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Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, investigators

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Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, investigators  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 10 Oct 2018, 01:30
6
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A
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D
E

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Question Stats:

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Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, investigators should find out why the error was made by analyzing airplane design, airline management, and pilot-training programs. For only then can changes be made to ensure that the same type of error does not recur and cause another accident.

Which of the following is a presupposition of the argument above?

(A) Pilot error is not a contributing factor in most airline accidents.
(B) Airline companies themselves should be the agents who investigate airline accidents.
(C) Stricter government regulation of airline companies will make air travel significantly safer.
(D) Investigators of airline accidents should contribute to the prevention of future accidents.
(E) Most pilots who make errors in flying will repeat their errors unless they are retrained.

Originally posted by nocilis on 28 Jan 2005, 14:00.
Last edited by Bunuel on 10 Oct 2018, 01:30, edited 1 time in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, investigators  [#permalink]

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New post 21 May 2015, 08:01
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nocilis wrote:
Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, investigators should find out why the error was made by analyzing airplane design, airline management, and pilot-training programs. For only then can changes be made to ensure that the same type of error does not recur and cause another accident.
Which of the following is a presupposition of the argument above?
(A) Pilot error is not a contributing factor in most airline accidents.
(B) Airline companies themselves should be the agents who investigate airline accidents.
(C) Stricter government regulation of airline companies will make air travel significantly safer.
(D) Investigators of airline accidents should contribute to the prevention of future accidents.
(E) Most pilots who make errors in flying will repeat their errors unless they are retrained.

Explain the reasons for your answer.


I marked "D" but IMO answer choice E is a correct assumption. Premise "Instead of blaming the pilot, investigators should analyse design, airline management and training programs". Option D is stated in the argument so it cant be the assumption..In choice E it states " if we only blame the pilots for the accidents always, then the real cause of the accidents we will never know..AND as the reason is unknown, there is always a possibility that the same error will occur again..We cant trained the pilots for the unknown errors...we must know the right reason only then it can be rectified. Only blaming the pilot will not solve the issue as they are always prone to make the same error.
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Re: Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, investigators  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 30 Aug 2016, 08:34
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Very very good and easy question.
THE ANSWER IS E AND E ONLY.

Explaination :- Questions asks us what is the "pre-supposition. It means what ASSUMPTIONS were made while reaching the conclusion"

There are 2 techniques to find the Assumption
1) ASSUMPTION NEGATION :- First find the premise and conclusion of the argument. Then negate answer choices only by one. The answer choice which after negation makes the conclusion weak is the correct answer. THIS IS THE TECHNIQUE MOST PEOPLE USE TO FIND ASSUMPTION
2) ASSUMPTION ADDITION :- Assumption is a premise that is not written or expressed in the argument. But assumption is an important premise to reach the conclusion. In this type of questions a strong unstated assumption is always present in the option choices that when inserted in the argument make it complete. So in this technique you add one of the OPTION from answer choices as a Premise just before the Conclusion. The answer choice that makes the argument complete is correct.

NOW LETS GET TO THE BRASS TACKS (BRASS TACKS is an idiom that means "focus on the issue in hand" :-))
We will use ASSUMPTION ADDITION technique.
First we will have to quickly identify and isolate the PREMISES and CONCLUSION of the argument.
Premise 1) Don't blame pilot for accidents.
Premise 2) Investigate why error was made by analysing these areas :- airplane design (X), management (Y), and PILOT TRAINING PROGRAM (Z)
Premise 3) ----HERE WE WILL ADD THE ANSWER OPTIONS A,B,C,D,E --ONE BY ONE-----
Conclusion) Only after making changes in design, management and pilot's training we can ensure similar type of accidents does occur in future

SO add option E in place of PREMISE 3 and see how the argument becomes fool proof, cogent and strong.

Premise 1) Don't blame pilot for accidents.
Premise 2) Investigate why error was made by analysing these areas :- airplane design (X), management (Y), and PILOT TRAINING PROGRAM.
Premise 3) (E) Most pilots who make errors in flying will repeat their errors unless they are retrained.
Conclusion) Only after making changes in X, Y and Pilot's training(Z) we can ensure that similar kind of accident does occur in future


Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, investigators should find out why the error was made by analyzing airplane design, airline management, and pilot-training programs. For only then can changes be made to ensure that the same type of error does not recur and cause another accident.
Which of the following is a presupposition of the argument above?
(A) Pilot error is not a contributing factor in most airline accidents.
(Reverse answer. Pilot training is the most important factor)
(B) Airline companies themselves should be the agents who investigate airline accidents.
(Irrelevant to the issue)
(C) Stricter government regulation of airline companies will make air travel significantly safer.
(Out of scope)
(D) Investigators of airline accidents should contribute to the prevention of future accidents.
(There is a possibility that investigators have already contributed to the prevention of accidents by filtering out the possible reasons for the accident. Investigators may have given a detailed report to Airline management explaining the cause of the accidents but the managment decided not to implement the recommendation from the investigators because it will require large amount of investment and decline airline's profit margin. So we don't know whether investigators are or not contributing. No information in the argument to validate this option)
(E) Most pilots who make errors in flying will repeat their errors unless they are retrained.
(yup correct answer :- Don't blame pilots for accidents. you don't gave them proper training. An inexperienced pilot will keep causing accidents unless you train him properly.)
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Originally posted by LogicGuru1 on 13 Jun 2016, 21:59.
Last edited by LogicGuru1 on 30 Aug 2016, 08:34, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, investigators  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jan 2017, 05:35
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ilaukikt wrote:
Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, investigators should find out why the error was made by analyzing airplane design, airline management, and pilot-training programs. For only then can changes be made to ensure that the same type of error does not recur and cause another accident.
Which of the following is a presupposition of the argument above?
(A) Pilot error is not a contributing factor in most airline accidents.
(B) Airline companies themselves should be the agents who investigate airline accidents.
(C) Stricter government regulation of airline companies will make air travel significantly safer.
(D) Investigators of airline accidents should contribute to the prevention of future accidents.
(E) Most pilots who make errors in flying will repeat their errors unless they are retrained.


How does E fit in the scope? Shouldn't A be the assumption?


The passage already states that the accidents are because of pilot errors ( "Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, investigators should find out why the error was made" - this part implies that there was definitely a pilot error). Hence A is incorrect.

The argument is as follows:

Conclusion: ONLY analyzing airplane design, airline management, and pilot-training programs will ensure that an error is not repeated.

The word "Only" plays a vital role here, because it eliminates the possibility that there could be other ways by which repetition of errors can be avoided.

Thus the assumption is that there is no other way to avoid repetition of errors. If a pilot who makes an error learns from his mistake and does not make the error again, then this would be one other way of avoiding a repetition of error. Thus E must be assumption.

Please let me know if you still have doubt.
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Re: Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, investigators  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Oct 2018, 04:02
1
nocilis wrote:
Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, investigators should find out why the error was made by analyzing airplane design, airline management, and pilot-training programs. For only then can changes be made to ensure that the same type of error does not recur and cause another accident.

Which of the following is a presupposition of the argument above?

(A) Pilot error is not a contributing factor in most airline accidents.
(B) Airline companies themselves should be the agents who investigate airline accidents.
(C) Stricter government regulation of airline companies will make air travel significantly safer.
(D) Investigators of airline accidents should contribute to the prevention of future accidents.
(E) Most pilots who make errors in flying will repeat their errors unless they are retrained.


In the second sentence, notice the use of "For" only then ... It plays the role of "because". It marks a premise, not a conclusion.

Premise:
Only when one finds out why the error was made by analyzing A, B and C, can changes be made to ensure that the same type of error does not recur and cause another accident.

Conclusion: Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, investigators should find out why the error was made by analyzing A, B and C

What is the gap in the argument? The premise tells you that only when you do X, will future accidents be avoided. The conclusion says that investigators should do X.
The assumption is that investigators should help in preventing future accidents. That is why the author asks them to do X.

Add this assumption to the argument and see if it makes sense:

Only when you do X, will future accidents be avoided.
Investigators should help in preventing future accidents.
So investigators should do X.

Makes sense now, right? So (D) is correct.

As for (E),
The argument asks investigators to analyse the training program, not retrain the pilots. Nothing has been said about pilots needing retraining. Perhaps analysis of training program will reveal that pilots are taught in a different way whereas airplane design shows it differently etc. Then it is a judgment call on whether pilots need to be retrained or airplanes need to be redesigned. All I mean to say is that perhaps pilots don't need to be retrained. Our argument certainly does not assume it. IT asks us to analyse multiple things to avoid errors in the future.
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Re: Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, investigators  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Oct 2018, 17:25
Is the correct answer option D? IMO D but the official answer says E.
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Re: Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, investigators &nbs [#permalink] 25 Oct 2018, 17:25
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