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# However much United States voters may agree that there is waste in

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However much United States voters may agree that there is waste in government and that the government as a whole spends beyond its means, it is difficult to find broad support for a movement toward a minimal state.

A However much United States voters may agree that
B Despite the agreement among United States voters to the fact
C Although United States voters agree
D Even though United States voters may agree
E There is agreement among United States voters that

I'm happy to help with this.

Choice (A) is correct, and uses the correct original meaning of the word "however." True grammatical conservatives, such as me, argue that this is the only proper use of the word, and that using "however" as a synonym for "although" or "nevertheless" is not acceptable. In this respect, I am more conservative than the GMAT, because the GMAT frequently allows this latter use. It's important to understand, though --- the latter use is secondary.

The original use is the indefinite form of the adverb "how". Think of the pronouns & adverbs ---who, what, where, when, etc.
who = a particular person
whoever = an indefinite person
what = a particular object
whatever = an indefinite object
when = a particular time
whenever = an indefinite time
where = a particular place
wherever = an indefinite place
Much in the same way, the adverb "how" in "how much" indicates a particular degree, and "however" in "however much" indicates an indefinite degree. In this form, as a relative adjective, the words "however much" also open a dependent clause. The grammar of choice (A) is 100% correct.

Incidentally, the phrase "however that may be" is, in fact, a synonym for "nevertheless", but because people are lazy, that phrase was abbreviated to simply "however", and people use "however" so commonly as a synonym for "nevertheless" that the mistake has become acceptable even in contexts with lofty standards, such as the GMAT SC.

Choice (B) & (C) & (D) omit the first "that", so they interrupt the parallelism between the two "that" clauses.

Choice (E) results in a run-on sentence with a comma splice. See:
https://gmat.magoosh.com/lessons/916-run-on-sentences

The only possible answer is (A).

Does all this make sense?
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Re: However much United States voters may agree that there is waste in [#permalink]
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Dear Friends,

Here is a detailed explanation to this question-
x2suresh wrote:
However much United States voters may agree that there is waste in government and that the government as a whole spends beyond its means, it is difficult to find broad support for a movement toward a minimal state.

(A) However much United States voters may agree that

(B) Despite the agreement among United States voters to the fact

(C) Although United States voters agree

(D) Even though United States voters may agree

(E) There is agreement among United States voters that

Meaning is crucial to solving this problem:
Understanding the intended meaning is key to solving this question; the intended meaning of this question is that regardless of the degree to which United States voters may agree that there is waste in government and that the government as a whole spends beyond its means, it is difficult to find broad support for a movement toward a minimal state.

Concepts tested here: Meaning + Parallelism + Grammatical Construction + Awkwardness/Redundancy

• Two elements linked by a conjunction ("and" in this sentence) must be parallel.
• Semicolons and the “comma + conjunction” construction are used to link two independent clauses; commas are used to link an independent clause with a dependent one; comma cannot be used to join two independent clauses.

A: Correct. This answer choice uses the phrase "However much United States voters may agree", conveying the intended meaning - that regardless of the degree to which United States voters may agree that there is waste in government and that the government as a whole spends beyond its means, it is difficult to find broad support for a movement toward a minimal state. Further, Option A correctly uses a comma to join the dependent clause "However much United States voters...its means" and "it is difficult to find broad support for a movement toward a minimal state". Additionally, Option A maintains parallelism between "that there is waste in government" and "that the government as a whole spends beyond its means". Besides, Option A is free of any awkwardness or redundancy.

B: This answer choice alters the meaning of the sentence through the phrase "Despite the agreement among United States voters"; the construction of this phrase incorrectly implies that despite the fact that United States voters may agree that there is waste in government and that the government as a whole spends beyond its means, it is difficult to find broad support for a movement toward a minimal state; the intended meaning is that regardless of the degree to which United States voters may agree that there is waste in government and that the government as a whole spends beyond its means, it is difficult to find broad support for a movement toward a minimal state. Further, Option B fails to maintain parallelism between "there is waste in government" and "that the government as a whole spends beyond its means"; remember, two elements linked by a conjunction ("and" in this sentence) must be parallel. Additionally, Option B uses the needlessly wordy phrase "Despite the agreement among United States voters to the fact", leading to awkwardness and redundancy.

C: This answer choice alters the meaning of the sentence through the phrase "Although United States voters agree"; the construction of this phrase incorrectly implies that despite the fact that United States voters may agree that there is waste in government and that the government as a whole spends beyond its means, it is difficult to find broad support for a movement toward a minimal state; the intended meaning is that regardless of the degree to which United States voters may agree that there is waste in government and that the government as a whole spends beyond its means, it is difficult to find broad support for a movement toward a minimal state. Further, Option C fails to maintain parallelism between "there is waste in government" and "that the government as a whole spends beyond its means"; remember, two elements linked by a conjunction ("and" in this sentence) must be parallel.

