GMAT Question of the Day - Daily to your Mailbox; hard ones only

It is currently 20 Sep 2018, 00:18

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Close

Request Expert Reply

Confirm Cancel

In 1979 lack of rain reduced India's rice production to about 41 milli

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:

Hide Tags

Study Buddy Forum Moderator
User avatar
D
Joined: 04 Sep 2016
Posts: 1196
Location: India
WE: Engineering (Other)
Premium Member CAT Tests
Re: In 1979 lack of rain reduced India's rice production to about 41 milli  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 12 Jul 2017, 19:09
hi GMATNinja GMATNinja2 Experts

what does pronoun those refer to ? India's rice production or 41 million tons.
_________________

It's the journey that brings us happiness not the destination.

Manager
Manager
User avatar
G
Joined: 22 Nov 2016
Posts: 228
Location: United States
Concentration: Leadership, Strategy
GPA: 3.4
Reviews Badge
Re: In 1979 lack of rain reduced India's rice production to about 41 milli  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 20 Jul 2017, 09:36
gmat4varun wrote:
DmitryFarber wrote:
We only want to use "that of" or "those of" if we are comparing something *belonging* to something else:

The design of the new tablet is similar to that of its predecessor. (The design of one is similar to the design of the other.)
Jack wanted clothes similar to those of his friends. (He wants his clothes to be similar to his friends' clothes.)

In the above examples, it would be a big problem to get rid of the relative pronoun:

The design of the new tablet is similar to its predecessor. (The design is similar to the predecessor?)
Jack wanted clothes similar to his friends. (He wants his clothes to be similar to his friends?)

In B, we are correctly comparing the production in 1979 to the harvest in 1978. If we go with gmatfighter12's proposed phrasing, "less than that of," we have to ask what "that" stands for. If we say "less than that of the 1978 harvest," then "that" doesn't seem to stand for anything. If we say "less than that of 1978," the antecedent for "that" isn't entirely clear, although "production" seems like the most reasonable choice. E would then be clearer than the other wrong answer choices, but still not as clear as B.

Note that in my examples, it was very clear what "that" and "those" stood for. If we don't know what our pronouns stand for, we should probably replace them. In general, a specific noun is preferable to a vague pronoun (unless that specific noun is clearly wrong!).






You says "In B, we are correctly comparing the production in 1979 to the harvest in 1978. " But I doubt whether production can be compared with Harvest . Production is something we can measure but harvest is "the process or period of gathering in crops."


The aim of SC is to pick the best answer among the 5 choices. This answer may not be correct in your opinion and dont let your knowledge get in the way of picking the choice that is least flawed.

If the GMAT said, 'Maltania, a country near India.......', you would not question whether or not Maltania is indeed a country or near India. Hope you get my point.
_________________

Kudosity killed the cat but your kudos can save it.

Intern
Intern
avatar
B
Joined: 07 Sep 2016
Posts: 33
Re: In 1979 lack of rain reduced India's rice production to about 41 milli  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 20 Jul 2017, 21:53
sasyaharry wrote:
gmat4varun wrote:
DmitryFarber wrote:
We only want to use "that of" or "those of" if we are comparing something *belonging* to something else:

The design of the new tablet is similar to that of its predecessor. (The design of one is similar to the design of the other.)
Jack wanted clothes similar to those of his friends. (He wants his clothes to be similar to his friends' clothes.)

In the above examples, it would be a big problem to get rid of the relative pronoun:

The design of the new tablet is similar to its predecessor. (The design is similar to the predecessor?)
Jack wanted clothes similar to his friends. (He wants his clothes to be similar to his friends?)

In B, we are correctly comparing the production in 1979 to the harvest in 1978. If we go with gmatfighter12's proposed phrasing, "less than that of," we have to ask what "that" stands for. If we say "less than that of the 1978 harvest," then "that" doesn't seem to stand for anything. If we say "less than that of 1978," the antecedent for "that" isn't entirely clear, although "production" seems like the most reasonable choice. E would then be clearer than the other wrong answer choices, but still not as clear as B.

Note that in my examples, it was very clear what "that" and "those" stood for. If we don't know what our pronouns stand for, we should probably replace them. In general, a specific noun is preferable to a vague pronoun (unless that specific noun is clearly wrong!).






