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Medical research findings are customarily not made public prior to the

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Medical research findings are customarily not made public prior to the  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 09 Oct 2018, 04:46
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Medical research findings are customarily not made public prior to their publication in a medical journal that has had them reviewed by a panel of experts in a process called peer review. It is claimed that this practice delays public access to potentially beneficial information that, in extreme instances, could save lives. Yet pre publication peer review is the only way to prevent erroneous and therefore potentially harmful information from reaching a public that is ill equipped to evaluate medical claims on its own. Therefore, waiting until a medical journal has published the research findings that have passed peer review is the price that must be paid to protect the public from making decisions based on possibly substandard research.

The argument assumes that


(A) unless medical research findings are brought to peer review by a medical journal, peer review will not occur

(B) anyone who does not serve on a medical review panel does not have the necessary knowledge and expertise to evaluate medical research findings

(C) the general public does not have access to the medical iournals in which research findings are published

(D) all medical research findings are subjected to pre publication Peer review

(E) peer review panels are sometimes subject to political and professional pressures that can make their judgments less than impartial


Source: LSAT

Originally posted by Youraisemeup on 06 Mar 2016, 05:33.
Last edited by Bunuel on 09 Oct 2018, 04:46, edited 4 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Medical research findings are customarily not made public prior to the  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Mar 2016, 06:09
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Medical research findings are customarily not made public prior to their publication in a medical journal that has had them reviewed by a panel of experts in a process called peer review. It is claimed that this practice delays public access to potentially beneficial information that, in extreme instances, could save lives. Yet prepublication peer review is the only way to prevent erroneous and therefore potentially harmful information from reaching a public that is ill equipped to evaluate medical claims on its own. Therefore, waiting until a medical journal has published the research findings that have passed peer review is the price that must be paid to protect the public from making decisions based on possibly substandard research.

This is an assumption question, so we need to look at the conclusion and premises once again.

Conclusion: Medical journal peer review is only way people can avoid bad research.
Premises: Research subject to peer review before publication in journals, to be sure false research doesn't get out

(A) unless medical research findings are brought to peer review by a medical journal, peer review will not occur
ANSWER: When in doubt about the correct answer on an assumption question, try the NOT test. Take the opposite of this answer choice. "Peer Review can occur without being brought to peer review by a medical journal" [my paraphrase]. Uh-oh. Now we don't need to get peer review from a journal, so the journal itself is not the only way to protect the public.


(B) anyone who does not serve on medical review panel does not have the necessary knowledge and expertise to evaluate medical research finding
PROBLEM: This is tempting because the passage says something close to it. But we don't care if SOME people have the expertise outside of the panel itself. It's enough to know that some people don't. I can see that A LOT of you liked this answer choice. Be wary of picking something because the passage says something close to it. The passage says that SOME people don't have the necessary knowledge to evaluate research, not ALL of them. The "anyone" here goes WAY too far.

(C) the general public does not have access to the medical journals in which research findings are published
PROBLEM: Once the journals are released, the info has been peer reviewed. In reality, we NEED the public to have access to the journals.

(D) all medical research findings are subjected to prepublication peer review
PROBLEM: "All" is always a dangerous word, so be careful of it. Let's try the not test: "All medical research findings are NOT subjected to prepublication peer review." But couldn't that be because they aren't published at all? We don't need ALL medical research findings to get the review, just the stuff that might get out to the public.

(E) peer review panels are sometimes subject to political and professional pressures that can make their judgments less than impartial
PROBLEM: This hurts our argument, because we want people on the peer review panels to be protecting the public.
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Re: Medical research findings are customarily not made public prior to the  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jun 2017, 18:53
What is wrong with D?
Please Explain.
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Re: Medical research findings are customarily not made public prior to the  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jun 2017, 10:37
ingeniouseerat wrote:
What is wrong with D?
Please Explain.


D is too broad to consider . If you use negation technique on option D , it will not break the conclusion necessarily .

(D) all medical research findings are subjected to pre publication Peer review

Negated statement : Not all medical research findings are .......

