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# Last year, both groups of scientists found that the glaciers in wester

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Last year, both groups of scientists found that the glaciers in wester  [#permalink]

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19 Oct 2014, 00:06
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Difficulty:

55% (hard)

Question Stats:

58% (01:38) correct 42% (01:37) wrong based on 772 sessions

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Last year, both groups of scientists found that the glaciers in western Greenland had retreated far enough to set off an inherent instability in the ice sheet, one that experts have feared for decades.

A) had retreated far enough to set off an inherent instability in the ice sheet, one that experts have feared for decades

B) had retreated so far that it set off an inherent instability in the ice sheet, and it is one that experts for decades have feared

C) had retreated so far that they set off an inherent instability in the ice sheet, one that experts for decades has feared

D) have retreated far enough to set off an inherent instability in the ice sheet, one that experts feared for decades

E) have retreated so far that they set off an inherent instability in the ice sheet, one feared by experts for decades
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Re: Last year, both groups of scientists found that the glaciers in wester  [#permalink]

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19 Oct 2014, 00:13
1
A it is: had retreated far enough to set off an inherent instability in the ice sheet, one that experts have feared for decades

faults (in bold) with others:

B) had retreated so far that it set off an inherent instability in the ice sheet, and it is one that experts for decades have feared------------>"IT" does not go with "glaciers"

C) had retreated so far that they set off an inherent instability in the ice sheet, one that experts for decades has feared---------->"EXPERTS" DOES not go with "HAS FEARED"

D) have retreated far enough to set off an inherent instability in the ice sheet, one that experts feared for decades---->wrong TENSE sequence "FOUND" does not go correctly with "HAVE RETREATED" here

E) have retreated so far that they set off an inherent instability in the ice sheet, one feared by experts for decades------------>same as D
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Re: Last year, both groups of scientists found that the glaciers in wester  [#permalink]

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19 Oct 2014, 00:20
Though I reached answer option A by POE, I have a doubt. Can some one please clarify ?

Q1. In option A ,one that experts have feared for decades. is a noun + noun clause -> noun modifier. Now, if we have ,one that experts feared for decades. will it be a wrong answer choice ? If yes, how ? please explain with examples from OG (if possible). What affect have feared / feared has on this answer choice ?
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Re: Last year, both groups of scientists found that the glaciers in wester  [#permalink]

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19 Oct 2014, 00:27
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Quote:
In option A ,one that experts have feared for decades. is a noun + noun clause -> noun modifier. Now, if we have ,one that experts feared for decades. will it be a wrong answer choice ?

"FOR DECADES" gives a notion of continuity just as "SINCE" does, So present perfect "have feared" is preferable.
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Re: Last year, both groups of scientists found that the glaciers in wester  [#permalink]

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04 Sep 2015, 19:21
hard one

sequence of tense rules that if the main clause in the past tense, the that clause/ object clause is normally in the past tense. but there is a case in which the that clause is in present or present perfect tense.

I knew that watter boil at 100 degree c.

why "have done" is incorrect in d and e. ?
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Re: Last year, both groups of scientists found that the glaciers in wester  [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2015, 18:48
thangvietnam wrote:
hard one

sequence of tense rules that if the main clause in the past tense, the that clause/ object clause is normally in the past tense. but there is a case in which the that clause is in present or present perfect tense.

I knew that watter boil at 100 degree c.

why "have done" is incorrect in d and e. ?

IMO A

The sentence takes us back to the "last year", and refers to something which already took place prior to the last year. We always use had for these conditions. This eliminates D and E. Now B has a dubious "it", so we eliminate B. Between A and C, the later uses "has" for experts.
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Re: Last year, both groups of scientists found that the glaciers in wester  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2017, 06:06
can someone please explain what is the "one that experts have feared for decades" referring back to? (and how to correctly identify what this phrase is modifying)
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Re: Last year, both groups of scientists found that the glaciers in wester  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2017, 06:49
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ameyaprabhu wrote
Quote:
Can someone please explain what is the "one that experts have feared for decades" referring back to? (and how to correctly identify what this phrase is modifying)

Step 1. the phrase is starting with the word 'one', which is an indefinite and singular pronoun. Of course what follows one is a noun modifier and hence not critical
2. A singular pronoun as such will stand for another singular noun in the part prior to it.

3. Instability, Greenland, and Ice-sheet are the three eligible singular contenders.

4. Now some logic: Do the scientists fear Greenland or the ice sheet? Nope, they are there for long. However, instability is a negative factor that these learned people do fear.