D: This answer choice alters the meaning of the sentence through the phrase "Even though United States voters may agree"; the construction of this phrase incorrectly implies that despite the fact that United States voters may agree that there is waste in government and that the government as a whole spends beyond its means, it is difficult to find broad support for a movement toward a minimal state; the intended meaning is that regardless of the degree to which United States voters may agree that there is waste in government and that the government as a whole spends beyond its means, it is difficult to find broad support for a movement toward a minimal state. Further, Option D fails to maintain parallelism between "there is waste in government" and "that the government as a whole spends beyond its means"; remember, two elements linked by a conjunction ("and" in this sentence) must be parallel.

E: This answer choice alters the meaning of the sentence through the clause"There is agreement among United States voters"; the construction of this phrase incorrectly implies that United States voters agree that there is waste in government and that the government as a whole spends beyond its means, and it is difficult to find broad support for a movement toward a minimal state; the intended meaning is that regardless of the degree to which United States voters may agree that there is waste in government and that the government as a whole spends beyond its means, it is difficult to find broad support for a movement toward a minimal state. Further, Option E incorrectly uses a comma to join the independent clauses "There is agreement among United States voters...its means" and "it is difficult to find broad support for a movement toward a minimal state"; remember, semicolons and the “comma + conjunction” construction are used to link two independent clauses; commas are used to link an independent clause with a dependent one; comma cannot be used to join two independent clauses.

Hence, A is the best answer choice.

To understand the concept of "Comma Splices and Run-Ons" on GMAT, you may want to watch the following video (~6 minutes):

All the best!
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Re: However much United States voters may agree that there is waste in [#permalink]
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yes, I got A as my answer. It makes perfect sense. You need "that" to connect the 2 clauses. So that eliminates all the answer choices except for A and E. The second half of the sentence starts with "it" right after a comma with no conjunction to connect the 2 clauses. You will need subordinate conjunction in the first sentence, turning the first sentence into a dependant clause. There is a rule of thumb:

1) dependant clause + , + independant clause ---> notice a comma between the clauses
2) independant clause + dependant clause ----> notice that there's no comma between the 2 clauses.

Here are some examples:

1) I like her ----> Indendent clause because the thought in this sentence is complete
2) because she is nice -----> dependent clause because not only is it not complete, but it also makes you want to anticipate what's next.

so:

a) I like her because she is nice. ----> independent clause + dependent clause
b) Because she is nice, I like her -----> dependent clause + , + independent clause

in option A, the "howevermuch" turns that first sentence into a dependent clause.
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Ayrish wrote:
334. However much United States voters may agree that there is waste in government and that the government as a whole spends beyond its means, it is difficult to find broad support for a movement toward a minimal state.
(A) However much United States voters may agree that
(B) Despite the agreement among United States voters to the fact
(C) Although United States voters agree
(D) Even though United States voters may agree
(E) There is agreement among United States voters that

can you explane why ... is right?

My ans is A
//ism--> require that at the ending of the answer choices. Eliminate B,C,D
In E, it is the run on sentence (2 sentences without conjunction)--> A remains
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Nice work, guys - and let me bring this up as a great example of this:

When the answer choices offer a split between the last word including a transition/structural word like "that", "but", "to", etc. in some choices and not including that word in others, you're probably going to have to determine whether you need it.

Here, two options have "that" as the last word and three do not. "That" in this case is a spacer word between two subject-verb clauses ("scientists agree" and "the temperature is rising"), and therefore we do need that word, so we can narrow down to two and then like daagh mentioned we have to pick the one that sets up a transition ("Although").

I tend to look at SC like you're performing "sentence transplant surgery" - and in order for you to transplant effectively you need to make sure that the replacement perfectly fits with the "host". The first and last words are therefore often crucial and make really good decision points, so if you notice that the last words give you a choice between using a structural word and not, there's a very good chance that you have to make that decision.
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Re: However much United States voters may agree that there is waste in [#permalink]
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There is an aspect of altered intent to this question, which seems to have been overlooked so far. The passage states that ‘However much United States voters “may agree”. This “may agree” part is an important intent of the text. Changing the ‘may agree’ to “agreement” in B and E and simply to “agree” in choice C indulges in substantial alteration of intent.