Since medical research in question may or may not be subjected to peer review . It doesn't affect conclusion.
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Re: Medical research findings are customarily not made public prior to the  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jun 2017, 17:53
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oh, not again, I just thought C is right, until i realize that the public and findings has nothing to do with findings and peer review. Too many details bump into head while reading even though I take paraphrase the whole passage!!!

Guideline to negate unless statement.
The negation of a conditional statement is NOT another conditional statement. When negating a conditional, you're really negating the relationship expressed between the two properties from the original statement. So A-->B negated becomes ~(A-->B), which can be rephrased as "A even if not B". The key to that is saying B is not really necessary, A can occur and it doesn't matter if B occurs or not. The statement "A-->~B" isn't precisely accurate, it's expressing the polar opposite of the original idea, not the logical opposite.
As far as an "unless" statement, the trick is to change "unless" to "even if" or "if not", and negate both elements in the sentence. So "I'll kill you unless you give me $100" becomes "I might not kill you even if you don't give me $100".
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Re: Medical research findings are customarily not made public prior to the  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Oct 2018, 05:14
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Youraisemeup wrote:
Medical research findings are customarily not made public prior to their publication in a medical journal that has had them reviewed by a panel of experts in a process called peer review. It is claimed that this practice delays public access to potentially beneficial information that, in extreme instances, could save lives. Yet pre publication peer review is the only way to prevent erroneous and therefore potentially harmful information from reaching a public that is ill equipped to evaluate medical claims on its own. Therefore, waiting until a medical journal has published the research findings that have passed peer review is the price that must be paid to protect the public from making decisions based on possibly substandard research.

The argument assumes that


(A) unless medical research findings are brought to peer review by a medical journal, peer review will not occur

(B) anyone who does not serve on a medical review panel does not have the necessary knowledge and expertise to evaluate medical research findings

(C) the general public does not have access to the medical iournals in which research findings are published

(D) all medical research findings are subjected to pre publication Peer review

(E) peer review panels are sometimes subject to political and professional pressures that can make their judgments less than impartial


Source: LSAT


Premises:
- Medical research findings are customarily not made public prior to their publication in a medical journal that gets peer review done.
- It is claimed that this practice delays public access to potentially beneficial information that could save lives.
- Yet pre publication peer review is the only way to prevent potentially harmful information from reaching public.

Conclusion:
Waiting until a medical journal has published the research findings that have passed peer review is the price that must be paid to protect the public from making decisions based on possibly substandard research.

Note the gap: The premises say that "peer review is the only way to prevent harmful info" while the conclusion says "waiting for a medical journal to publish peer reviewed research is the price that must be paid". The logical thing would be wait for "peer review" not for "publishing in a medical journal"

(A) unless medical research findings are brought to peer review by a medical journal, peer review will not occur
Yes. This bridges the gap between peer review and medical journal. Peer review is what is essential, not medical journal. This options tells us that peer review happens only when the medical journal gets it done. Hence, this establishes the necessity of the medical journal.

(B) anyone who does not serve on a medical review panel does not have the necessary knowledge and expertise to evaluate medical research findings
Not necessary. The argument talks about public in general. There could be some people who would have the required skill.

(C) the general public does not have access to the medical iournals in which research findings are published
Publishing in a journal is how the research findings reach the general public.

(D) all medical research findings are subjected to pre publication Peer review
Needn't be "all". Medical research findings are customarily ...

(E) peer review panels are sometimes subject to political and professional pressures that can make their judgments less than impartial
The shortcomings of peer review are not a point of contention. The issue is what happens if there is no peer review.

Answer (A)
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Re: Medical research findings are customarily not made public prior to the  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Oct 2018, 05:38
VeritasKarishma wrote:
Youraisemeup wrote:
Medical research findings are customarily not made public prior to their publication in a medical journal that has had them reviewed by a panel of experts in a process called peer review. It is claimed that this practice delays public access to potentially beneficial information that, in extreme instances, could save lives. Yet pre publication peer review is the only way to prevent erroneous and therefore potentially harmful information from reaching a public that is ill equipped to evaluate medical claims on its own. Therefore, waiting until a medical journal has published the research findings that have passed peer review is the price that must be paid to protect the public from making decisions based on possibly substandard research.

