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In the mid-1970s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinel

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Re: In the mid-1970s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinel [#permalink]

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Re: In the mid-1970s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinel [#permalink]

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New post 27 Sep 2016, 11:25
bkk145 wrote:
OA=D

I think there is a point in this question. Somehow, I notice that in GMAT, when something is said in generalization, you can use present form even though the time line is in the past. General statement here is (birds overcome) and it is fine in the present form. I have seen some questions similar to this one as well. Please correct me if I am wrong.




Sorry, overcome is not present in this case; it is past participle and it is used to modify the noun birds.
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Re: In the mid-1970s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinel [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jul 2017, 14:15
In the mid-1970’s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, this prompted officials in California to devise a plan that reduced automobile emissions.

A. since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, this prompted officials in California to devise a plan that reduced


this is incorrect. This should be used as a possessive adjective only and not as a pronoun replacing a noun. Also, it is trying to replace a verb (falling).
Also, plan to is the correct idiom in this case (should avoid plan to only if the sentence was like 'to plan to something').




B. since birds that had been overcome by pollution were routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, it prompted officials in California to devise a plan that would reduce


it is incorrect. Pronouns cannot replace verbs. Plan to, same as A


C. birds had been overcome by pollution and routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan that reduced


Again, plan to. Also, all birds were overcome by pollution? This alternative has a meaning problem


D. birds overcome by pollution routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce


overcome modifies birds, no meaning problem. The -ing modifier starting with prompting correctly modifies the preceding clause, making it clear that the falling of the birds prompted the officials. Plan to is correct.


E. birds overcome by pollution and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways were prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce


This alternative sounds funny, birds were prompting officials? Also, and is wrong here because there is nothing else happening to birds overcome by pollution
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Re: In the mid-1970s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinel [#permalink]

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New post 21 Sep 2017, 23:56
bkk145 wrote:
In the mid-1970’s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, this prompted officials in California to devise a plan that reduced automobile emissions.

(A) since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, this prompted officials in California to devise a plan that reduced

(B) since birds that had been overcome by pollution were routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, it prompted officials in California to devise a plan that would reduce

(C) birds had been overcome by pollution and routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan that reduced

(D) birds overcome by pollution routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce

(E) birds overcome by pollution and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways were prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce



Because of the very vastness of grammar, I have always found the elimination method to get correct answer in SC.

I will try to reason it via "Process of Elimination" :

(A) since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, this prompted officials in California to devise a plan that reduced - Different verb tense- parallelism error

(B) since birds that had been overcome by pollution were routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, it prompted officials in California to devise a plan that would reduce - Same as A. Unparallel and differnt verb tense

(C) birds had been overcome by pollution and routinelyfell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan that reduced - Same as A and B- Unparallel. First verb is past perfect and second one is present tense.

(D) birds overcome by pollution routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce -Though this is awkward sounding but i dont see any error grammatically, so at this moment will leave it.Also it fixes the earlier error.

(E) birds overcome by pollution and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways were prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce - Unparallel again. So eliminated.

Now we can see, we are left with only option D. Though its really awkward, specially because of the use of modifier "prompting. But still i will choose D as others have clear errors.
HENCE D.
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Re: In the mid-1970s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinel [#permalink]

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New post 24 Sep 2017, 02:47
noboru wrote:
noboru wrote:
"overcome" in D is present tense or is a participle modifying birds?
thanks.

PS: overcome, overcame, overcome


nobody is going to clarify this?


Birds overcome by pollutuon means birds affected strongly by pollution. Affect is a meaning of overcome

Posted from my mobile device
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Re: In the mid-1970s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinel [#permalink]

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New post 25 Sep 2017, 10:51
pinkAugust2308 wrote:
noboru wrote:
noboru wrote:
"overcome" in D is present tense or is a participle modifying birds?
thanks.

PS: overcome, overcame, overcome


nobody is going to clarify this?


Birds overcome by pollutuon means birds affected strongly by pollution. Affect is a meaning of overcome

Posted from my mobile device


Look at my previous post:
Overcome is not present in this case; it is past participle and it is used to modify the noun birds.
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Re: In the mid-1970s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinel [#permalink]

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New post 25 Sep 2017, 14:28
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Hello @rahulk2801!

You have presented a good analysis of the official sentence.

Here is my two cents on this official question.

(A) since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, this prompted officials in California to devise a plan that reduced: Incorrect

i. Presence of and indicates the presence of a list. However, there is no entity before and that is parallel to falling.
ii. Demonstrative pronoun this must be followed by a noun. However, there is no noun following this in this choice.
iii. Use of simple past tense reduced is incorrect because the plans do not reduce anything. Their implementation does.
iv. Since and prompted are redundant together because since has been used to mean because.


