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# In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice

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In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice [#permalink]

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07 Oct 2012, 04:48
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In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically produce antibodies that destroy the virus by binding to proteins on its surface. Mice infected with a herpesvirus generally develop keratitis, a degenerative disease affecting part of the eye. Since proteins on the surface of cells in this part of the eye closely resemble those on the herpesvirus surface, scientists hypothesize that these cases of keratitis are caused by antibodies to herpesvirus.

Which of the following, if true, gives the greatest additional support to the scientists’ hypothesis?

A. Other types of virus have surface proteins that closely resemble proteins found in various organs of mice.
B. There are mice that are unable to form antibodies in response to herpes infections, and these mice contract herpes at roughly the same rate as other mice.
C. Mice that are infected with a herpesvirus but do not develop keratitis produce as many antibodies as infected mice that do develop keratitis.
D. There are mice that are unable to form antibodies in response to herpes infections, and these mice survive these infections without ever developing keratitis.
E. Mice that have never been infected with a herpesvirus can sometimes develop keratitis.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice t [#permalink]

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07 Oct 2012, 06:21
Its a causal argument: Cause: developing antibodies--------> Effect: Keratitis
Option D strengthen the argument by showing No Cause-No effect.
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Re: In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice [#permalink]

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19 Aug 2015, 17:46
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice [#permalink]

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13 Nov 2017, 21:15
I have a simple query. I understand the no cause no effect situation.
My understanding - Antibodies bind on proteins (found on antibodies' surface) to destroy viruses. Similar proteins are found on the surface of herpesvirus. Herpesvirus leads to keratitis. Thus Antibodies cause keratitis.
Now, when the function of the antibodies is to destroy the virus as given in the question, therefore, they are only reducing the chances of keratitis by fighting herpesvirus. Therefore, how can they cause keratitis? They lead to lower cases of keratitis.

Lets see it this way - More herpes more keratitis. Antibodies fight herpes. Thus, less chance of keratitis.

Kindly help...

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In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice [#permalink]

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14 Nov 2017, 03:58
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kingb wrote:
In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically produce antibodies that destroy the virus by binding to proteins on its surface. Mice infected with a herpesvirus generally develop keratitis, a degenerative disease affecting part of the eye. Since proteins on the surface of cells in this part of the eye closely resemble those on the herpesvirus surface, scientists hypothesize that these cases of keratitis are caused by antibodies to herpesvirus.

Which of the following, if true, gives the greatest additional support to the scientists’ hypothesis?

A. Other types of virus have surface proteins that closely resemble proteins found in various organs of mice.
B. There are mice that are unable to form antibodies in response to herpes infections, and these mice contract herpes at roughly the same rate as other mice.
C. Mice that are infected with a herpesvirus but do not develop keratitis produce as many antibodies as infected mice that do develop keratitis.
D. There are mice that are unable to form antibodies in response to herpes infections, and these mice survive these infections without ever developing keratitis.
E. Mice that have never been infected with a herpesvirus can sometimes develop keratitis.

Nice question. Here goes my understanding in a dramatic and hopefully in a comprehensible way:

1. Virus attacks the mice.
2. The mice fights back using its soldiers(antibodies) to destroy the crew of enemy (proteins of the virus).
3. This time Herpesvirus attacked mice. Assume that herpesvirus is a strong enemy whose soldiers (proteins) coincidentally look like the people(proteins) on the surface of a part of mice eye.
4. The soldiers of mice(antibodies), unable to identify the difference, also attacked his own people ( proteins on that part of the eye) by binding with them and thus causing keratitis.

Scientists hypothesize that keratitis in such cases is caused by the soldiers (antibodies) of the mice that were sent to attack the virus. You are asked to support this.
option D says-
There are mice that did not send its soldiers(antibodies) to fight herpes and such mice did not develop keratitis after surviving the invasion by Herpes. - This clearly shows that Keratisis was caused by the soldiers (antibodies) of the mice in the earlier case when the mice had actually sent antibodies to fight herpes. When the mice sent no soldiers to fight, there was no keratitis.