This leaves us with choices A and D; D is however woefully inadequate in llism, by dropping the connector “that” in the first part.
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"That" is required to connect the two clauses. E has no contrasting word like Although, even though or however much.
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I picked A...parallelism at its best....."that there is....and that the government...." Option E is wrong because in the Gmat starting a sentence with "there is" is incorrect.
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Re: However much United States voters may agree that there is waste in [#permalink]
I think this issue will be one in which carrying through the original intent is vital primarily, followed by grammar eventually.

The original means speculatively that the voters may agree for something in so much measure. However, the choices except A and D do not carry through the same intent. B says agreement without the speculative may, C says simply agree, and E simply agreement. So all the three choices are out.

Between A and D, Of course the issue of that //ism helps to choose A

A small word may is playing havoc
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@arzad, you are correct that choice E is incorrect. But the reason you have presented is not correct. "There is" is absolutely correct. There is no reason why "there is" is incorrect (see I started the sentence with "there is"). Yes in some cases, it may make the sentence more wordy. But in this sentence "there is" does not make the sentence wordy.

You may see detailed solution of this question here.
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Re: However much United States voters may agree that there is waste in [#permalink]
Hi all,

Since there was so much discussion on this question, one of my team members did a little video response on this. Check this out. Let us know if this helps.
The key takeaways that we had from this question were:

1. Read the non-underlined portion of the sentence
2. Pay attention to Verbs like "may", "can", "will"
3. All entities in the list must be parallel to each other
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However much United States voters may agree that there is a waste in government and that the government as a whole spends beyond its means, it is difficult to find broad support for a movement towards a minimal state

a) However much United States voters may agree that
b) Despite the agreement among United States voters to the fact
c) Although United States voters agree
d) Even though United Staes voters may agree
e) There is agreement among United States voters that

The answer to this A. I agree.
Am just a little confused - I read in MGMAT that HOWEVER is a conjugative adverb, that should be used with semi colons and not commas, since terms like these are transitional and not actually conjunctions.. Any thoughts?

Originally posted by devinawilliam83 on 18 Jan 2012, 05:52.
Last edited by broall on 29 Jun 2017, 18:15, edited 2 times in total.
Merged post. Please search before posting
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Re: However much United States voters may agree that there is waste in [#permalink]
Thanks for the response Chris.. if I am using However as a sub-ordinator as follows
he likes to go to the market,however he will not go this week

if i havnt misunderstood, the portions on both sides of the comma are clauses and hence comma should not be used.we should rephrase as

he likes to go to the market;however he will not go this week

Is my understanding correct?
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@devinawilliams83

It actually gets a little tricky if you use 'however' as a subordinate conjunction. If you join to independent clauses - as you did - then you must use the semi-colon with however. You must also put a comma in front of however, the way you would when however is used as a subordinate conjunction the beginning of the sentence.

He likes to go to market; however, he will not go this week.

Another important thing: however, when used as a Sub. Conj. can also go near the beginning of the sentence.

The man with the dog, however, could not dine at the restaurant.

Notice that 'the man with the dog' is not a dependent clause. Therefore ', however,' is correct and you do not need to use a semi-colon. Besides the placement of 'however,' this sentence is no different from:

However, the man with the dog could not dine at the restaurant.

Where a writer put the 'however' depends on the rhythm of the sentence. However, it is important to note that some grammar sticklers (influenced by Strunk and Whites Elements of Style), believe it is incorrect to start a sentence with 'however', when however is used as a subordinate conjunction.

The GMAT, however, does not subscribe to this "orthodoxy." I just thought I'd point this out because a google search on 'however' can yield conflicting info.

Hope that helps!
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"Much" is not counting the United States voters. "Much" is referring to how much the voters want something. The meaning of "much" in this problem is the same as in the sentence "No matter how much Bob wants ice cream, he will not get any." That means that no matter how great Bob's desire for ice cream is, he will not get any.

"Many" would be correct if the sentence was something like "Many United States voters that there is waste in government, that the government as a
whole spends beyond its means, and that it is difficult to find broad support for a movement toward a minimal state." In this case the voters are counted. The sentence is trying to say that a lot of voters agree with something.

I hope that helps
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Can someone justify the usage of 'much' here. I think much refers to voters which is a countable noun and hence much is not the right word !
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hello2gmat wrote:
Can someone justify the usage of 'much' here. I think much refers to voters which is a countable noun and hence much is not the right word !

Dear hello2gmat
I'm happy to respond. The word "much" is an adverb that modifies the verb "agree".
P and Q do not agree much.
R agrees with me much more than does T.
How much does he agree?
However much the voters agree?

We are not talking about the number of voters, but about the amount of agreement.
Does this make sense?
Mike
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