(B) since birds that had been overcome by pollution were routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, it prompted officials in California to devise a plan that would reduce: Incorrect

i. Use of past perfect tense had been overcome is incorrect because the action of getting affected by pollution and falling from the sky were happening at the same time. There is no need for any sequencing in the sentence.
ii. There is no noun antecedent for pronoun it. In this choice, it seems to refer to the action were falling. This reference is most definitely incorrect.
iii. This choice repeats the redundancy error of Choice A.
iv. This choice retains the would reduce error, similar to the one we saw in Choice A.

(C) birds had been overcome by pollution and routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan that reduced: Incorrect

i. This choice repeats the verb tense error of Choice B.
ii. This choice repeats the verb tense error of Choice A.
iii. This choice repeats the reduced error of Choice A.


(D) birds overcome by pollution routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce: Correct


(E) birds overcome by pollution and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways were prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce: Incorrect

i. This choice distorts the intended meaning by saying that the birds were prompted the officials to devise a plan.



Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: In the mid-1970s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinel [#permalink]

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New post 25 Sep 2017, 19:10
[quote="bkk145"]In the mid-1970’s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, this prompted officials in California to devise a plan that reduced automobile emissions.

(A) since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, this prompted officials in California to devise a plan that reduced

(B) since birds that had been overcome by pollution were routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, it prompted officials in California to devise a plan that would reduce

(C) birds had been overcome by pollution and routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan that reduced

(D) birds overcome by pollution routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce

(E) birds overcome by pollution and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways were prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce[/quote

it is hard to eliminate choice e.
I read Ron explanation on manhantan forum. in E, a bird falling and dead can not prompt officials. not logic
in choice D, the falling can logically prompt official . this is correct.

doing in this pattern normally show an inseparate action from the main action. the bird fall and this falling prompt offical . this is logic
the bird can not prompt official but the bird' falling prompt the officials.
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Re: In the mid-1970s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinel [#permalink]

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New post 29 Sep 2017, 06:13
egmat wrote:
Hello @rahulk2801!

You have presented a good analysis of the official sentence.

Here is my two cents on this official question.

(A) since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, this prompted officials in California to devise a plan that reduced: Incorrect

i. Presence of and indicates the presence of a list. However, there is no entity before and that is parallel to falling.
ii. Demonstrative pronoun this must be followed by a noun. However, there is no noun following this in this choice.
iii. Use of simple past tense reduced is incorrect because the plans do not reduce anything. Their implementation does.
iv. Since and prompted are redundant together because since has been used to mean because.


(B) since birds that had been overcome by pollution were routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, it prompted officials in California to devise a plan that would reduce: Incorrect

i. Use of past perfect tense had been overcome is incorrect because the action of getting affected by pollution and falling from the sky were happening at the same time. There is no need for any sequencing in the sentence.
ii. There is no noun antecedent for pronoun it. In this choice, it seems to refer to the action were falling. This reference is most definitely incorrect.
iii. This choice repeats the redundancy error of Choice A.
iv. This choice retains the would reduce error, similar to the one we saw in Choice A.

(C) birds had been overcome by pollution and routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan that reduced: Incorrect

i. This choice repeats the verb tense error of Choice B.
ii. This choice repeats the verb tense error of Choice A.
iii. This choice repeats the reduced error of Choice A.


(D) birds overcome by pollution routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce: Correct


(E) birds overcome by pollution and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways were prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce: Incorrect

i. This choice distorts the intended meaning by saying that the birds were prompted the officials to devise a plan.



Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha


Hey Shraddha,

Is it a rule that demonstrative pronoun "this" must be followed by a noun? Can you put some light on this concept?
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Re: In the mid-1970s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinel [#permalink]

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pikolo2510 wrote:
Hey Shraddha,

Is it a rule that demonstrative pronoun "this" must be followed by a noun? Can you put some light on this concept?



Hello pikolo2510,

Thank you for your query. :-)

Yes, on GMAT SC, it is a rule that demonstrative pronouns must be followed by the noun they refer to.

For example:

I found an old pen in the attic; this belonged to my great grandfather. ---> Incorrect because this is not followed by the noun.

I found an old pen in the attic; this pen belonged to my great grandfather. ---> Correct because this is followed pen, the noun it is meant to refer to.


This is all we need to know about demonstrative pronouns to solve GMAT SC problems correctly.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: In the mid-1970s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinel [#permalink]

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New post 21 Nov 2017, 14:45
bkk145 wrote:
In the mid-1970’s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, this prompted officials in California to devise a plan that reduced automobile emissions.

(A) since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, this prompted officials in California to devise a plan that reduced

(B) since birds that had been overcome by pollution were routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, it prompted officials in California to devise a plan that would reduce

(C) birds had been overcome by pollution and routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan that reduced

(D) birds overcome by pollution routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce

(E) birds overcome by pollution and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways were prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce


Dear egmat , I still stumbled upon this question, coincidently after reading your wonderful article about V-ing.

