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Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that can identif

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Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that can identif  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 27 Sep 2018, 21:08
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Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that can identify human facial expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating a robot that will empathize with us.


(A) expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating

(B) expressions, then responding to them; primarily to create

(C) expressions and then respond to them; the researchers' primary goal is to create

(D) expressions as well as giving a response to them; their primary goal is creation of

(E) expressions and responding to them; primarily, the researchers' goal is creating

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Originally posted by sondenso on 06 May 2008, 21:29.
Last edited by Bunuel on 27 Sep 2018, 21:08, edited 2 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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New post 29 Sep 2014, 05:50
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TGC wrote:
Hi e-gmat,

the pronouns as usual are very confusing. I don't know how to draw a border line between unambiguous and ambiguous.

In the the article "Debunking myths" we are told that "A Pronoun should have ONE LOGICAL ANTECEDENT".

Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that can identify human facial expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating a robot that will empathize with us.

In the video explanation also, it is explained that "they" has a logical antecedent "robots" and "their" has logical antecedent "researchers".

So, when we are told that there is only ONE LOGICAL ANTECEDENT for both the pronouns then from where does ambiguity comes into picture.

Plz suggest.




Hi Saurabh,
Thank you for posting your query here. :)



It's true that a pronoun should always have one and only one logical antecedent to be correct. However, the grammatical reference of a pronoun should also be correct. So, a pronoun must refer to the intended noun logically as well as grammatically. Let's take an official example to understand it (OG13 Q#78):


• A proposal has been made to trim the horns from rhinoceroses to discourage poachers;
• the question is
o whether tourists will continue to visit game parks and see rhinoceroses
 after their horns are trimmed.

The explanation for this question in OG says that the pronoun "their" is ambiguous. Now, logically "their" can only refer to rhinoceroses, because tourists can't have horns. However, its placement makes it ambiguous. Because a pronoun placed at the beginning of a clause refers to the subject of the preceding clause (that has a noun as its subject). So, this official sentence tells us that a pronoun should have logical as well as grammatical clarity in referring to its antecedent.


Now, if we apply the same thing to the above question:

• Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots
o that can identify human facial expressions,
 to which they will then respond;
• their goal is primarily creating a robot that will empathize with us.


Here again, the pronoun "they" logically refers to the noun "robots". However its placement suggests that it refers to the subject of the first clause i.e. Japanese Researchers.

So, this is the reason why this reference is said to be ambiguous.

Hope this helps. :)
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New post 18 Mar 2012, 21:06
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The answer is definitely C here:

A. The pronoun "they" is ambiguous in this sentence - we are not sure whether this word refers to the researchers or the robots. Also, "primarily creating" is incorrect. This should actually be "primarily to create." The use of "to which they will respond" is wordy - a better version would be to place this in parallel to "can identify human facial expressions" to show that the robots can do both things.

B. The second half of the sentence (the part after the semicolon), is a fragment because there is no subject. This is incorrect because a semicolon should be sandwiched by 2 independent clauses. Also, we should put "then responding to them" in parallel with "can identify human facial expressions" to show that the robots can do both things.

C. This is the correct answer. The terms "identify and respond" are in parallel to describe the 2 things that the robots can do. Also, the second half of the sentence begins with the subject, rather than the pronoun "their" to remove the ambiguity.

D. "As well as giving" is wordy and it is not parallel to "can identify human facial expressions." Also, "creation of" should be "the creation of."

E. The word "responding" is not parallel to "identify." Also, the placement of the modifier "primarily" should be in front of the word "goal," not at the beginning of the 2nd sentence.
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Re: Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that can identif  [#permalink]

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New post 07 May 2008, 01:37
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sondenso wrote:
19.
Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that can identify human facial expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating a robot that will empathize with us.

(A) expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating
(B) expressions, then responding to them; primarily to create
(C) expressions and then respond to them; the researchers' primary goal is to create
(D) expressions as well as giving a response to them; their primary goal is creation of
(E) expressions and responding to them; primarily, the researchers' goal is creating


C, reasoning is as follows, 40% of the times I am wrong, so don't take my explanations too seriously here.

1)robots (plural) that can identify and then respond (that can action 1 and then action 2) ; eliminate A, B, D,E

2)we now get to their/researchers. Since "their" could be referring to both robots and researchers, added reasoning for A,D.

