GMAT Question of the Day - Daily to your Mailbox; hard ones only

 It is currently 21 Jan 2019, 22:26

### GMAT Club Daily Prep

#### Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

## Events & Promotions

###### Events & Promotions in January
PrevNext
SuMoTuWeThFrSa
303112345
6789101112
13141516171819
20212223242526
272829303112
Open Detailed Calendar
• ### The winners of the GMAT game show

January 22, 2019

January 22, 2019

10:00 PM PST

11:00 PM PST

In case you didn’t notice, we recently held the 1st ever GMAT game show and it was awesome! See who won a full GMAT course, and register to the next one.
• ### GMAT Club Tests are Free & Open for Martin Luther King Jr.'s Birthday!

January 21, 2019

January 21, 2019

10:00 PM PST

11:00 PM PST

Mark your calendars - All GMAT Club Tests are free and open January 21st for celebrate Martin Luther King Jr.'s Birthday.

# In the mid-1970s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinel

Author Message
TAGS:

### Hide Tags

Manager
Status: GMAT Coach
Joined: 05 Nov 2012
Posts: 143
Location: Peru
GPA: 3.98
Re: In the mid-1970s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinel  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

27 Sep 2016, 11:25
bkk145 wrote:
OA=D

I think there is a point in this question. Somehow, I notice that in GMAT, when something is said in generalization, you can use present form even though the time line is in the past. General statement here is (birds overcome) and it is fine in the present form. I have seen some questions similar to this one as well. Please correct me if I am wrong.

Sorry, overcome is not present in this case; it is past participle and it is used to modify the noun birds.
_________________

Clipper Ledgard
GMAT Coach

Current Student
Joined: 17 Nov 2016
Posts: 13
Location: United States
Schools: Duke Fuqua
GMAT 1: 720 Q49 V39
GPA: 3.3
Re: In the mid-1970s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinel  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

19 Jul 2017, 14:15
1
In the mid-1970’s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, this prompted officials in California to devise a plan that reduced automobile emissions.

A. since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, this prompted officials in California to devise a plan that reduced

this is incorrect. This should be used as a possessive adjective only and not as a pronoun replacing a noun. Also, it is trying to replace a verb (falling).
Also, plan to is the correct idiom in this case (should avoid plan to only if the sentence was like 'to plan to something').

B. since birds that had been overcome by pollution were routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, it prompted officials in California to devise a plan that would reduce

it is incorrect. Pronouns cannot replace verbs. Plan to, same as A

C. birds had been overcome by pollution and routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan that reduced

Again, plan to. Also, all birds were overcome by pollution? This alternative has a meaning problem

D. birds overcome by pollution routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce

overcome modifies birds, no meaning problem. The -ing modifier starting with prompting correctly modifies the preceding clause, making it clear that the falling of the birds prompted the officials. Plan to is correct.

E. birds overcome by pollution and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways were prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce

This alternative sounds funny, birds were prompting officials? Also, and is wrong here because there is nothing else happening to birds overcome by pollution
Intern
Joined: 10 Apr 2017
Posts: 11
Re: In the mid-1970s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinel  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

21 Sep 2017, 23:56
bkk145 wrote:
In the mid-1970’s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, this prompted officials in California to devise a plan that reduced automobile emissions.

(A) since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, this prompted officials in California to devise a plan that reduced

(B) since birds that had been overcome by pollution were routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, it prompted officials in California to devise a plan that would reduce

(C) birds had been overcome by pollution and routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan that reduced

(D) birds overcome by pollution routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce

(E) birds overcome by pollution and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways were prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce

Because of the very vastness of grammar, I have always found the elimination method to get correct answer in SC.

I will try to reason it via "Process of Elimination" :

(A) since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, this prompted officials in California to devise a plan that reduced - Different verb tense- parallelism error

(B) since birds that had been overcome by pollution were routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, it prompted officials in California to devise a plan that would reduce - Same as A. Unparallel and differnt verb tense

(C) birds had been overcome by pollution and routinelyfell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan that reduced - Same as A and B- Unparallel. First verb is past perfect and second one is present tense.

(D) birds overcome by pollution routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce -Though this is awkward sounding but i dont see any error grammatically, so at this moment will leave it.Also it fixes the earlier error.

(E) birds overcome by pollution and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways were prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce - Unparallel again. So eliminated.

Now we can see, we are left with only option D. Though its really awkward, specially because of the use of modifier "prompting. But still i will choose D as others have clear errors.
HENCE D.
Intern
Joined: 07 Jun 2017
Posts: 12
GMAT 1: 560 Q42 V25
Re: In the mid-1970s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinel  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

24 Sep 2017, 02:47
noboru wrote:
noboru wrote:
"overcome" in D is present tense or is a participle modifying birds?
thanks.

