sufficiently large, a sphere of this hot rock forces its way up through the upper mantle to Earth’s surface, creating a broad bulge in the topography. The “mantle plume” thus formed, once established, continues to channel hot material from the mantle base until the reservoir is emptied. The surface mark of an established plume is a hot spot—an isolated region of volcanoes and uplifted terrain located far from the edge of a surface plate. Because the source of a hot spot remains fixed while a surface plate moves over it, over a long period of time an active plume creates a chain of volcanoes or volcanic islands, a track marking the position of the plume relative to the moving plate. The natural history of the Hawaiian island chain clearly shows the movement of the Pacific plate over a fixed plume.

1. The passage is primarily concerned with discussing

(A) the composition of Earth’s mantle
(B) how the Hawaiian Islands were created
(C) what causes Earth’s surface plates to move
(D) two different mechanisms by which volcanoes are formed
(E) why most volcanoes occur at plate boundaries

2. It can be inferred from the passage that a chain of volcanoes created by a mantle plume would most likely be characterized by

(A) a curved outline
(B) constituent volcanoes that differ from each other in age
(C) occurrence near a plate boundary where one plate bends under another
(D) appearance near many other volcanic chains
(E) rocks with a wide range of chemical composition

3. The author’s reference to the Hawaiian Islands serves primarily to

(A) provide an example of a type of volcanic activity that does not occur elsewhere
(B) identify the evidence initially used to establish that the Pacific plate moves
(C) call into question a theory about the source of the volcanoes that created the Hawaiian Islands
(D) illustrate the distance from plate edges at which volcanoes typically appear
(E) provide an example of how mantle plumes manifest themselves on Earth’s surface

4) According to the passage, a hot spot on Earth’s surface is an indication of which of the following?

(A) An untapped reservoir of hot rock in the base of the mantle
(B) Volcanic activity at the edge of a plate
(C) Solid mantle rock under tremendous pressure
(D) The occurrence of a phenomenon unique to the Pacific plate
(E) A plume of hot mantle rock originating near Earth’s core

As we read the passage, we should note the following:
- summary of each paragraph (4 to 8 words)
- Two (or more) points of view (4 to 8 words)
- main idea (4 to 8 words)

Paragraph 1 summary: Moving plates cause volcanoes at edges
Paragraph 2 summary: Non-edge volcanoes from rising hot mantle bulge
Two points of view: 2 ways volcanoes form
Main idea: 2 ways volcanoes form

1. The passage is primarily concerned with discussing
(A) the composition of Earth’s mantle
(B) how the Hawaiian Islands were created
(C) what causes Earth’s surface plates to move
(D) two different mechanisms by which volcanoes are formed
(E) why most volcanoes occur at plate boundaries

Answer choice D matches our summary.
---------------------------------------------------------------------
2. It can be inferred from the passage that a chain of volcanoes created by a mantle plume would most likely be characterized by
(A) a curved outline
(B) constituent volcanoes that differ from each other in age
(C) occurrence near a plate boundary where one plate bends under another
(D) appearance near many other volcanic chains
(E) rocks with a wide range of chemical composition

The passage tells us that "the source of a hot spot remains fixed while a surface plate moves over it, over a long period of time an active plume creates a chain of volcanoes or volcanic islands, a track marking the position of the plume relative to the moving plate."
So, as the plates travel over the fixed hot spot, new volcanoes are formed and those volcanoes are transported away from the hot spot via plate movement. This allows for the formation of another volcano over that fixed hot spot. And another. etc
So, the resulting chain of volcanoes will be of various ages.
---------------------------------------------------------------------
3. The author’s reference to the Hawaiian Islands serves primarily to
(A) provide an example of a type of volcanic activity that does not occur elsewhere
(B) identify the evidence initially used to establish that the Pacific plate moves
(C) call into question a theory about the source of the volcanoes that created the Hawaiian Islands
(D) illustrate the distance from plate edges at which volcanoes typically appear
(E) provide an example of how mantle plumes manifest themselves on Earth’s surface
By the process of elimination, we are left with answer choice E
---------------------------------------------------------------------
4) According to the passage, a hot spot on Earth’s surface is an indication of which of the following?
(A) An untapped reservoir of hot rock in the base of the mantle
(B) Volcanic activity at the edge of a plate
(C) Solid mantle rock under tremendous pressure
(D) The occurrence of a phenomenon unique to the Pacific plate
(E) A plume of hot mantle rock originating near Earth’s core

The passage says The surface mark of an established plume is a hot spot

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Re: GMAT Prep RC: Earth’s surface consists of rigid plates that are &nbs [#permalink] 24 Nov 2018, 09:36
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