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Logical arguments are usually classified as either deductive or induct

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Logical arguments are usually classified as either deductive or induct [#permalink]

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Logical arguments are usually classified as either deductive or inductive, depending on the process used to arrive at them. In the process of deduction, you begin with some statements, called premises, which are assumed to be true, and you then determine what else would have to be true if the premises are true. For example, in mathematics you can begin with some axioms and then determine what you can prove to be true given those axioms are true. With deduction you can provide absolute proof of your conclusions, since your premises are considered correct. The premises themselves, however, remain unproven and unprovable; they must be accepted on face value, or by faith, or for the purpose of exploration.

On the other hand, in the process of induction, you begin with some data, and then determine what general conclusion(s) can logically be derived from that data. In other words, you determine what theory or theories could explain the data. For example, you note that the probability of becoming schizophrenic is greatly increased if at least one parent is schizophrenic, and from that you conclude that schizophrenia may be inherited. That is certainly a reasonable hypothesis given the data. Note, however, that induction does not prove that the theory is correct. There are often alternative theories that are also supported by the data. For example, the behavior of the schizophrenic parent may cause the child to be schizophrenic, not the genes. What is important in induction is that the theory does indeed offer a logical explanation of the data. To conclude that the parents have no effect on the schizophrenia of the children is not supportable given the data, and would not be a logical conclusion.

Both deduction and induction by themselves are inadequate for a scientific approach. While deduction gives absolute proof, it never makes contact with the real world; there is no place for observation or experimentation - no way to test the validity of the premises. And, while induction is driven by observation, it never approaches actual proof of a theory. Accordingly, a synthesis of these two logical approaches is required for an actual scientific method.

1/ The author’s primarily concerned with

A describing two modes of constructing a logical argument
B explaining two processes while evaluating them on a specific criterion
C discussing how neither one of the two mentioned processes is relevant for a scientific approach
D establishing how logical arguments are more or less flawed, no matter through which process they are arrived
E establishing the supremacy of one process over the other


2/ Which one of the following statements can be inferred about the induction process of arriving at a logical argument?

A There is no way to be certain whether the theories it provides are fully logical.
B A theory arrived at through it is not likely to be the only possible explanation of the observed facts.
C One can provide a hundred percent proof for the conclusion drawn through it.
D The conclusion arrived at through it are very likely to be causal in nature.
E One of the reasons it fails to provide a single theory is that no two individuals are likely to interpret a given set of information in the same way.


3/ Which one of the following statements is true as per the information given in the passage?

A Deduction as a process does not allow for experimentation.
B There are only two ways to classify a logical argument.
C The conclusions arrived at through the process of induction do not take in to account any actual reference points.
D If the premises of the arguments derived through the deduction process are tested, the validity of most such arguments will be jeopardized.
E The process of deduction takes in to account the possibility that the basis of the conclusion is questionable.



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Originally posted by aaba on 25 Jan 2018, 10:26.
Last edited by broall on 26 Jan 2018, 00:38, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Logical arguments are usually classified as either deductive or induct [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jan 2018, 19:48
Could someone please explain why option D is incorrect in the first question?
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Re: Logical arguments are usually classified as either deductive or induct [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jan 2018, 21:02
csaluja wrote:
Could someone please explain why option D is incorrect in the first question?


D talks about the comparison between the two processes while the passage is not about the comparison. Also, D does not count the third paragraph.
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Re: Logical arguments are usually classified as either deductive or induct [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jan 2018, 02:52
csaluja wrote:
Could someone please explain why option D is incorrect in the first question?


If you look at the structure of the passage ,It goes like this
1: Talks about deduction and how it is flawed
2: Talks about induction and how it is flawed.
3: Talks about combining these two for scientific purposes as each has some flaws.

D on the other hand emphasizes too much on just the flaws.The passage overall has a balanced tone.Hence i think d is wrong.

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Re: Logical arguments are usually classified as either deductive or induct   [#permalink] 30 Jan 2018, 02:52
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