PS: overcome, overcame, overcome

nobody is going to clarify this?

Birds overcome by pollutuon means birds affected strongly by pollution. Affect is a meaning of overcome

Posted from my mobile device
Manager
Status: GMAT Coach
Joined: 05 Nov 2012
Posts: 143
Location: Peru
GPA: 3.98
Re: In the mid-1970s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinel  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

25 Sep 2017, 10:51
pinkAugust2308 wrote:
noboru wrote:
noboru wrote:
"overcome" in D is present tense or is a participle modifying birds?
thanks.

PS: overcome, overcame, overcome

nobody is going to clarify this?

Birds overcome by pollutuon means birds affected strongly by pollution. Affect is a meaning of overcome

Posted from my mobile device

Look at my previous post:
Overcome is not present in this case; it is past participle and it is used to modify the noun birds.
_________________

Clipper Ledgard
GMAT Coach

e-GMAT Representative
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 2795
Re: In the mid-1970s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinel  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

25 Sep 2017, 14:28
3
Hello @rahulk2801!

You have presented a good analysis of the official sentence.

Here is my two cents on this official question.

(A) since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, this prompted officials in California to devise a plan that reduced: Incorrect

i. Presence of and indicates the presence of a list. However, there is no entity before and that is parallel to falling.
ii. Demonstrative pronoun this must be followed by a noun. However, there is no noun following this in this choice.
iii. Use of simple past tense reduced is incorrect because the plans do not reduce anything. Their implementation does.
iv. Since and prompted are redundant together because since has been used to mean because.

(B) since birds that had been overcome by pollution were routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, it prompted officials in California to devise a plan that would reduce: Incorrect

i. Use of past perfect tense had been overcome is incorrect because the action of getting affected by pollution and falling from the sky were happening at the same time. There is no need for any sequencing in the sentence.
ii. There is no noun antecedent for pronoun it. In this choice, it seems to refer to the action were falling. This reference is most definitely incorrect.
iii. This choice repeats the redundancy error of Choice A.
iv. This choice retains the would reduce error, similar to the one we saw in Choice A.

(C) birds had been overcome by pollution and routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan that reduced: Incorrect

i. This choice repeats the verb tense error of Choice B.
ii. This choice repeats the verb tense error of Choice A.
iii. This choice repeats the reduced error of Choice A.

(D) birds overcome by pollution routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce: Correct

(E) birds overcome by pollution and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways were prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce: Incorrect

i. This choice distorts the intended meaning by saying that the birds were prompted the officials to devise a plan.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
_________________

Everything you need to ace the GMAT and more
Basics of the GMAT
GMAT Exam Strategies
GMAT Study Plans
GMAT Verbal Subject Matter
GMAT AWA & IR

| '4 out of Top 5' Instructors on gmatclub | 70 point improvement guarantee | www.e-gmat.com

Senior Manager
Joined: 29 Jun 2017
Posts: 463
In the mid-1970s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinel  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

Updated on: 19 Mar 2018, 06:47
bkk145 wrote:
In the mid-1970’s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, this prompted officials in California to devise a plan that reduced automobile emissions.

(A) since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, this prompted officials in California to devise a plan that reduced

(B) since birds that had been overcome by pollution were routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, it prompted officials in California to devise a plan that would reduce

(C) birds had been overcome by pollution and routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan that reduced

(D) birds overcome by pollution routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce

(E) birds overcome by pollution and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways were prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce[/quote

it is hard to eliminate choice e.
I read Ron explanation on manhantan forum. in E, a bird falling and dead can not prompt officials. not logic
in choice D, the falling can logically prompt official . this is correct.

doing in this pattern normally show an inseparate action from the main action. the bird fall and this falling prompt offical . this is logic
the bird can not prompt official but the bird' falling prompt the officials.

Originally posted by thangvietnam on 25 Sep 2017, 19:10.
Last edited by mvictor on 19 Mar 2018, 06:47, edited 1 time in total.
corrected quote
BSchool Forum Moderator
Joined: 05 Jul 2017
Posts: 497
Location: India
GMAT 1: 700 Q49 V36
GPA: 4
Re: In the mid-1970s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinel  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

29 Sep 2017, 06:13
egmat wrote:
Hello @rahulk2801!

You have presented a good analysis of the official sentence.

Here is my two cents on this official question.