Hope it brought Thor into your mind. (Bahubali for Indians)
Have fun with CRs.
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Manager
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Re: In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2017, 01:04
TaN1213 wrote:
kingb wrote:
In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically produce antibodies that destroy the virus by binding to proteins on its surface. Mice infected with a herpesvirus generally develop keratitis, a degenerative disease affecting part of the eye. Since proteins on the surface of cells in this part of the eye closely resemble those on the herpesvirus surface, scientists hypothesize that these cases of keratitis are caused by antibodies to herpesvirus.

Which of the following, if true, gives the greatest additional support to the scientists’ hypothesis?

A. Other types of virus have surface proteins that closely resemble proteins found in various organs of mice.
B. There are mice that are unable to form antibodies in response to herpes infections, and these mice contract herpes at roughly the same rate as other mice.
C. Mice that are infected with a herpesvirus but do not develop keratitis produce as many antibodies as infected mice that do develop keratitis.
D. There are mice that are unable to form antibodies in response to herpes infections, and these mice survive these infections without ever developing keratitis.
E. Mice that have never been infected with a herpesvirus can sometimes develop keratitis.

Nice question. Here goes my understanding in a dramatic and hopefully in a comprehensible way:

1. Virus attacks the mice.
2. The mice fights back using its soldiers(antibodies) to destroy the crew of enemy (proteins of the virus).
3. This time Herpesvirus attacked mice. Assume that herpesvirus is a strong enemy whose soldiers (proteins) coincidentally look like the people(proteins) on the surface of a part of mice eye.
4. The soldiers of mice(antibodies), unable to identify the difference, also attacked his own people ( proteins on that part of the eye) by binding with them and thus causing keratitis.

Scientists hypothesize that keratitis in such cases is caused by the soldiers (antibodies) of the mice that were sent to attack the virus. You are asked to support this.
option D says-
There are mice that did not send its soldiers(antibodies) to fight herpes and such mice did not develop keratitis after surviving the invasion by Herpes. - This clearly shows that Keratisis was caused by the soldiers (antibodies) of the mice in the earlier case when the mice had actually sent antibodies to fight herpes. When the mice sent no soldiers to fight, there was no keratitis.

Hope it brought Thor into your mind. (Bahubali for Indians)
Have fun with CRs.

Excellent explanation -------
Now i believe i am able to understand conclusion to some extent-------------------------
Kudos given-----------------------
in the form of Mjolnir!--------------------

Over & out!

Kudos [?]: 40 [0], given: 93

Senior Manager
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Re: In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2017, 10:32
talismaaniac wrote:
TaN1213 wrote:
kingb wrote:
In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically produce antibodies that destroy the virus by binding to proteins on its surface. Mice infected with a herpesvirus generally develop keratitis, a degenerative disease affecting part of the eye. Since proteins on the surface of cells in this part of the eye closely resemble those on the herpesvirus surface, scientists hypothesize that these cases of keratitis are caused by antibodies to herpesvirus.

Which of the following, if true, gives the greatest additional support to the scientists’ hypothesis?

A. Other types of virus have surface proteins that closely resemble proteins found in various organs of mice.
B. There are mice that are unable to form antibodies in response to herpes infections, and these mice contract herpes at roughly the same rate as other mice.
C. Mice that are infected with a herpesvirus but do not develop keratitis produce as many antibodies as infected mice that do develop keratitis.
D. There are mice that are unable to form antibodies in response to herpes infections, and these mice survive these infections without ever developing keratitis.
E. Mice that have never been infected with a herpesvirus can sometimes develop keratitis.