Which leaves C, E, since I mentioned I'd prefer "action 1 and then action 2" I am going for C

Requesting OA to put me out of my anxiety!
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Re: Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that can identif  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jan 2014, 05:05
sondenso wrote:
Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that can identify human facial expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating a robot that will empathize with us.

(A) expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating
(B) expressions, then responding to them; primarily to create
(C) expressions and then respond to them; the researchers' primary goal is to create
(D) expressions as well as giving a response to them; their primary goal is creation of
(E) expressions and responding to them; primarily, the researchers' goal is creating

OA:


A) I was going to say the "they" is wrong but actually "to which" makes it right because it implies the robots respond to the facial expressions. HOWEVER, the "their" erroneously refers to robots instead of researchers. Therefore, A is gone.

B) "then respondING" should be "and then respond". the verb-ing form is simply incorrect in this context.

C) in this case "them" refers to the facial expressions that the robots respond to, this is the correct intent of the author. Furthermore, "the researchers'" corrects the ambiguity we had with A; you cannot use "they" to refer to researchers this far into the sentence because the pronoun might refer to two other objects before it even begins to refer to the subject (researchers). Of course, "is" refers to "goal" and NOT to researchers and thus "is", is in fact correct. CORRECT ANSWER

D) "as well as" is weird and wordy. And again, verb-ing form does not work here, giving should be give. And AGAIN, the pronoun "their" erroneously refers to something other than researchers

E) Again, verb-ing is wrong, also "is creating" is wrong it should be the infinitive "[is] to create".

This is a classical "find the grammatical errors" because for me, ALL the wrong answers have clear grammatical issues and thus we do not need to be too careful about intended meaning.
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New post 28 Sep 2014, 21:11
Hi e-gmat,

the pronouns as usual are very confusing. I don't know how to draw a border line between unambiguous and ambiguous.

In the the article "Debunking myths" we are told that "A Pronoun should have ONE LOGICAL ANTECEDENT".

Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that can identify human facial expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating a robot that will empathize with us.

In the video explanation also, it is explained that "they" has a logical antecedent "robots" and "their" has logical antecedent "researchers".

So, when we are told that there is only ONE LOGICAL ANTECEDENT for both the pronouns then from where does ambiguity comes into picture.

Plz suggest.
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Re: Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that can identif  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Apr 2015, 01:58
We can solve this one quickly --> eliminate b,d and E because of the parallelism CAN IDENTIFY .... RESPOND (this structure is violated here). So we are left with A and C --> in C pronoun problems have been eliminated, after a semicolon it begins with RESEARCHERS', why think about pronoun ambiguity, when in this choice its clearly eliminated.... + identify and respond must be parallel and must be connected with AND
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Re: Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that can identif  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Apr 2015, 11:49
sondenso wrote:
Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that can identify human facial expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating a robot that will empathize with us.



(A) expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating
they and their are ambiguous, both can refer to researches and robots

(B) expressions, then responding to them; primarily to create
semi-colon indicates that a new clause is coming, but the new clause does not have a verb.

(C) expressions and then respond to them; the researchers' primary goal is to create

(D) expressions as well as giving a response to them; their primary goal is creation of
as well as - not preferable
giving is not parallel to identify
why parallelism error? because now this choice gives a list of things the robots can do: identify and give a response
their - is ambiguous.

(E) expressions and responding to them; primarily, the researchers' goal is creating
same parallelism error as in D.
plus this choice has a meaning error. the goal is a robot, and not creating a robot. in this case - creation of a robot is more appropriate.
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New post 27 May 2016, 02:57
sondenso wrote:
Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that can identify human facial expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating a robot that will empathize with us.


(A) expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating
first, they is used to refer to robots. second 'them' is meant to refer to researcher but it cannot because they is used to refer to robot. SAME pronoun in same or different form cannot refer to different nouns.

(B) expressions, then responding to them; primarily to create
after semicolon there is no NOUN. the sentence after semicolon should stand on its own.

(C) expressions and then respond to them; the researchers' primary goal is to create
take away the pronoun ambiguity.
goal is to create is correct usage.

(D) expressions as well as giving a response to them; their primary goal is creation of
identify as well as giving - not parallel
creation noun. create is verb. choose verb over noun. (only when both the choices are grammatically correct).