You says "In B, we are correctly comparing the production in 1979 to the harvest in 1978. " But I doubt whether production can be compared with Harvest . Production is something we can measure but harvest is "the process or period of gathering in crops."


The aim of SC is to pick the best answer among the 5 choices. This answer may not be correct in your opinion and dont let your knowledge get in the way of picking the choice that is least flawed.

If the GMAT said, 'Maltania, a country near India.......', you would not question whether or not Maltania is indeed a country or near India. Hope you get my point.



What you say is correct that we need to choose the best answer and here it is not a matter of Knowledge but it is English that says two similar type of things should be compared .
Retired Moderator
User avatar
P
Joined: 19 Mar 2014
Posts: 962
Location: India
Concentration: Finance, Entrepreneurship
GPA: 3.5
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member
Re: In 1979 lack of rain reduced India's rice production to about 41 milli  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 29 Jul 2017, 13:50
In 1979 lack of rain reduced India's rice production to about 41 million tons, nearly 25 percent less than those of the 1978 harvest.

(A) less than those of the 1978 harvest

(B) less than the 1978 harvest

(C) less than 1978

(D) fewer than 1978

(E) fewer than that of India's 1978 harvest
_________________

"Nothing in this world can take the place of persistence. Talent will not: nothing is more common than unsuccessful men with talent. Genius will not; unrewarded genius is almost a proverb. Education will not: the world is full of educated derelicts. Persistence and determination alone are omnipotent."

Best AWA Template: https://gmatclub.com/forum/how-to-get-6-0-awa-my-guide-64327.html#p470475

Intern
Intern
User avatar
B
Joined: 21 Sep 2016
Posts: 38
Re: In 1979 lack of rain reduced India's rice production to about 41 milli  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 10 Aug 2017, 23:46
what is wrong with answer choice E
Director
Director
avatar
G
Joined: 02 Sep 2016
Posts: 721
Premium Member
Re: In 1979 lack of rain reduced India's rice production to about 41 milli  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 27 Aug 2017, 00:36
sayantanc2k wrote:
hatemnag wrote:
it is quite confusing. get crazy or understand this idea. the question stem includes numbers and percents, then we say production is uncountable. what about 41 tons or 25 %.
please help to fix my mind to such idea. I studied MGMAT sc book more than twice.


First: 25% of a countable noun is countable and 25% of uncountable noun is uncountable. This is true for all percent and fraction words.

Now the question is whether we are referring to 25% of production (uncountable) or 25% of tonnes (countable). The sentence conveys the meaning that the production is reduced rather tonnes are reduced. 25% of production is uncountable and thus less is used.



Hello sayantanc2k

In one of the above posts, Dmitry has mentioned that measurements and weights are uncountable. But in your post you have mentioned that tonnes is countable. Is there some difference between the two that I am not able to spot here?

Is there some way that we can use to conclude what is countable and what is not?

Thanks
Manhattan Prep Instructor
User avatar
S
Joined: 22 Mar 2011
Posts: 1302
Re: In 1979 lack of rain reduced India's rice production to about 41 milli  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 30 Aug 2017, 01:48
1
2
Shiv2016, Sayantan and I are coming at the same idea in two different ways. When I said that weights and measures are typically uncountable, I meant that when we are talking about the measurement itself, we are not counting things. We are just referring to a number. For instance, we would say "I weigh 10 pounds less than my brother," not "10 pounds fewer," because we are simply comparing total weight. We are not counting individual pounds and seeing who has more. We'd say "I have 10 fewer dollars" or "I have 3 more children," but not "my height is 3 inches fewer."

So are pounds countable? Sure, and if we are looking at them directly, we use language that reflects that. For instance, we say "How many pounds of candy did you buy?" and not "How much pounds." However, usually when we talk about pounds or inches (or more civilized units, such as meters or kilograms ;) ), we are using them to compare one measurement to another. We are talking about weight or height or production, rather than counting individual things.

