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Native to the grassy plains of central North America, wild bison today

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Native to the grassy plains of central North America, wild bison today  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jan 2019, 10:51
1
16
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A
B
C
D
E

Difficulty:

  95% (hard)

Question Stats:

42% (02:19) correct 58% (02:13) wrong based on 381 sessions

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Project SC Butler: Day 81 Sentence Correction (SC1)


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Native to the grassy plains of central North America, wild bison today find themselves in unusual and diverse places such as San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island, due to wildlife protection efforts or, as in the latter case, the efforts of past Hollywood producers.

A) Native to the grassy plains of central North America, wild bison today find themselves in unusual and diverse places such as San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island, due to wildlife protection efforts or, as in the latter case, the efforts of past Hollywood producers.

B) Native to the grassy plains of central North America, the wild bison today finds itself in unusual and diverse places like San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island due to wildlife protection efforts or, as in the latter case, the efforts of past Hollywood producers.

C) The wild bison, native to the grassy plains of central North America, today finds itself in unusual and diverse places like San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island due to wildlife protection efforts or, as in the latter case, the efforts of past Hollywood producers.

D) Wild bison, native tot he grassy plains of central North America, today find themselves in unusual and diverse places such as San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island due to wildlife protection efforts or, like the latter case, the efforts of past Hollywood producers.

E) Native to the grassy plains of central North America, wild bison today find themselves in unusual and diverse places such as San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island, due to wildlife protection efforts or, like the latter case, the efforts of past Hollywood producers.


The official explanation can be found here

The best or excellent answers get kudos, which will be awarded after the answer is revealed.
More than one award of kudos is possible.

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Re: Native to the grassy plains of central North America, wild bison today  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jan 2019, 22:22
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generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 81 Sentence Correction (SC1)


For SC butler Questions Click Here


Native to the grassy plains of central North America, wild bison today find themselves in unusual and diverse places such as San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island, due to wildlife protection efforts or, as in the latter case, the efforts of past Hollywood producers.

Meaning analysis: Wild bison is native to the grassy plains of central North America. But wild bison today live some unusual and diverse places: 1. San Francisco's Golden Gate Park 2. Catalina Island. Because wild bison get help from 1. wildlife protection 2. Hollywood producers (due to them wild bison now in Catalina Island)

Error analysis:
The most interesting part. Whole sentence is underlined we can expect modifier or/and //ism error.
Once you read the original sentence you can infer "due to" is wrong to present reason for the clause. And "themselves" cannot refer to singular "wild bison" (if you don't know "bison" - can be sinfular or plural at the same time depending on context).

Attachment:
A.JPG
A.JPG [ 57.12 KiB | Viewed 2546 times ]


But sentence structure is fine, beatuful opening modifier refers to "wild bison", examples presented by using "such as", "and" single //ism marker connects two // places, "or" single //ism marker connects two // entities.

POE
If we start to search correct answer with "because of" there is none. So 5 answers contain "due to", it means GMAT not testing this issue, ignore. (if we replace "due to" here with "caused by" there is still no sense, this usage is wrong, anyway ignore)

Second issue with "themselves". The problem is some answers (B) and (C) contain "itself" and some (A), (D) and (E) contain "themselves". Again this is not the case for elimination, all of them correct.

Attachment:
bison.JPG
bison.JPG [ 29.74 KiB | Viewed 2541 times ]


So (A) seems not bad, let's keep it.

A) Native to the grassy plains of central North America, wild bison today find themselves in unusual and diverse places such as San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island, due to wildlife protection efforts or, as in the latter case, the efforts of past Hollywood producers.

B) Native to the grassy plains of central North America, the wild bison today finds itself in unusual and diverse places like San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island due to wildlife protection efforts or, as in the latter case, the efforts of past Hollywood producers.
C) The wild bison, native to the grassy plains of central North America, today finds itself in unusual and diverse places like San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island due to wildlife protection efforts or, as in the latter case, the efforts of past Hollywood producers.
(both (B) and (C) have the same structure, there is no change in meaning or so due to modifier placement, main error here usage of "like" to present examples. when we have two identical answer choices we need to ignore them both, no need to prefer one to another)

D) Wild bison, native tot he grassy plains of central North America, today find themselves in unusual and diverse places such as San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island due to wildlife protection efforts or, like the latter case, the efforts of past Hollywood producers.
(IC and DC is not conneted properly, we need comma "," before "due to")


A) Native to the grassy plains of central North America, wild bison today find themselves in unusual and diverse places such as San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island, due to wildlife protection efforts or, as in the latter case, the efforts of past Hollywood producers.
E) Native to the grassy plains of central North America, wild bison today find themselves in unusual and diverse places such as San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island, due to wildlife protection efforts or, like the latter case, the efforts of past Hollywood producers.

