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Logical Predication in SC

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Logical Predication in SC  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Nov 2012, 22:46
2
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Difficulty:

  45% (medium)

Question Stats:

69% (01:49) correct 31% (02:21) wrong based on 120 sessions

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I got 3 SCs from OG 2nd edition wrong. The common element in all the three as mentioned in OG explanation is Logical Predication.

Following are the 3 SC's (although I know the correct ans and understood the concept), but I still want to know more about Logical Predication from experts

NOTE: PLEASE FOCUS ON EXPLAINING THE CONCEPT OF LOGICAL PREDICATION. THERE ARE LOTS OF GOOD EXPLANATION AVAILABLE ON THE NET FOR THE CORRECT ANS OF ALL THE THREE

OG 61. Almost a decade after New York State passed laws to protect patients by reducing the grueling hours worked by medical residents, twelve hospitals have been investigated by state medical officials, finding that all twelve consistently break the laws, many residents work longer than 24 hours straight, and that more than half the surgical residents work more than 95 hours a week.

A) twelve hospitals have been investigated by state medical officials, finding that all twelve consistently break the laws, many residents work longer than 24 hours straight, and that more than half the surgical residents work
B) an investigation by state medical officials of twelve hospitals have found all twelve consistently breaking the laws, that many residents work longer than 24 hours straight, with more than half the surgical residents working
C) an investigation of twelve hospitals by state medical officials has found that all twelve consistently break the laws, that many residents work longer than 24 hours straight, and that more than half the surgical residents work
D) twelve hospitals were investigated by state medical officials who found all twelve breaking the laws, with many residents working longer than 24 hours straight, and more than half the surgical residents work
E) an investigation by state medical officials has found that, of twelve hospitals, all twelve consistently break the laws, that many residents work longer than 24 hours straight, with more than half the surgical residents working



The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a spectacular scale with more than 75 carefully engineered structures, of up to 600 rooms each, were connected by a complex regional system of roads.
A. with more than 75 carefully engineered structures, of up to 600 rooms each, were
B. with more than 75 carefully engineered structures, of up to 600 rooms each,
C. of more than 75 carefully engineered structures of up to 600 rooms, each that had been
D. of more than 75 carefully engineered structures of up to 600 rooms and with each
E. of more than 75 carefully engineered structures of up to 600 rooms each had been


The gyrfalcon, an Arctic bird of prey, has survived a close brush with extinction; its numbers are now five times greater than when the use of DDT was sharply restricted in the early 1970s.
A. extinction; its numbers are now five times greater than
B. extinction; its numbers are now five times more than
C. extinction, their numbers now fivefold what they were
D. extinction, now with fivefold the numbers they had

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Re: Logical Predication in SC  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Nov 2012, 11:32
1
Thanks for asking me to come here:
i will not go deep into logical predication because frankly, I have no idea what that means. I will still try to clarify my take on the solutions.
Almost a decade after New York State passed laws to protect patients by reducing the grueling hours worked by medical residents, twelve hospitals have been investigated by state medical officials, finding that all twelve consistently break the laws, many residents work longer than 24 hours straight, and that more than half the surgical residents work more than 95 hours a week.

A) twelve hospitals have been investigated by state medical officials, finding that all twelve consistently break the laws, many residents work longer than 24 hours straight, and that more than half the surgical residents work
B) an investigation by state medical officials of twelve hospitals have found all twelve consistently breaking the laws, that many residents work longer than 24 hours straight, with more than half the surgical residents working
C) an investigation of twelve hospitals by state medical officials has found that all twelve consistently break the laws, that many residents work longer than 24 hours straight, and that more than half the surgical residents work
D) twelve hospitals were investigated by state medical officials who found all twelve breaking the laws, with many residents working longer than 24 hours straight, and more than half the surgical residents work
E) an investigation by state medical officials has found that, of twelve hospitals, all twelve consistently break the laws, that many residents work longer than 24 hours straight, with more than half the surgical residents working

First thing you have got to notice that this has an initial modifier: “almost a decade……medical residents”. So this modifier should modify something that occurs right after the comma.
We throw away A and D right away, because twelve hospitals cannot be the answer (hence modified) by the initial modifier. Its insanely illogical. Almost equivalent to saying “After 3 days of starving, the milk was eaten by the cat.”
We are left with B, C and E. 33% probability so I feel good.
Now I know “that” the GMAT loves “that”, and “that” it is to be present after reporting verbs.
See what I did there? :P
B should have “have found THAT” which it lacks. So B goes out.
C and E both looks good to me on the first read but HEY!
I ate apples AND oranges.
But I cant eat apple, oranges!
But E missed that awesome “and” and E is fired.
You have to hire C on this one!!
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New post 23 Nov 2012, 11:45
1
The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a spectacular scale with more than 75 carefully engineered structures, of up to 600 rooms each, were connected by a complex regional system of roads.