(A) since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, this prompted officials in California to devise a plan that reduced: Incorrect

i. Presence of and indicates the presence of a list. However, there is no entity before and that is parallel to falling.
ii. Demonstrative pronoun this must be followed by a noun. However, there is no noun following this in this choice.
iii. Use of simple past tense reduced is incorrect because the plans do not reduce anything. Their implementation does.
iv. Since and prompted are redundant together because since has been used to mean because.

(B) since birds that had been overcome by pollution were routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, it prompted officials in California to devise a plan that would reduce: Incorrect

i. Use of past perfect tense had been overcome is incorrect because the action of getting affected by pollution and falling from the sky were happening at the same time. There is no need for any sequencing in the sentence.
ii. There is no noun antecedent for pronoun it. In this choice, it seems to refer to the action were falling. This reference is most definitely incorrect.
iii. This choice repeats the redundancy error of Choice A.
iv. This choice retains the would reduce error, similar to the one we saw in Choice A.

(C) birds had been overcome by pollution and routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan that reduced: Incorrect

i. This choice repeats the verb tense error of Choice B.
ii. This choice repeats the verb tense error of Choice A.
iii. This choice repeats the reduced error of Choice A.

(D) birds overcome by pollution routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce: Correct

(E) birds overcome by pollution and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways were prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce: Incorrect

i. This choice distorts the intended meaning by saying that the birds were prompted the officials to devise a plan.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

Is it a rule that demonstrative pronoun "this" must be followed by a noun? Can you put some light on this concept?
_________________
e-GMAT Representative
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 2795
Re: In the mid-1970s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinel  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

29 Sep 2017, 13:06
3
pikolo2510 wrote:

Is it a rule that demonstrative pronoun "this" must be followed by a noun? Can you put some light on this concept?

Hello pikolo2510,

Yes, on GMAT SC, it is a rule that demonstrative pronouns must be followed by the noun they refer to.

For example:

I found an old pen in the attic; this belonged to my great grandfather. ---> Incorrect because this is not followed by the noun.

I found an old pen in the attic; this pen belonged to my great grandfather. ---> Correct because this is followed pen, the noun it is meant to refer to.

This is all we need to know about demonstrative pronouns to solve GMAT SC problems correctly.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
_________________

Everything you need to ace the GMAT and more
Basics of the GMAT
GMAT Exam Strategies
GMAT Study Plans
GMAT Verbal Subject Matter
GMAT AWA & IR

| '4 out of Top 5' Instructors on gmatclub | 70 point improvement guarantee | www.e-gmat.com

Manager
Joined: 27 Dec 2016
Posts: 236
Concentration: Marketing, Social Entrepreneurship
GPA: 3.65
WE: Marketing (Education)
Re: In the mid-1970s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinel  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

21 Nov 2017, 14:45
bkk145 wrote:
In the mid-1970’s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, this prompted officials in California to devise a plan that reduced automobile emissions.

(A) since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, this prompted officials in California to devise a plan that reduced

(B) since birds that had been overcome by pollution were routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, it prompted officials in California to devise a plan that would reduce

(C) birds had been overcome by pollution and routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan that reduced

(D) birds overcome by pollution routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce

(E) birds overcome by pollution and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways were prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce

Dear egmat , I still stumbled upon this question, coincidently after reading your wonderful article about V-ing.

In answer D, I have a confusion about "prompting". For sure it shows the result of preceding clause.
What makes me confused is that this "prompting" doesn't make sense with the verb (bird). How can we explain this?

What we must keep in mind is that the action denoted by verb-ing must make sense with the subject of the clause. The use of verb-ing is correct only if it makes sense with the subject of the clause it is modifying.

Thanks!
_________________

There's an app for that - Steve Jobs.

Verbal Forum Moderator
Status: Greatness begins beyond your comfort zone
Joined: 08 Dec 2013
Posts: 2182
Location: India
Concentration: General Management, Strategy
Schools: Kelley '20, ISB '19
GPA: 3.2
WE: Information Technology (Consulting)
In the mid-1970s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinel  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

25 Nov 2017, 23:05
In the mid-1970’s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, this prompted officials in California to devise a plan that reduced automobile emissions.

(A) since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, this prompted officials in California to devise a plan that reduced - This needs to be followed by a noun ; The tense of "reduced" doesn't make sense, because the reduction hadn't happened yet.

(B) since birds that had been overcome by pollution were routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, it prompted officials in California to devise a plan that would reduce - pronoun it does not refer to anything

(C) birds had been overcome by pollution and routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan that reduced - The tense of "reduced" doesn't make sense, because the reduction hadn't happened yet.

(D) birds overcome by pollution routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce - Correct

(E) birds overcome by pollution and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways were prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce - The core of the sentence is "birds ... were prompting". According to that sentence, the birds themselves were "prompting" political action, during the timeframe of the sentence. I.e., while they were falling out of the sky, cold and dead, they whipped out their telephones and called California politicians.