The argument assumes that


(A) unless medical research findings are brought to peer review by a medical journal, peer review will not occur

(B) anyone who does not serve on a medical review panel does not have the necessary knowledge and expertise to evaluate medical research findings

(C) the general public does not have access to the medical iournals in which research findings are published

(D) all medical research findings are subjected to pre publication Peer review

(E) peer review panels are sometimes subject to political and professional pressures that can make their judgments less than impartial


Source: LSAT


Premises:
- Medical research findings are customarily not made public prior to their publication in a medical journal that gets peer review done.
- It is claimed that this practice delays public access to potentially beneficial information that could save lives.
- Yet pre publication peer review is the only way to prevent potentially harmful information from reaching public.

Conclusion:
Waiting until a medical journal has published the research findings that have passed peer review is the price that must be paid to protect the public from making decisions based on possibly substandard research.

Note the gap: The premises say that "peer review is the only way to prevent harmful info" while the conclusion says "waiting for a medical journal to publish peer reviewed research is the price that must be paid". The logical thing would be wait for "peer review" not for "publishing in a medical journal"

(A) unless medical research findings are brought to peer review by a medical journal, peer review will not occur
Yes. This bridges the gap between peer review and medical journal. Peer review is what is essential, not medical journal. This options tells us that peer review happens only when the medical journal gets it done. Hence, this establishes the necessity of the medical journal.

(B) anyone who does not serve on a medical review panel does not have the necessary knowledge and expertise to evaluate medical research findings
Not necessary. The argument talks about public in general. There could be some people who would have the required skill.

(C) the general public does not have access to the medical iournals in which research findings are published
Publishing in a journal is how the research findings reach the general public.

(D) all medical research findings are subjected to pre publication Peer review
Needn't be "all". Medical research findings are customarily ...

(E) peer review panels are sometimes subject to political and professional pressures that can make their judgments less than impartial
The shortcomings of peer review are not a point of contention. The issue is what happens if there is no peer review.

Answer (A)


Hi VeritasKarishma

Many Thanks for the lucid explanation.

Still not able to understand how can we negate the "Unless" statements. In the option 'A' will the negation be (using the idea from chesstitans' reply),

- Even if medical research findings are brought to peer review by a medical journal, peer review will not occur.

It seems to say that even when medical journal asks the peer group to review the research, it will not do so. This does makes the conclusion fall apart but sounds a bit weird.

Can you please help ?


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Medical research findings are customarily not made public prior to the  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Dec 2018, 08:02
Chose correct answer by POE

Medical research findings are customarily not made public prior to their publication in a medical journal that has had them reviewed by a panel of experts in a process called peer review. It is claimed that this practice delays public access to potentially beneficial information that, in extreme instances, could save lives. Yet pre publication peer review is the only way to prevent erroneous and therefore potentially harmful information from reaching a public that is ill equipped to evaluate medical claims on its own. Therefore, waiting until a medical journal has published the research findings that have passed peer review is the price that must be paid to protect the public from making decisions based on possibly substandard research.

The argument assumes that


(A) unless medical research findings are brought to peer review by a medical journal, peer review will not occur (THIS SHOULD CORRECT ANSWER THROUGH POE) SO PER REVIEW WILL NOT OCCUR IF THE RESEARCH FINDGS ARE NOT SUBMITTED FOR PEER REVIEW

(B) anyone who does not serve on a medical review panel does not have the necessary knowledge and expertise to evaluate medical research findings ( not really , there could be people with necessary knowledge and expertise,who would work in other spheres )


(C) the general public does not have access to the medical iournals in which research findings are published (FALSE INFO. PUBLIC HAS ACCESS, BUT ITS ACCESS IS DELAYED DUE TO PEER REVIEW)


(D) all medical research findings are subjected to pre publication Peer review ( THIS IS TOO EXTREME. THERE COULD BE SOME MEDICAL RESEARCH FINDINGS NOT REQUIRING PEER REVIEW)

(E) peer review panels are sometimes subject to political and professional pressures that can make their judgments less than impartial (OUT OF SCOPE. NOT CONCERNED WITH PRESSURES)
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Medical research findings are customarily not made public prior to the &nbs [#permalink] 20 Dec 2018, 08:02
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