(E) expressions and responding to them; primarily, the researchers' goal is creating
GOAL is CREATING ROBOT - wrong.
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New post 04 Jul 2016, 02:26
[quote="sondenso"]Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that can identify human facial expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating a robot that will empathize with us.

(A) expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating
(B) expressions, then responding to them; primarily to create
(C) expressions and then respond to them; the researchers' primary goal is to create
(D) expressions as well as giving a response to them; their primary goal is creation of
(E) expressions and responding to them; primarily, the researchers' goal is cr


could any one help me here?
Japanese researchers are producing sth and their goal is to create?
is it ok or what?

I go with c here because other choices make no sense to me but what about the question I just asked?
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Re: Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that can identif  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jul 2016, 04:59
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kamranko wrote:
sondenso wrote:
Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that can identify human facial expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating a robot that will empathize with us.

(A) expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating
(B) expressions, then responding to them; primarily to create
(C) expressions and then respond to them; the researchers' primary goal is to create
(D) expressions as well as giving a response to them; their primary goal is creation of
(E) expressions and responding to them; primarily, the researchers' goal is cr


could any one help me here?
Japanese researchers are producing sth and their goal is to create?
is it ok or what?

I go with c here because other choices make no sense to me but what about the question I just asked?


The verb "are producing" and the infintive "to create" are not parts of the same parallel structure. In fact they are in two different sentences altogether (joined by a semicolon). It is not an issue that one is a verb and the other is an infinitive since they have no grammatical bearing with each other.

In order to identify parallel elements, it is a good practice to first identify the parallelism marker (such as AND, BETTER THAN, NOT ONLY, BUT ALSO etc.). Once the marker is identified, only then one should try to find the parallel elements.
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New post 05 Jul 2016, 06:36
kamranko wrote:
Japanese researchers are producing sth and their goal is to create?
is it ok or what?

Hi kamranko, it might be worthwhile to note that different parts of the sentence can be in different tense; it all depends on the context.
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Re: Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that can identif  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Feb 2017, 09:18
1
Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that can identify human facial expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating a robot that will empathize with us.

Issues: Parallelism | Modifier | Pronoun

Analysis:

1. The sentence connects two independent clauses
2. The original sentence has issue with pronoun ambiguity with "they" and "their" and the form of the verb "create"


I have highlighted the issues below:

(A) expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating
- "they" and "their" have pronoun ambiguity error
- "the goal is creating..." is illogical


(B) expressions, then responding to them; primarily to create
- "then responding to them" is a sentence fragment as it is not connected to previous clause; also "them" is ambiguous
- "primarily to create" is missing a subject and is a dependent clause. However, clause following ";" should be independent.


(C) expressions and then respond to them; the researchers' primary goal is to create

(D) expressions as well as giving a response to them; their primary goal is creation of
- "them" and "their" have pronoun ambiguity error
- "creation" also does not seem right (can someone clarify if this is an error or not; and if it is what error does it have)


(E) expressions and responding to them; primarily, the researchers' goal is creating
- "them" have pronoun ambiguity error
- "the goal is creating..." is illogical



Answer: (C)
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New post 21 Sep 2017, 00:17
(C) expressions and then respond to them; the researchers' primary goal is to create

Here how are we sure that "them" refers to human facial expressions and not researchers?
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New post 21 Sep 2017, 05:57
gaitbhu wrote:
(C) expressions and then respond to them; the researchers' primary goal is to create

Here how are we sure that "them" refers to human facial expressions and not researchers?

Hi gaitbhu, yes, you could view this as pronoun ambiguity, but a couple of things:

i) Pronoun ambiguity is acceptable on GMAT. So, don't use this as a criterion to eliminate answer choices.

ii) Structurally, them is referring to human facial expressions (The sentence is: robots can identify human facial expressions and then respond to them. So, human facial expressions and them both are objects of their respective clauses).

For test takers, it's important to understand the difference between an orphan pronoun (pronoun with no antecedents) and ambiguous pronoun (pronoun with multiple antecedents):

Orphan pronoun is always incorrect, while ambiguous pronoun is acceptable.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses Ambiguous Pronouns, their application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section.
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New post 05 Feb 2018, 10:13
sayantanc2k wrote:
kamranko wrote:
sondenso wrote:
Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that can identify human facial expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating a robot that will empathize with us.