In answer D, I have a confusion about "prompting". For sure it shows the result of preceding clause.
What makes me confused is that this "prompting" doesn't make sense with the verb (bird). How can we explain this?

Quoting from your blog :
[Reveal] Spoiler:
What we must keep in mind is that the action denoted by verb-ing must make sense with the subject of the clause. The use of verb-ing is correct only if it makes sense with the subject of the clause it is modifying.


Thanks!
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In the mid-1970s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinel [#permalink]

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New post 25 Nov 2017, 23:05
In the mid-1970’s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, this prompted officials in California to devise a plan that reduced automobile emissions.

(A) since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, this prompted officials in California to devise a plan that reduced - This needs to be followed by a noun ; The tense of "reduced" doesn't make sense, because the reduction hadn't happened yet.

(B) since birds that had been overcome by pollution were routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, it prompted officials in California to devise a plan that would reduce - pronoun it does not refer to anything

(C) birds had been overcome by pollution and routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan that reduced - The tense of "reduced" doesn't make sense, because the reduction hadn't happened yet.

(D) birds overcome by pollution routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce - Correct

(E) birds overcome by pollution and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways were prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce - The core of the sentence is "birds ... were prompting". According to that sentence, the birds themselves were "prompting" political action, during the timeframe of the sentence. I.e., while they were falling out of the sky, cold and dead, they whipped out their telephones and called California politicians. :-D

Answer D
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In the mid-1970s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinel [#permalink]

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New post 30 Nov 2017, 23:21
bkk145 wrote:
In the mid-1970’s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, this prompted officials in California to devise a plan that reduced automobile emissions.


(A) since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, this prompted officials in California to devise a plan that reduced
* "Birds" isn't qualified/modified/narrowed down in any way, thus suggesting that birds in general were falling out of the sky. I.e., basically all birds were dying from pollution. (If you say Americans are paying less for gas then they did last year, that means all Americans -- at least the vast majority of them -- or Americans in general.)
* "This" is used as a pronoun.
* "Since" + "prompted" = redundant.
* The tense of "reduced" doesn't make sense, because the reduction hadn't happened yet.


(B) since birds that had been overcome by pollution were routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, it prompted officials in California to devise a plan that would reduce
similar errors as in option A. Also, what does "it" refers to here? There is no LOGICAL ANTECEDENT for "it".

(C) birds had been overcome by pollution and routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan that reduced
* "And" doesn't make sense as a connector; it fails to convey the relationship between "being overcome by pollution" and "falling out of the sky".

* "That reduced" doesn't work, for two different reasons.
First, it's in the same timeframe as the rest of the sentence, illogically suggesting simultaneity. (To use the same past tense for things that are not sequential or simultaneous, you'd ordinarily use additional time markers, e.g., In 1955 Harry met Linda, who later became his wife. Without "later", the impression is that the two met and got married almost instantly.)
Second, a plan doesn't reduce emissions. You can make a plan to reduce emissions, but the actual reduction comes from the actions outlined in the plan. Not from the plan itself.


(D) birds overcome by pollution routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce
Correct!

(E) birds overcome by pollution and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways were prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce
The biggest problem here is that the core of the sentence is "birds ... were prompting".

According to that sentence, the birds themselves were "prompting" political action, during the timeframe of the sentence. i.e., while they were falling out of the sky, cold and dead, they whipped out their telephones and called California politicians.
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Re: In the mid-1970s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinel [#permalink]

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New post 01 Dec 2017, 00:28
bkk145 wrote:
In the mid-1970’s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, this prompted officials in California to devise a plan that reduced automobile emissions.

(A) since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, this prompted officials in California to devise a plan that reduced

(B) since birds that had been overcome by pollution were routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, it prompted officials in California to devise a plan that would reduce

(C) birds had been overcome by pollution and routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan that reduced

(D) birds overcome by pollution routinely fell from the sky above Los Angeles freeways, prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce

(E) birds overcome by pollution and routinely falling from the sky above Los Angeles freeways were prompting officials in California to devise a plan to reduce


look at choice C. it it terible to analyse " had been and fell...".

normally, "and" show a paralel meaning/ideas. so, why are there two different tenses?. only this point make error.
"and " can not make a sequence of actions, the actions happening not at the same time.

if the sentence is shown in choice c, "had been" make "prompting" and "fell" make "prompting". this make no sense. an action make "prompting" and latter another action make 'prompting.

this is terrible meaning mistake.

we need to be ready to ananyse meaning problems on sc. focus on this skill is hard and important. by making us able to analyze meaning problems, gmat want us to fully understand a sentence.
Re: In the mid-1970s, since birds were overcome by pollution, and routinel   [#permalink] 01 Dec 2017, 00:28

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