A. with more than 75 carefully engineered structures, of up to 600 rooms each, were
B. with more than 75 carefully engineered structures, of up to 600 rooms each,
C. of more than 75 carefully engineered structures of up to 600 rooms, each that had been
D. of more than 75 carefully engineered structures of up to 600 rooms and with each
E. of more than 75 carefully engineered structures of up to 600 rooms each had been


Lets remove the prepositional phrases, otherwise known as fluff, to look at the core of the sentence.
A. The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a spectacular scale were connected by a complex regional system of roads! Even trashy Indian newspapers won’t like this sentence. Almost similar to “I ate a mango ate a banana!” Crazy right?
B. The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canon were built on a spectacular scale, connected by a complex blah blah. Doesn’t sound bad. Similar to the sentence “I ate a banana, kept on the plate.
C. Same problem as A. Also when I see perfect tenses I immediately try to form a mental timeline. I can totally see that this sentence is trying to say that the connection of the settlement by complex regional road systems was before the building of the settlements. AWFUL! Also BTW a relative pronoun after each is NEVER correct. Also(!), scale of? What are you trying to say there?
D. Again a problem with scale of! Also, and requires some parallelism which is clearly not there (of is NOT parallel to with!)
E. “had” problems as C. Scale of problem! Also a run on sentence (a sentence similar to A which uses more verbs than it should)
BTW I would pass of almost all the options as “awkward” as the OG would have done, but I tried to make it as explicable as possible!
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New post 23 Nov 2012, 11:54
2
1
The gyrfalcon, an Arctic bird of prey, has survived a close brush with extinction; its numbers are now five times greater than when the use of DDT was sharply restricted in the early 1970s.
A. extinction; its numbers are now five times greater than
B. extinction; its numbers are now five times more than
C. extinction, their numbers now fivefold what they were
D. extinction, now with fivefold the numbers they had


Why 4 options!
BTW THE gyrfalcon is singular so no mercy on C and D.
Now the decision maker between A and B is that eternal “greater Vs more”
So what do we see here!
We see that the number of this bird has increased.
So it’s an increase in measure.
So “greater” applies here.
I have a greater number of pens than he has.
“more” signifies something terrible.
It means there is probably this entity called “numbers of gyrfalcon” and we are talking about the numbers of that entity i.e we are saying number of “numbers of gyrfalcon”
Let me illustrate more.
I have greater pens than he has.
What does this mean:
1. If I was trying to say that my pens were superior (perhaps my cross versus his link) I am making sense.
2. If I am trying to say that I have “more” pens then I am making a fool out of myself with the above sentence.
However if I say
I have more pens than he has
I can ONLY mean I have a greater number of pens.
So this means that “more” is already numerical!! We don’t or rather can’t use more and a numerical entity together. It becomes redundant to the extent of being plain wrong.
Whoa that was something.
Hope that helped!
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Re: Logical Predication in SC  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Nov 2012, 23:39
souvik101990 wrote:
The gyrfalcon, an Arctic bird of prey, has survived a close brush with extinction; its numbers are now five times greater than when the use of DDT was sharply restricted in the early 1970s.
A. extinction; its numbers are now five times greater than
B. extinction; its numbers are now five times more than
C. extinction, their numbers now fivefold what they were
D. extinction, now with fivefold the numbers they had


Why 4 options!
BTW THE gyrfalcon is singular so no mercy on C and D.
Now the decision maker between A and B is that eternal “greater Vs more
So what do we see here!
We see that the number of this bird has increased.
So it’s an increase in measure.
So “greater” applies here.
I have a greater number of pens than he has.
“more” signifies something terrible.
It means there is probably this entity called “numbers of gyrfalcon” and we are talking about the numbers of that entity i.e we are saying number of “numbers of gyrfalcon”
Let me illustrate more.
I have greater pens than he has.
What does this mean:
1. If I was trying to say that my pens were superior (perhaps my cross versus his link) I am making sense.
2. If I am trying to say that I have “more” pens then I am making a fool out of myself with the above sentence.
However if I say
I have more pens than he has
I can ONLY mean I have a greater number of pens.
So this means that “more” is already numerical!! We don’t or rather can’t use more and a numerical entity together. It becomes redundant to the extent of being plain wrong.

Whoa that was something.
Hope that helped!


Profound explanation. (especially highlighted in red)
Have you seen any other OG question, which implements this greater Vs more
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Re: Logical Predication in SC  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Nov 2012, 02:24
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Thanks for the invite . IMO:

Logical predication is a statement or rhetoric that is used to establish a fact, very often by logical comparison, or rightful word order or proper modification. So what a text wants to measure is whether one can understand the logic behind the happenings there.

How do the texts you have listed measure the logical predication?

Almost a decade after New York State passed laws to protect patients by reducing the grueling hours worked by medical residents, twelve hospitals have been investigated by state medical officials, finding that all twelve consistently break the laws, many residents work longer than 24 hours straight, and that more than half the surgical residents work more than 95 hours a week.


The pith here is that there has been an investigation an the investigation probed 12 hopsitals and found thrre things in essence. 1; all of them broke laws, 2. Many residents work longer than 24 hours in a stretch, and 3. Majority of the surgical residents are forced to work for 95 hours a week

You can see how choice C predicates (establishes) parallelism logically.

The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a spectacular scale with more than 75 carefully engineered structures, of up to 600 rooms each, were connected by a complex regional system of roads.

You remove the descriptive non essential modifies from the scene and you will get to the core.

The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a spectacular scale with more than 75 carefully engineered structures, of up to 600 rooms each, were connected by a complex regional system of roads

The left over part: The Anasazi settlements were built with more than 75 carefully engineered structures, were connected by a complex regional system of roads.

The text wants to present that the settlements were built with some structures that were connected by some complex system of roads. In order to be concise, it wants to use a simple snetence (with just one verb) B predicates (establishes) that structure most precisely and logically

The gyrfalcon, an Arctic bird of prey, has survived a close brush with extinction; its numbers are now five times greater than when the use of DDT was sharply restricted in the early 1970s.

The text wants to say that the said race of bird (note singular) got almost exterminated but somehow survives and resurged, like never before. It wants predicate this by a comparison of the pre DDT numbers and post DDT numbers namely 1970, by using an adjective (greater) that is in tandem with the countability of the numbers, as in B
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Re: Logical Predication in SC   [#permalink] 05 Jul 2017, 19:58
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