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In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically

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In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jul 2018, 06:45
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GMAT® Official Guide 2019

Practice Question
Question No.: CR02830

In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically produce antibodies that destroy the virus by binding to proteins on its surface. Mice infected with the herpesvirus generally develop keratitis, a degenerative disease affecting part of the eye. Since proteins on the surface of cells in this part of the eye closely resemble those on the herpesvirus surface, scientists hypothesize that these cases of keratitis are caused by antibodies to the herpesvirus.

Which of the following, if true, most helps to support the scientists’ reasoning?

(A) Other types of virus have surface proteins that closely resemble proteins found in various organs of mice.

(B) Mice that are infected with the herpesvirus but do not develop keratitis produce as many antibodies as infected mice that do develop keratitis.

(C) Mice infected with a new strain of the herpesvirus that has different surface proteins did not develop keratitis.

(D) Mice that have never been infected with the herpesvirus can sometimes develop keratitis.

(E) There are mice that are unable to form antibodies in response to herpes infections, and these mice contract herpes at roughly the same rate as other mice.

Similar Question : LINK

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Re: In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Aug 2018, 15:07
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The key to CR questions is to really understand what's going on in the argument.

I recommend boiling down the argument to a couple of sentences using YOUR own words.
Mice with a certain virus ALSO develop a particular degenerative eye disease. Why? It appears that the antibodies that target the virus (by attaching to its protein) also attack cells in the eye. So the antibodies mistake the proteins on the cells of the eye for those on the virus.

Conclusion: The antibodies are responsible for causing the degenerative eye disease (by using the aforementioned mechanism).

In casual statements one way to strengthen the argument is to remove the cause. If the effect is also absent, then you have a strengthener.
Choice (C) accomplishes this task. When you remove the suspected cause (the proteins similar to those on the cells of the eye to which antibodies attach), then the effect (Keratitis) is no longer there. In other words, the antibodies are no longer targeting those particular types of proteins similar in both the original herpervirus and the cells of the eye.
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Re: In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jul 2018, 10:59
hazelnut wrote:
GMAT® Official Guide 2018

Practice Question
Question No.: CR02830

In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically produce antibodies that destroy the virus by binding to proteins on its surface. Mice infected with the herpesvirus generally develop keratitis, a degenerative disease affecting part of the eye. Since proteins on the surface of cells in this part of the eye closely resemble those on the herpesvirus surface, scientists hypothesize that these cases of keratitis are caused by antibodies to the herpesvirus.

Which of the following, if true, most helps to support the scientists’ reasoning?

(A) Other types of virus have surface proteins that closely resemble proteins found in various organs of mice.

(B) Mice that are infected with the herpesvirus but do not develop keratitis produce as many antibodies as infected mice that do develop keratitis.

(C) Mice infected with a new strain of the herpesvirus that has different surface proteins did not develop keratitis.

(D) Mice that have never been infected with the herpesvirus can sometimes develop keratitis.

(E) There are mice that are unable to form antibodies in response to herpes infections, and these mice contract herpes at roughly the same rate as other mice.

Similar Question : LINK


In my opinion the answer should be C as this answer choice picks up on the similarities between Herpes Virus and anti bodies.
Hence, if the different strain of the Virus has different cells, the respective antibodies, given they closely resemble the cell structure of the original Virus, would look different than before and thus not cause Keratitis.

(My explantion is by no means SC sufficient :) )
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In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jul 2018, 03:41
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premise:
1. In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically produce antibodies that destroy the virus by binding to proteins on its(the virus) surface.This is a general responce of a mice in case of a viral infection.
2. Mice infected with the herpesvirus generally develop keratitis, a degenerative disease affecting part of the eye.
3. Since proteins on the surface of cells in this part of the eye closely resemble those on the herpesvirus surface, scientists hypothesize that these cases of keratitis are caused by antibodies to the herpesvirus.
----- Most probable reasoning of scientists to think all this could be that cells react to infection on the basis of surface. as two have close resemblance. it considered this part as virus and coated it with proteins.


Which of the following, if true, most helps to support the scientists’ reasoning?

(C) Mice infected with a new strain of the herpesvirus that has different surface proteins did not develop keratitis. --- this seems to be the correct answer. as keratitis devlopes on the basis of surfacr of virus. if this given virus has different surface, body cell's find a difference in eye cell and this new virus and so no keratitis will be developed.
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Re: In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jul 2018, 17:04
keratitis are caused by antibodies to the herpesvirus
Reason:
proteins on the surface of cells in this part of the eye closely resemble those on the herpesvirus surface

Now, if surface of cell doesn't resemble with surface of herpesvirus, does Keratitis happen.
If not, it's weakening.

C is close my thinking

C looks like an answer.
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Re: In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Sep 2018, 04:35
hazelnut wrote:
GMAT® Official Guide 2019

Practice Question
Question No.: CR02830

In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically produce antibodies that destroy the virus by binding to proteins on its surface. Mice infected with the herpesvirus generally develop keratitis, a degenerative disease affecting part of the eye. Since proteins on the surface of cells in this part of the eye closely resemble those on the herpesvirus surface, scientists hypothesize that these cases of keratitis are caused by antibodies to the herpesvirus.

Which of the following, if true, most helps to support the scientists’ reasoning?

(A) Other types of virus have surface proteins that closely resemble proteins found in various organs of mice.

(B) Mice that are infected with the herpesvirus but do not develop keratitis produce as many antibodies as infected mice that do develop keratitis.

(C) Mice infected with a new strain of the herpesvirus that has different surface proteins did not develop keratitis.