5. If you are interested in jargons, this is known as appositive modification wherein, a noun tries to describe yet another noun
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Re: Last year, both groups of scientists found that the glaciers in wester  [#permalink]

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01 Jan 2018, 21:23
GMATNinja GMATNinjaTwo daagh mikemcgarry

Isnt the use of one+that wrong
Can someone clarify more on this one s i have seen few official questions where the use of *one+that* is wrong

daagh wrote:
ameyaprabhu wrote
Quote:
Can someone please explain what is the "one that experts have feared for decades" referring back to? (and how to correctly identify what this phrase is modifying)

Step 1. the phrase is starting with the word 'one', which is an indefinite and singular pronoun. Of course what follows one is a noun modifier and hence not critical
2. A singular pronoun as such will stand for another singular noun in the part prior to it.

3. Instability, Greenland, and Ice-sheet are the three eligible singular contenders.

4. Now some logic: Do the scientists fear Greenland or the ice sheet? Nope, they are there for long. However, instability is a negative factor that these learned people do fear.

5. If you are interested in jargons, this is known as appositive modification wherein, a noun tries to describe yet another noun

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Re: Last year, both groups of scientists found that the glaciers in wester  [#permalink]

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04 Jan 2018, 10:23
1
sananoor wrote:
Isnt the use of one+that wrong
Can someone clarify more on this one s i have seen few official questions where the use of *one+that* is wrong

Dear sananoor,

I'm happy to respond.

My friend, many students, especially non-native speakers, imagine that it's possible to arrive at GMAT SC mastery by memorizing some chimerical "complete" set of grammar rules. This approach is profoundly misconceived and doomed to failure. Yes, there are a few important rules and patterns to learn, but a much greater part of understanding grammar comes from understanding how grammar & context are interdependent. Language exists to communicate meaning, and grammar is a vehicle to convey this meaning, so some of the requirements of grammar can shift with different meanings and different context. The way a non-native speaker develops a deep understand of the many contexts of a living language is to develop a rigorous habit of reading. See:
How to Improve Your GMAT Verbal Score

Here are a few basic thoughts about this situation. The word "one" is an indefinite pronoun that can refer to either a person or a thing. For some background, see:
GMAT Sentence Correction: Indefinite Pronouns and Agreement
GMAT Sentence Correction: Indefinite Pronouns and Logic

It's quite true that if "one" refers to a person, then the GMAT would consider it wrong to use "that," because this is considered both illogical and impolite. Any human being is a "who," not a "that," and grammar always should reflect this basic courtesy and respect for the fundamental value of each human person. That is one clear rule.

If "one" refers to a thing, as it does in this sentence, then there's no general problem with the construction "one that." The following are 100% correct sentences.
I want to buy a new car, one that has manual transmission.
After the publication of Ulysses, Joyce wrote his final novel, one that abandoned all established narrative conventions.
The Treaty of Versailles codified a period of peace, one that was so punitively unbalanced that the reignition of hostilities may well have been inevitable.

My friend, you said, "i have seen few official questions where the use of *one+that* is wrong." If the "one" was referring to a person, then this would be perfectly understandable. If the "one" was referring to an object, a thing, as it is in this question, then I would have to see the entire sentence in context to understand it. If you find such an official question already posted here in GMAT Club, feel free to tag me in that thread to ask for my input.

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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Re: Last year, both groups of scientists found that the glaciers in wester  [#permalink]

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01 Aug 2018, 19:05
3
jogeshanand wrote:
Last year, both groups of scientists found that the glaciers in western Greenland had retreated far enough to set off an inherent instability in the ice sheet, one that experts have feared for decades.

A) had retreated far enough to set off an inherent instability in the ice sheet, one that experts have feared for decades

B) had retreated so far that it set off an inherent instability in the ice sheet, and it is one that experts for decades have feared

C) had retreated so far that they set off an inherent instability in the ice sheet, one that experts for decades has feared

D) have retreated far enough to set off an inherent instability in the ice sheet, one that experts feared for decades

E) have retreated so far that they set off an inherent instability in the ice sheet, one feared by experts for decades

Veritas Solution

The most obvious decision point in this question is the tense choice between “had retreated” and “have retreated.” Since the scientists made this discovery in the past (past tense “found” is used and it was last year) you need to use the past perfect when describing actions before that. The present perfect “have retreated” cannot be used here as the action occurred before the scientists found it. Also, when paired with the simple past tense at the end in (D) and (E), the present perfect is particularly problematic. From this you can eliminate (D) and (E). In (B), the pronoun “it” is incorrect as it refers back to the plural noun “glaciers”. In (C) the “has feared” at the end is incorrect as it needs to be “that experts HAVE feared.” Correct answer is (A).
Re: Last year, both groups of scientists found that the glaciers in wester &nbs [#permalink] 01 Aug 2018, 19:05
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