Correct:
How much does the job pay?
How many dollars do you have?
How much do you weigh?
How many pounds of vegetables do you need?
The production was 5 tons less than last year. (Comparing this year's production to last.)
I hauled 5 fewer tons this year than last year. (Comparing what I hauled this year to what I hauled last year.)
_________________


Dmitry Farber | Manhattan GMAT Instructor | New York


Manhattan GMAT Discount | Manhattan GMAT Course Reviews | View Instructor Profile |
Manhattan GMAT Reviews

e-GMAT Representative
User avatar
G
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 2680
Re: In 1979 lack of rain reduced India's rice production to about 41 milli  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 31 Aug 2017, 02:24
1
gmat4varun wrote:

You says "In B, we are correctly comparing the production in 1979 to the harvest in 1978. " But I doubt whether production can be compared with Harvest . Production is something we can measure but harvest is "the process or period of gathering in crops."



Hello gmat4varun,

I would just like to pitch in with my take on the usage of the word harvest.

This word is also used to mean produce or fruits or result. So technically, there is no issue in comparing production with harvest that has been used to mean produce.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
_________________












| '4 out of Top 5' Instructors on gmatclub | 70 point improvement guarantee | www.e-gmat.com

e-GMAT Representative
User avatar
G
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 2680
Re: In 1979 lack of rain reduced India's rice production to about 41 milli  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 31 Aug 2017, 02:37
1
Jabjagotabhisavera wrote:
Hi

I marked answer as "A" because I thought those refers to "tonnage/tons" of harvest. So the option "A" becomes "less than "tonnage/tons"of the 1978 harvest". Is it not correct?

Please clear my doubt.



Hello Jabjagotabhisavera,

I will be glad to help you with this one. :-)

Let's focus on the meaning if those refers to 41 million tons in the original sentence.

The sentence would convey that in 1979, India produced nearly 25 percent less than 41 million tons of the 1978 harvest.

Does this information make sense? No because the sentence clearly says that India produced 41 million tons of rice in 1979. This production was 25 less than the production in 1978.

But per the above-mentioned sentence, India produces less than 41 million tons in 1979.

So you see the illogical meaning due to the incorrect reference of pronoun those.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
_________________












| '4 out of Top 5' Instructors on gmatclub | 70 point improvement guarantee | www.e-gmat.com

e-GMAT Representative
User avatar
G
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 2680
Re: In 1979 lack of rain reduced India's rice production to about 41 milli  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 31 Aug 2017, 02:39
adkikani wrote:
hi GMATNinja GMATNinja2 Experts

what does pronoun those refer to ? India's rice production or 41 million tons.


Hello Arpit/ adkikani,

The plural pronoun those has no logical antecedent in the original sentence.

Just replace those with both the nouns you have suggested in your post. You will see that none of the nouns will convey the intended meaning.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
_________________












| '4 out of Top 5' Instructors on gmatclub | 70 point improvement guarantee | www.e-gmat.com

e-GMAT Representative
User avatar
G
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 2680
Re: In 1979 lack of rain reduced India's rice production to about 41 milli  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 31 Aug 2017, 02:45
Saumya2403 wrote:
what is wrong with answer choice E



Hello Saumya2403,

I will be glad to help you out with this one. :-)

There are the following two errors in Choice E:

1. Using fewer to refer to rice production is incorrect. Less should be used to refer to quantities.

2. Since the pronoun that refers back to India’s rice production, use of India’s is redundant here.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
_________________












| '4 out of Top 5' Instructors on gmatclub | 70 point improvement guarantee | www.e-gmat.com

Manager
Manager
avatar
G
Joined: 21 Jul 2015
Posts: 178
GMAT 1: 710 Q49 V38
Reviews Badge CAT Tests
Re: In 1979 lack of rain reduced India's rice production to about 41 milli  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 24 Dec 2017, 21:35
Hi Experts,

Could you please tell what type of a modifier is "nearly 25 percent less.... harvest" is? It is placed at the end of the sentence after the comma, and is modifying a noun earlier in the substance (rice production). If this is an absolute phrase, then those are usually in the form (Noun + Noun modifier), but I am not able to understand the structure of this phrase? Please advise.

Thank you!
_________________

Please take a moment to hit Kudos if my post helps.

Retired Moderator
User avatar
G
Joined: 14 Dec 2013
Posts: 3124
Location: Germany
Schools: HHL Leipzig
GMAT 1: 780 Q50 V47
WE: Corporate Finance (Pharmaceuticals and Biotech)
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member Reviews Badge
Re: In 1979 lack of rain reduced India's rice production to about 41 milli  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 27 Dec 2017, 06:18
yt770 wrote:
Hi Experts,

Could you please tell what type of a modifier is "nearly 25 percent less.... harvest" is? It is placed at the end of the sentence after the comma, and is modifying a noun earlier in the substance (rice production). If this is an absolute phrase, then those are usually in the form (Noun + Noun modifier), but I am not able to understand the structure of this phrase? Please advise.