Nice question. Here goes my understanding in a dramatic and hopefully in a comprehensible way:

1. Virus attacks the mice.
2. The mice fights back using its soldiers(antibodies) to destroy the crew of enemy (proteins of the virus).
3. This time Herpesvirus attacked mice. Assume that herpesvirus is a strong enemy whose soldiers (proteins) coincidentally look like the people(proteins) on the surface of a part of mice eye.
4. The soldiers of mice(antibodies), unable to identify the difference, also attacked his own people ( proteins on that part of the eye) by binding with them and thus causing keratitis.

Scientists hypothesize that keratitis in such cases is caused by the soldiers (antibodies) of the mice that were sent to attack the virus. You are asked to support this.
option D says-
There are mice that did not send its soldiers(antibodies) to fight herpes and such mice did not develop keratitis after surviving the invasion by Herpes. - This clearly shows that Keratisis was caused by the soldiers (antibodies) of the mice in the earlier case when the mice had actually sent antibodies to fight herpes. When the mice sent no soldiers to fight, there was no keratitis.

Hope it brought Thor into your mind. (Bahubali for Indians)
Have fun with CRs.

Excellent explanation -------
Now i believe i am able to understand conclusion to some extent-------------------------
Kudos given-----------------------
in the form of Mjolnir!--------------------

Over & out!

Glad I could help. Mjolnir :p
_________________

------------------------------
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Hit Kudus if this has helped you get closer to your goal, and also to assist others save time. Tq

Kudos [?]: 121 [0], given: 504

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Re: In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice [#permalink]

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16 Nov 2017, 13:54
Quote:
In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically produce antibodies that destroy the virus by binding to proteins on its surface. Mice infected with a herpesvirus generally develop keratitis, a degenerative disease affecting part of the eye. Since proteins on the surface of cells in this part of the eye closely resemble those on the herpesvirus surface, scientists hypothesize that these cases of keratitis are caused by antibodies to herpesvirus.

Which of the following, if true, gives the greatest additional support to the scientists’ hypothesis?

A. Other types of virus have surface proteins that closely resemble proteins found in various organs of mice.
B. There are mice that are unable to form antibodies in response to herpes infections, and these mice contract herpes at roughly the same rate as other mice.
C. Mice that are infected with a herpesvirus but do not develop keratitis produce as many antibodies as infected mice that do develop keratitis.
D. There are mice that are unable to form antibodies in response to herpes infections, and these mice survive these infections without ever developing keratitis.
E. Mice that have never been infected with a herpesvirus can sometimes develop keratitis.

talismaaniac wrote:
I have a simple query. I understand the no cause no effect situation.
My understanding - Antibodies bind on proteins (found on antibodies' surface) to destroy viruses. Similar proteins are found on the surface of herpesvirus. Herpesvirus leads to keratitis. Thus Antibodies cause keratitis.
Now, when the function of the antibodies is to destroy the virus as given in the question, therefore, they are only reducing the chances of keratitis by fighting herpesvirus. Therefore, how can they cause keratitis? They lead to lower cases of keratitis.

Lets see it this way - More herpes more keratitis. Antibodies fight herpes. Thus, less chance of keratitis.

Kindly help...

The first red flag is that this analysis contradicts information given in the passage: "Mice infected with a herpesvirus generally develop keratitis." So we KNOW that mice infected with herpesvirus generally develop keratitis, and we have to support a hypothesis explaining WHY that happens.

• A mouse gets infected with herpesvirus.
• Antibodies are produced to fight the infection.
• WHILE the antibodies are fighting the infection, they are also destroying the cells in the eye (CAUSING keratitis).
• MAYBE the antibodies successfully eliminate the herpesvirus (or maybe not... we don't know whether the antibodies will win the fight). In that case, the antibodies would no longer be produced. Regardless, the keratitis has ALREADY developed by that point. Maybe the keratitis would then go away too, but we don't know (or care) about that. All that matters is that the antibodies caused the keratitis in the first place.

I hope that helps!
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Re: In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice   [#permalink] 16 Nov 2017, 13:54
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