(A) expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating
(B) expressions, then responding to them; primarily to create
(C) expressions and then respond to them; the researchers' primary goal is to create
(D) expressions as well as giving a response to them; their primary goal is creation of
(E) expressions and responding to them; primarily, the researchers' goal is cr


could any one help me here?
Japanese researchers are producing sth and their goal is to create?
is it ok or what?

I go with c here because other choices make no sense to me but what about the question I just asked?



The verb "are producing" and the infintive "to create" are not parts of the same parallel structure. In fact they are in two different sentences altogether (joined by a semicolon). It is not an issue that one is a verb and the other is an infinitive since they have no grammatical bearing with each other.

In order to identify parallel elements, it is a good practice to first identify the parallelism marker (such as AND, BETTER THAN, NOT ONLY, BUT ALSO etc.). Once the marker is identified, only then one should try to find the parallel elements.




HELLO SIR
if in option C,AND is replaced by AS WELL AS,will the option be correct?
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New post 10 Apr 2018, 11:58
JAIN09 wrote:

HELLO SIR
if in option C,AND is replaced by AS WELL AS,will the option be correct?




Hello JAIN09,

I am not sure if your doubt still persists. Here is the explanation nonetheless. :-)

IMHO, and can be replaced with as well as in Choice C. However, in doing so, the word then will have to be removed.


Hope this helps. :-)
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Re: Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that can identif  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Sep 2018, 11:27
Quote:
Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that can identify human facial expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating a robot that will empathize with us.
Meaning: Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that can do 2 things:
1. identify human facial expression
2. once identified the expression, then respond to them.
One independent clause ends here with semicolon.
2nd clause: The primary goal of researchers is to create a robot with human emotions, a robot that may empathise with us based on the emotions.

Error Analysis:
1.
they and their should jump out of the screen at you as soon as you see them.
In a sentence ideally "Every it and its must refer to the same singular antecedent. Every they, them and their must refer to the same plural antecedent"
Here THEY refers to the "Robots" and THEIR refers to the "Researchers". Which does create pronoun ambiguity. Hence needs to be rectified.
2. Meaning error in the sentence. The sentence after the semicolon in the original sentence has a distorted meaning all together. It needs to be immediately thrown out of the window.
"their goal is primarily creating a robot" How can goal create a robot??????
Quote:
(A) expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating
Goes out because of the reasons mentioned above.
Quote:
(B) expressions, then responding to them; primarily to create
Primarily to create?????? Who creates?? The sentence after the semicolon isn't a clause. Hence this structure doesn't make sense.
Quote:
(C) expressions and then respond to them; the researchers' primary goal is to create
The grammar is fine, meaning is clear. Pronoun ambiguity has been removed. This piece of art seems good to be kept and taken ahead until we find a better version.
Parallelism :thumbup:
Quote:
(D) expressions as well as giving a response to them; their primary goal is creation of
Goes out. Refer to Error Analysis 1.
Quote:
(E) expressions and responding to them; primarily, the researchers' goal is creating
Pronoun ambiguity has been removed form this sentence. It is clear that them refers to human emotions and researchers' has been introduced to eliminate pronoun ambiguity.
the two portions on wither side of the parallel marker "and" aren't parallel.
The meaning of the sentence is totally distorted. This can't be taken forward. Goes Out.
Answer Option C is the best option available.
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Re: Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that can identif  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Oct 2018, 03:06
sondenso wrote:
Japanese researchers are producing a series of robots that can identify human facial expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating a robot that will empathize with us.


(A) expressions, to which they will then respond; their goal is primarily creating

(B) expressions, then responding to them; primarily to create

(C) expressions and then respond to them; the researchers' primary goal is to create

(D) expressions as well as giving a response to them; their primary goal is creation of

(E) expressions and responding to them; primarily, the researchers' goal is creating



look at choice A and C, it is lucky that we do not have to think over split creating/to create because A suffer pronoun problem. but I want to know is "creating" in choice A is wrong
I see that normally,
noun is to do
is correct
and
noun is doing
is incorrect

this is more idiomatic than meaningful problem. is that right?

my hobby is to read english
is better than
my hobby is reading english.

the reason possibly is that in the second, reading can be a verb, not a noun/gerund, and, the second sentence seem that my hobby reads English.

anyone know about this point? pls speak up
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