Thank you!


It is not an absolute phrase. First note that adjectives (and adjective phrases) are noun modifiers. Now observe that, "25 percent less than the 1978 harvest" is an adjective phrase ["less" is the head (comparative) adjective of the phrase].
Manager
Manager
User avatar
B
Joined: 20 Oct 2016
Posts: 68
Re: In 1979 lack of rain reduced India's rice production to about 41 milli  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 01 Jul 2018, 23:39
https://youtu.be/wf2Pp6oPp7k
_________________

Founder, GMAT Mantra
One to One Live Online GMAT Coaching
8860616050
http://www.gmatmantra.com

EMPOWERgmat Instructor
User avatar
B
Joined: 23 Feb 2015
Posts: 316
Re: In 1979 lack of rain reduced India's rice production to about 41 milli  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 12 Sep 2018, 11:21
Hello Everyone!

Let's tackle this question, one issue at a time, to get to the correct answer quickly! Before we dive in, here is the original question, with any differences between each option highlighted in orange:

In 1979 lack of rain reduced India's rice production to about 41 million tons, nearly 25 percent less than those of the 1978 harvest.

(A) less than those of the 1978 harvest
(B) less than the 1978 harvest
(C) less than 1978
(D) fewer than 1978
(E) fewer than that of India's 1978 harvest

After a quick glance over each option, two major issues stand out:

1. less vs. fewer
2. parallel comparisons (1978 harvest/1978/that of India's 1978 harvest)


Since #1 on our list will rule out 2 or 3 answers right away, let's start there. Here is the general rule for less vs. fewer:

LESS = non-countable things; singular mass nouns (less patience, less of a percentage, less water, less grass)
FEWER = countable things (fewer books, fewer blades of grass, fewer dogs)

So which one do we choose? So what is shrinking by 25%? The rice production. Since rice production isn't a countable thing, we must use LESS. Let's see how each option stacks up:

(A) less than those of the 1978 harvest
(B) less than the 1978 harvest
(C) less than 1978
(D) fewer than 1978
(E) fewer than that of India's 1978 harvest

We can eliminate options D & E because they use the wrong comparison "fewer."

Now that we only have 3 options to choose from, let's tackle #2 on our list: parallel comparisons. First, we need to determine what two things are being compared in the sentence, so we can make sure they are parallel in wording, structure, or type. After reading it over, we can easily see that these two things are being compared:

The 1978 rice harvest vs. The 1979 rice harvest

Let's look at each remaining option carefully to make sure they are actually comparing harvest to harvest:

(A) less than those of the 1978 harvest

This is INCORRECT because it's comparing the 1979 harvest to "those of" the 1978 harvest. It's not clear what "those of" is referring to - lack of rain? Rice production? It's not a parallel comparison, so it's wrong.

(B) less than the 1978 harvest

This is CORRECT! It compares the 1979 harvest to the 1978 harvest, and it's very clear that's the case!

(C) less than 1978

This is INCORRECT because it's comparing the harvest of 1979 to the year 1978. We're not comparing harvests to years - that's not parallel! Therefore, this cannot be the correct choice.


There you have it! Option B is the correct choice because it uses the correct comparison language (less) and creates a parallel comparison!


Don't study for the GMAT. Train for it.
_________________

"Students study. GMAT assassins train."
Image

Image

★★★★★ GMAT Club Verified Reviews for EMPOWERgmat & Special Discount


GMAT Club Verbal Advantage EMPOWERgmat Critical Reasoning Question Pack

Re: In 1979 lack of rain reduced India's rice production to about 41 milli &nbs [#permalink] 12 Sep 2018, 11:21

Go to page   Previous    1   2   [ 36 posts ] 

Display posts from previous: Sort by

In 1979 lack of rain reduced India's rice production to about 41 milli

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  

Events & Promotions

PREV
NEXT


GMAT Club MBA Forum Home| About| Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy| GMAT Club Rules| Contact| Sitemap

Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group | Emoji artwork provided by EmojiOne

Kindly note that the GMAT® test is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by GMAC®.