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In 2009, Congress mandated that science-based limits be used to preven

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Re: In 2009, Congress mandated that science-based limits be used to preven [#permalink]
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I am confused with a move that changed and a move that has changed.
Shouldn't it be has changed because it will have continuous effect? or because of In 2009 we have to keep it as Simple Past?

Bunuel wrote:
In 2009, Congress mandated that science-based limits be used to prevent overfishing, a move that changed the lives of many commercial fishermen across New England.

A. that science-based limits be used to prevent overfishing, a move that changed

B. that science-based limits will be used to prevent overfishing and change

C. science-based limits are used to prevent overfishing, and it was a move that has changed

D. that science-based limits should be used to prevent overfishing, a move that has changed

E. that science-based limits are used to prevent overfishing, changing
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Re: In 2009, Congress mandated that science-based limits be used to preven [#permalink]
Gmat800Champ wrote:
I am confused with a move that changed and a move that has changed.
Shouldn't it be has changed because it will have continuous effect? or because of In 2009 we have to keep it as Simple Past?

Bunuel wrote:
In 2009, Congress mandated that science-based limits be used to prevent overfishing, a move that changed the lives of many commercial fishermen across New England.

A. that science-based limits be used to prevent overfishing, a move that changed

B. that science-based limits will be used to prevent overfishing and change

C. science-based limits are used to prevent overfishing, and it was a move that has changed

D. that science-based limits should be used to prevent overfishing, a move that has changed

E. that science-based limits are used to prevent overfishing, changing

I think simple past is more appropriate here because we use simple past or simple present to denote a fact. Since it's a law that passed it will come under the simple past.
Good point raised.

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In 2009, Congress mandated that science-based limits be used to preven [#permalink]
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That changed and that has changed

A past tense is used for an event that started and ended in the past. A present perfect is used for something that was started in the past and which is continuing today or whose impact is still being felt.
Therefore, let us ask some relevant questions. Is the move still in effect? Alternatively, has the move been canceled by now? Are the people, whom the move impacted were still out of business? There is no indication that the move has been revoked. Hence, one would be reasonable to go with the present perfect. As per that, D seems to be a better choice.

However, in the context, the word 'mandated' indicates that a subjunctive verb 'be' should be used. As per that, A seems to be the more grammatical choice.

However, don't we use perfect tenses for facts or is it a non-fact if we use a perfect tense? To say that we use a past tense and present tense to denote facts isn't sustainable.
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In 2009, Congress mandated that science-based limits be used to preven [#permalink]
The underlying grammatical principle that is tested with this question is one regarding the subjunctive mood. In particular, the command subjunctive mood. The command subjunctive is used with certain bossy verbs such as require or propose, verbs that tell people to do things. There are certain verbs we must know in order for us to tackle questions like this in the future. Common verbs that only take the command subjunctive when indicating desire are:

demand, dictate, insist, mandate, propose, recommend, request, stipulate, suggest. Hence, the word mandate is used and therefore the command subjunctive must be applied.

With the command subjunctive the bare form of the verb must be applied. If you don't know what this means, I suggest you go through Manhattan SC, Chapter 7. Do note however that in the command subjunctive the form of the verb to be is always just be, not is, are or am.

Answer choice A is the only one that is stated in the command subjunctive.
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Re: In 2009, Congress mandated that science-based limits be used to preven [#permalink]
Bunuel wrote:
In 2009, Congress mandated that science-based limits be used to prevent overfishing, a move that changed the lives of many commercial fishermen across New England.

A. that science-based limits be used to prevent overfishing, a move that changed

B. that science-based limits will be used to prevent overfishing and change

C. science-based limits are used to prevent overfishing, and it was a move that has changed

D. that science-based limits should be used to prevent overfishing, a move that has changed

E. that science-based limits are used to prevent overfishing, changing

VERITAS PREP OFFICIAL EXPLANATION:

The most prominent decision point in this problem is the choice between “be used,” “are used” and “will/should be used”. While this type of verb choice is usually easy to assess, it is more difficult in this example. When certain verbs are used to express demands or suggestions such as insist, require, recommend, suggest, etc. the verb that follows requires a special conjugation in what is called the subjunctive mood (versus the normal indicative mood). Since these verbs are quite common in language, they are tested regularly on the GMAT and you must be on the lookout for this scenario. The rule is quite simple to learn: if you have a subjunctive verb followed by “that” then the verb that follows should be in the base form (the infinitive form without the “to”).

So in this example you have the subjunctive verb “mandated” followed by “that” so the correct form of the verb is the base form “be” NOT the normal “are” that you would use in the indicative mood. Also, the use of “will” or “should” in (B) and (D) with the verb “mandate” is redundant: the verb already implies that it “will” or “should” be done. Since only (A) uses the correct structure “mandate that limits BE used…”it is correct.
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Re: In 2009, Congress mandated that science-based limits be used to preven [#permalink]
daagh wrote:
That changed and that has changed

A past tense is used for an event that started and ended in the past. A present perfect is used for something that was started in the past and which is continuing today or whose impact is still being felt.
Therefore, let us ask some relevant questions. Is the move still in effect? Alternatively, has the move been canceled by now? Are the people, whom the move impacted were still out of business? There is no indication that the move has been revoked. Hence, one would be reasonable to go with the present perfect. As per that, D seems to be a better choice.

However, in the context, the word 'mandated' indicates that a subjunctive verb 'be' should be used. As per that, A seems to be the more grammatical choice.

However, don't we use perfect tenses for facts or is it a non-fact if we use a perfect tense? To say that we use a past tense and present tense to denote facts isn't sustainable.

daagh one small question- isn't ' a move' modifying overfishing? and isn't that a incorrect use of modifier?
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In 2009, Congress mandated that science-based limits be used to preven [#permalink]
After the words like "mandated", "demanded" which are subjunctive, "be" should be used.

Hence, A.
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Re: In 2009, Congress mandated that science-based limits be used to preven [#permalink]
Hi team

I choose option D states a move that has changed , the question does not revoke about the movement. It states that the movement should be implemented as it changed in New England.

which states the continuing effect of the movement, then why option A . @e-gmat
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Re: In 2009, Congress mandated that science-based limits be used to preven [#permalink]
anks2190 wrote:
Hi team

I choose option D states a move that has changed , the question does not revoke about the movement. It states that the movement should be implemented as it changed in New England.

which states the continuing effect of the movement, then why option A . @e-gmat

Check option (D) very carfully it states -

that science-based limits should be used to prevent overfishing, a move that has changed

This is improper per the subjunctive usage !!! Hence (D) can be rejected.
Re: In 2009, Congress mandated that science-based limits be used to preven [#permalink]
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