_________________

When everything seems to be going against you, remember that the airplane takes off against the wind, not with it. - Henry Ford
The Moment You Think About Giving Up, Think Of The Reason Why You Held On So Long
+1 Kudos if you find this post helpful

Manager
Status: Aiming MBA!!
Joined: 19 Aug 2017
Posts: 109
Location: India
GMAT 1: 620 Q49 V25
GPA: 3.75
WE: Web Development (Consulting)
In the mid-1970s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinel  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

30 Nov 2017, 23:21
bkk145 wrote:
In the mid-1970’s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, this prompted officials in California to devise a plan that reduced automobile emissions.

(A) since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, this prompted officials in California to devise a plan that reduced
* "Birds" isn't qualified/modified/narrowed down in any way, thus suggesting that birds in general were falling out of the sky. I.e., basically all birds were dying from pollution. (If you say Americans are paying less for gas then they did last year, that means all Americans -- at least the vast majority of them -- or Americans in general.)
* "This" is used as a pronoun.
* "Since" + "prompted" = redundant.
* The tense of "reduced" doesn't make sense, because the reduction hadn't happened yet.

(B) since birds that had been overcome by pollution were routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, it prompted officials in California to devise a plan that would reduce
similar errors as in option A. Also, what does "it" refers to here? There is no LOGICAL ANTECEDENT for "it".

(C) birds had been overcome by pollution and routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan that reduced
* "And" doesn't make sense as a connector; it fails to convey the relationship between "being overcome by pollution" and "falling out of the sky".

* "That reduced" doesn't work, for two different reasons.
First, it's in the same timeframe as the rest of the sentence, illogically suggesting simultaneity. (To use the same past tense for things that are not sequential or simultaneous, you'd ordinarily use additional time markers, e.g., In 1955 Harry met Linda, who later became his wife. Without "later", the impression is that the two met and got married almost instantly.)
Second, a plan doesn't reduce emissions. You can make a plan to reduce emissions, but the actual reduction comes from the actions outlined in the plan. Not from the plan itself.

(D) birds overcome by pollution routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce
Correct!

(E) birds overcome by pollution and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways were prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce
The biggest problem here is that the core of the sentence is "birds ... were prompting".

According to that sentence, the birds themselves were "prompting" political action, during the timeframe of the sentence. i.e., while they were falling out of the sky, cold and dead, they whipped out their telephones and called California politicians.
Senior Manager
Joined: 29 Jun 2017
Posts: 463
Re: In the mid-1970s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinel  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

01 Dec 2017, 00:28
bkk145 wrote:
In the mid-1970’s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, this prompted officials in California to devise a plan that reduced automobile emissions.

(A) since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, this prompted officials in California to devise a plan that reduced

(B) since birds that had been overcome by pollution were routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, it prompted officials in California to devise a plan that would reduce

(C) birds had been overcome by pollution and routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan that reduced

(D) birds overcome by pollution routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce

(E) birds overcome by pollution and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways were prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce

look at choice C. it it terible to analyse " had been and fell...".

normally, "and" show a paralel meaning/ideas. so, why are there two different tenses?. only this point make error.
"and " can not make a sequence of actions, the actions happening not at the same time.

if the sentence is shown in choice c, "had been" make "prompting" and "fell" make "prompting". this make no sense. an action make "prompting" and latter another action make 'prompting.

this is terrible meaning mistake.

we need to be ready to ananyse meaning problems on sc. focus on this skill is hard and important. by making us able to analyze meaning problems, gmat want us to fully understand a sentence.
Manager
Joined: 12 Mar 2017
Posts: 234
Location: India
Concentration: Strategy, General Management
GMAT 1: 630 Q49 V27
GPA: 4
Re: In the mid-1970s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinel  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

15 Mar 2018, 12:38
sayantanc2k , egmat

Doesn't option D gives a feeling that birds prompted officials to devise a plan. I am a little confused on this
VP
Status: It's near - I can see.
Joined: 13 Apr 2013
Posts: 1364
Location: India
GMAT 1: 480 Q38 V22
GPA: 3.01
WE: Engineering (Consulting)
Re: In the mid-1970s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinel  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

21 Apr 2018, 08:54
bkk145 wrote:
In the mid-1970’s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, this prompted officials in California to devise a plan that reduced automobile emissions.