(D) Mice that have never been infected with the herpesvirus can sometimes develop keratitis.

(E) There are mice that are unable to form antibodies in response to herpes infections, and these mice contract herpes at roughly the same rate as other mice.



This is tough one from a reading comprehension perspective IMO.

Premise: The Immune System attacks virus' by attaching to surface area of proteins of the virus.
Premise: Herpesvirus leads to Keratitis (located in eye).
Premise: Herpesvirus proteins in the eye are similar to those that cause Keratitis.
Conclusion: Keratitis is caused by antibodies of Herpesvirus

(C) Mice infected with a new strain of the herpesvirus that has different surface proteins did not develop keratitis. New strain of Herpesvirus is not located in the eye, and it does not lead to Keratitis? Yep, that strengthens our Conclusion. Keratitis (located in eye) is definitely caused by antibodies of Herpesvirus attaching to the proteins in the eye.
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Re: In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Sep 2018, 09:57
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hazelnut wrote:
In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically produce antibodies that destroy the virus by binding to proteins on its surface. Mice infected with the herpesvirus generally develop keratitis, a degenerative disease affecting part of the eye. Since proteins on the surface of cells in this part of the eye closely resemble those on the herpesvirus surface, scientists hypothesize that these cases of keratitis are caused by antibodies to the herpesvirus.

Which of the following, if true, most helps to support the scientists’ reasoning?

(A) Other types of virus have surface proteins that closely resemble proteins found in various organs of mice.

(B) Mice that are infected with the herpesvirus but do not develop keratitis produce as many antibodies as infected mice that do develop keratitis.

(C) Mice infected with a new strain of the herpesvirus that has different surface proteins did not develop keratitis.

(D) Mice that have never been infected with the herpesvirus can sometimes develop keratitis.

(E) There are mice that are unable to form antibodies in response to herpes infections, and these mice contract herpes at roughly the same rate as other mice.


Step 1: Read the question stem: Which of the following, if true, most helps to support the scientists’ reasoning?
This looks like a Strengthen the Argument question

Step 2: Summarize the argument to yourself so you full understand its structure

PREMISE: infection --> antibodies bind to virus' proteins and kills it
PREMISE: mice with herpesvirus develop keratitis in eye
PREMISE: proteins on eye resemble herpesvirus proteins
CONCLUSION: antibodies to herpesvirus CAUSE keratitis

Step 3: Read each answer choice while reminding yourself of the argument's conclusion.

(A) Other types of virus have surface proteins that closely resemble proteins found in various organs of mice.
Does this strengthen the conclusion that antibodies to herpesvirus CAUSE keratitis?.
No. This information has no bearing on the conclusion.
ELIMINATE

(B) Mice that are infected with the herpesvirus but do not develop keratitis produce as many antibodies as infected mice that do develop keratitis.
Does this strengthen the conclusion that antibodies to herpesvirus CAUSE keratitis?.
No. This information actually hurts the conclusion.
ELIMINATE

(C) Mice infected with a new strain of the herpesvirus that has different surface proteins did not develop keratitis.
Does this strengthen the conclusion that antibodies to herpesvirus CAUSE keratitis?.
YES!
If the herpesvirus is altered, then the antibodies do not cause keratitis.
This definitely strengthens the conclusion.
KEEP C

(D) Mice that have never been infected with the herpesvirus can sometimes develop keratitis.
Does this strengthen the conclusion that antibodies to herpesvirus CAUSE keratitis?.
No. It just tells us that other things may also cause keratitis. That's fine, but it doesn't address whether or not the antibodies to herpesvirus cause keratitis
ELIMINATE

(E) There are mice that are unable to form antibodies in response to herpes infections, and these mice contract herpes at roughly the same rate as other mice
Does this strengthen the conclusion that antibodies to herpesvirus CAUSE keratitis?.
No, this has nothing to do with keratitis
ELIMINATE

Answer: C

Cheers,
Brent
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Re: In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Dec 2018, 00:34
LEOiAM wrote:
The key to CR questions is to really understand what's going on in the argument.

I recommend boiling down the argument to a couple of sentences using YOUR own words.
Mice with a certain virus ALSO develop a particular degenerative eye disease. Why? It appears that the antibodies that target the virus (by attaching to its protein) also attack cells in the eye. So the antibodies mistake the proteins on the cells of the eye for those on the virus.

Conclusion: The antibodies are responsible for causing the degenerative eye disease (by using the aforementioned mechanism).

In casual statements one way to strengthen the argument is to remove the cause. If the effect is also absent, then you have a strengthener.
Choice (C) accomplishes this task. When you remove the suspected cause (the proteins similar to those on the cells of the eye to which antibodies attach), then the effect (Keratitis) is no longer there. In other words, the antibodies are no longer targeting those particular types of proteins similar in both the original herpervirus and the cells of the eye.


excellent explanation
the most challenging to cr is to understand the argument. only when we can paraphrase the complex argument into a simple sentence, we can fully understand the argument. the logic of cr is easy to learn after a few tens questions.
this argument is complex with many new words. but once we can paraphrase, we can attack it.

causal argument is popular on og books. if argument say that A cause B, we can support it by showing that
when there is no cause, there is no effect. it is the choice C which do this point
it it not the case that B cause A. there is no reversal causal relation
there is another case, in which A appear and B appear.

i repeat again that understanding the argument is the main job of doing cr and that logic of cr is much more easier to master .
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Re: In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically &nbs [#permalink] 10 Dec 2018, 00:34
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