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In 1981 children in the United States spent an average of slightly les

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Re: In 1981 children in the United States spent an average of slightly les  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jun 2017, 23:25
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Vyshak wrote:
Hi EducationAisle,

Can you please elaborate on why A is incorrect here? Option A is similar to your example - "By 1947, British had ruled India for 150 years."

Hi Vyshak, past perfect is typically used when there are two events that happened in the past. In such a scenario, the latter event is expressed as simple past.

The example I gave in my last post was to illustrate that this later event can also be a time (such as 1947 in the example that I quoted).

In option B, the usage of the phrase had grown to does justice to the intended meaning that the earlier figure (of 2.5 hours a week) had progressively increased to 6 hours a week by 1997.

On the other hand, had spent 6 hours a week (option A) gives the connotation of a discrete activity that was completed by 1997.
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Re: In 1981 children in the United States spent an average of slightly les  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jul 2017, 23:36
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Quote:
In 1981 children in the United States spent an average of slightly less than two and a half hours a week doing household chores; by 1997 they had spent nearly six hours a week.

(A) chores; by 1997 they had spent nearly six hours a week
(B) chores; by 1997 that figure had grown to nearly six hours a week
(C) chores, whereas nearly six hours a week were spent in 1997
(D) chores, compared with a figure of nearly six hours a week in 1997
(E) chores, that figure growing to nearly six hours a week in 1997

A quick-fix to this topic in the hall would be:

In 1997 is a wrong expression, implying that the figure shot up nearly three times in just that particular year, on the contrary, we all know that it must have been a progressive phenomenon. C, D, and E are out.
By using the pronoun they, this choice wrongly implies that the same children of 1981, nearly 16 years later in 1997 (were they even children in 1997?) spent six hours. Kick A out.
This leaves us with B. It is also known that using the past perfect for the later past event is a ploy by GMAT these days. Vote B
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Re: In 1981 children in the United States spent an average of slightly les  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Sep 2018, 03:26
GMATNinja @mikemcgerry

How to choose between A and B ..on the basis of meanng
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Re: In 1981 children in the United States spent an average of slightly les  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Sep 2018, 03:43
vikas9945 wrote:
GMATNinja @mikemcgerry

How to choose between A and B ..on the basis of meanng

vikas9945

Not an expert but let me give my inputs:

A) chores; by 1997 they had spent nearly six hours a week
Although the second part is grammatically correct but doesn't convey the intended meaning. On what did the children spend the time it is not clear here.
The sentence wants to indicate that they spent the time on household chores but in Option A it is not clear hence ambiguity.

Option B on the other hand:
(B) chores; by 1997 that figuretime spent on household chores had grown to nearly six hours a week
This sentence is clear and unambiguous.

Hope it helps
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Re: In 1981 children in the United States spent an average of slightly les  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Sep 2018, 03:54
arun6765

Thank you for your prompt reply

However , it is not written that on what did the children spend the time , it is somewhat implied by the sense of first part of the sentence.

Plus it is very subtle issue , so eliminating the answer choice on this basis seems not ok.





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Re: In 1981 children in the United States spent an average of slightly les  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Oct 2018, 21:02
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vikas9945 wrote:
GMATNinja @mikemcgerry

How to choose between A and B ..on the basis of meanng

This question causes endless confusion. Whee. :suspect

I see a couple of different issues with (A). Here it is again:

Quote:
In 1981 children in the United States spent an average of slightly less than two and a half hours a week doing household chores; by 1997 they had spent nearly six hours a week.

If we're crazy literal about the interpretation of the pronoun "they", then (A) has a problem. "They" seems to refer to "children in the United States" -- presumably, the exact same "children in the United States" that appeared at the beginning of the sentence. But that makes no sense: the "children in the United States" in 1981 aren't even children by 1997, so it's ridiculous to talk about how much time they spent doing chores in 1997.

And if you don't buy that, I think there's a problem with the verb tense in (A), too.

We have "In 1981 children in the United States spent an average of slightly less than two and a half hours a week doing household chores; by 1997 they had spent nearly six hours a week." The use of the past perfect, "had spent" in the second clause implies an action that took place before another event in the past. In other words, by 1997, the children were no longer spending six hours a week on household chores. This doesn't make much sense - why would they go from spending 2.5 hours a week in 1981 to no longer spending 6 hours a week by 1997?

But in (B), we have "In 1981 children in the United States spent an average of slightly less than two and a half hours a week doing household chores; by 1997 that figure had grown to nearly six hours a week." Again, we have the past perfect, but this time "had grown" indicates that the figure grew to 6 hours before 1997. This makes perfect sense - the children were working for 2.5 hours a week in 1981, and at some point before 1997, they began working 6 hours a week.

To summarize: it's illogical to write that the children were no longer working 6 hours a week by 1997, but it makes perfect sense to claim that the figure had grown to 6 hours by 1997.

I hope that helps!
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Re: In 1981 children in the United States spent an average of slightly les  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Oct 2018, 08:04
humtum0 wrote:
In 1981 children in the United States spent an average of slightly less than two and a half hours a week doing household chores; by 1997 they had spent nearly six hours a week.


(A) chores; by 1997 they had spent nearly six hours a week

(B) chores; by 1997 that figure had grown to nearly six hours a week

(C) chores, whereas nearly six hours a week were spent in 1997

(D) chores, compared with a figure of nearly six hours a week in 1997

(E) chores, that figure growing to nearly six hours a week in 1997


https://www.nytimes.com/1998/11/11/us/children-study-longer-and-play-less-a-report-says.html

Children age 3 to 11 years of age spent on average four hours a day in preschool or school in the early 1980's and now spend an average of six hours a day in preschool or school. The 1981 study reported that children spent an average of slightly less than two and a half hours a week doing household chores. By 1997, the year the field research was conducted, that figure had grown to nearly six hours a week.


I think the focus of this problem is clear meaning. choice A, C and D suffer unclear meaning error. meaning in choice A, C and D is inclear.
in choice D
"compared with a figure" is unclear . what figure? I think "compare with that figure of 6..." is good.
in choice A, "they had spent 6 hour" . spend for doing what. this is unclear
choice C.
"6 hours are spent" . for doing what and by who? this is unclear.

the takeaway is meaning must be CLEAR.
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Re: In 1981 children in the United States spent an average of slightly les &nbs [#permalink] 18 Oct 2018, 08:04

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