(A) since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, this prompted officials in California to devise a plan that reduced

(B) since birds that had been overcome by pollution were routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, it prompted officials in California to devise a plan that would reduce

(C) birds had been overcome by pollution and routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan that reduced

(D) birds overcome by pollution routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce

(E) birds overcome by pollution and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways were prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce

D is clear and concise.
_________________

"Do not watch clock; Do what it does. KEEP GOING."

VP
Joined: 27 Mar 2010
Posts: 1066
Location: India
GPA: 3.31
Re: In the mid-1970s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinel  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

21 Apr 2018, 18:09
prateek176 wrote:
Doesn't option D gives a feeling that birds prompted officials to devise a plan. I am a little confused on this

Hi Prateek, that actually is the intended meaning as well. More specifically, an action of the birds (the falling of birds from the sky) prompted officials to devise a plan.

This is a classical usage of present participial phrase (prompting officials in California to devise a plan) that depicts a cause (the falling of birds) and an effect (officials devising a plan).

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses Participial phrases, their application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section.
_________________

Thanks,
Ashish
EducationAisle, Bangalore

Sentence Correction Nirvana available on Amazon.in and Flipkart

Now! Preview the entire Grammar Section of Sentence Correction Nirvana at pothi.com

Intern
Joined: 30 May 2018
Posts: 1
Re: In the mid-1970s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinel  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

29 Jun 2018, 02:31
Hi GmatNinja,

I am having difficulty in understanding "overcome" part. Shouldn't it be "overcame"?
Intern
Joined: 08 May 2018
Posts: 30
Re: In the mid-1970s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinel  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

01 Aug 2018, 03:05
egmat wrote:
Hello @rahulk2801!

You have presented a good analysis of the official sentence.

Here is my two cents on this official question.

(A) since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, this prompted officials in California to devise a plan that reduced: Incorrect

i. Presence of and indicates the presence of a list. However, there is no entity before and that is parallel to falling.
ii. Demonstrative pronoun this must be followed by a noun. However, there is no noun following this in this choice.
iii. Use of simple past tense reduced is incorrect because the plans do not reduce anything. Their implementation does.
iv. Since and prompted are redundant together because since has been used to mean because.

(B) since birds that had been overcome by pollution were routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, it prompted officials in California to devise a plan that would reduce: Incorrect

i. Use of past perfect tense had been overcome is incorrect because the action of getting affected by pollution and falling from the sky were happening at the same time. There is no need for any sequencing in the sentence.
ii. There is no noun antecedent for pronoun it. In this choice, it seems to refer to the action were falling. This reference is most definitely incorrect.
iii. This choice repeats the redundancy error of Choice A.
iv. This choice retains the would reduce error, similar to the one we saw in Choice A.

(C) birds had been overcome by pollution and routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan that reduced: Incorrect

i. This choice repeats the verb tense error of Choice B.
ii. This choice repeats the verb tense error of Choice A.
iii. This choice repeats the reduced error of Choice A.

(D) birds overcome by pollution routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce: Correct

(E) birds overcome by pollution and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways were prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce: Incorrect

i. This choice distorts the intended meaning by saying that the birds were prompted the officials to devise a plan.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

Hi egmat

I eliminated option D on the following grounds:

1) What fell from the sky? - Birds
2) What prompted officials? - Falling of birds (and not the birds itself)

Since the doer of the modified action (fell) and modifier action (prompted) is not the same, the placement of verb-ing modifier is incorrect.

Intern
Joined: 08 May 2018
Posts: 30
Re: In the mid-1970s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinel  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

01 Aug 2018, 03:46
septwibowo wrote:
bkk145 wrote:
In the mid-1970’s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, this prompted officials in California to devise a plan that reduced automobile emissions.

(A) since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, this prompted officials in California to devise a plan that reduced

(B) since birds that had been overcome by pollution were routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, it prompted officials in California to devise a plan that would reduce

(C) birds had been overcome by pollution and routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan that reduced

(D) birds overcome by pollution routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce

(E) birds overcome by pollution and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways were prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce

Dear egmat , I still stumbled upon this question, coincidently after reading your wonderful article about V-ing.

In answer D, I have a confusion about "prompting". For sure it shows the result of preceding clause.
What makes me confused is that this "prompting" doesn't make sense with the verb (bird). How can we explain this?

What we must keep in mind is that the action denoted by verb-ing must make sense with the subject of the clause. The use of verb-ing is correct only if it makes sense with the subject of the clause it is modifying.

Thanks!

Hi septwibowo

I am also stuck at the same point. In case your query has been resolved, can you please help me understand the application of this concept in this sentence?

Thanks.
Re: In the mid-1970s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinel &nbs [#permalink] 01 Aug 2018, 03:46

Go to page   Previous    1   2   [ 39 posts ]

Display posts from previous: Sort by