as vs like

like
1. to show the similarity between 2 entities
2. present logical comparison
3. comparison stated by the word "like" must be absolutely clear
3. followed by noun / pronoun

as
1. to present comparison (followed by clause)
2. to show two simultaneous actions
3. to present reason
4. to present function / role

To choose between this two "as" and "like" we have to clearly understand intended meaning of the sentence.
"due to" has already presented readon, we we can meet this bisons in some strage places, and in latter case, why we can meet them in Catalina Island, this is because of efforts of past Hollywood producers. I'm not 100% sure that "like" is wrong in (E), but I think "as" is good to present reason.

A is the answer.
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Re: Native to the grassy plains of central North America, wild bison today  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jan 2019, 22:39
1
generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 81 Sentence Correction (SC1)


For SC butler Questions Click Here


Native to the grassy plains of central North America, wild bison today find themselves in unusual and diverse places such as San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island, due to wildlife protection efforts or, as in the latter case, the efforts of past Hollywood producers.

A) Native to the grassy plains of central North America, wild bison today find themselves in unusual and diverse places such as San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island, due to wildlife protection efforts or, as in the latter case, the efforts of past Hollywood producers.

B) Native to the grassy plains of central North America, the wild bison today finds itself in unusual and diverse places like San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island due to wildlife protection efforts or, as in the latter case, the efforts of past Hollywood producers.

C) The wild bison, native to the grassy plains of central North America, today finds itself in unusual and diverse places like San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island due to wildlife protection efforts or, as in the latter case, the efforts of past Hollywood producers.

D) Wild bison, native tot he grassy plains of central North America, today find themselves in unusual and diverse places such as San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island due to wildlife protection efforts or, like the latter case, the efforts of past Hollywood producers.

E) Native to the grassy plains of central North America, wild bison today find themselves in unusual and diverse places such as San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island, due to wildlife protection efforts or, like the latter case, the efforts of past Hollywood producers.

The best or excellent answers get kudos, which will be awarded after the answer is revealed.
More than one award of kudos is possible.


Such as used to quote examples
As is used to compare actions

like is used to compare nouns and not to give examples

With these in mind.

A) Native to the grassy plains of central North America, wild bison today find themselves in unusual and diverse places such as San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island, due to wildlife protection efforts or, as in the latter case, the efforts of past Hollywood producers.
Correct Answer

B) Native to the grassy plains of central North America, the wild bison today finds itself in unusual and diverse places like San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island due to wildlife protection efforts or, as in the latter case, the efforts of past Hollywood producers.
Like is incorrectly used to give examples -> Out

C) The wild bison, native to the grassy plains of central North America, today finds itself in unusual and diverse places like San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island due to wildlife protection efforts or, as in the latter case, the efforts of past Hollywood producers.
Like is incorrectly used to give examples -> Out

D) Wild bison, native tot he grassy plains of central North America, today find themselves in unusual and diverse places such as San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island due to wildlife protection efforts or, like the latter case, the efforts of past Hollywood producers.
Due to some efforts( action was done here), if compared with efforts done by past Hollywood producers, we have to use an "As"

E) Native to the grassy plains of central North America, wild bison today find themselves in unusual and diverse places such as San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island, due to wildlife protection efforts or, like the latter case, the efforts of past Hollywood producers.
Due to some efforts( action was done here), if compared with efforts done by past Hollywood producers, we have to use an "As"
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Re: Native to the grassy plains of central North America, wild bison today  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jan 2019, 13:45
2

Project SC Butler: Day 81 Sentence Correction (SC1)


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Native to the grassy plains of central North America, wild bison today find themselves in unusual and diverse places such as San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island, due to wildlife protection efforts or, as in the latter case, the efforts of past Hollywood producers.

A) Native to the grassy plains of central North America, wild bison today find themselves in unusual and diverse places such as San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island, due to wildlife protection efforts or, as in the latter case, the efforts of past Hollywood producers.

B) Native to the grassy plains of central North America, the wild bison today finds itself in unusual and diverse places like San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island due to wildlife protection efforts or, as in the latter case, the efforts of past Hollywood producers.

C) The wild bison, native to the grassy plains of central North America, today finds itself in unusual and diverse places like San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island due to wildlife protection efforts or, as in the latter case, the efforts of past Hollywood producers.

D) Wild bison, native tot he grassy plains of central North America, today find themselves in unusual and diverse places such as San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island due to wildlife protection efforts or, like the latter case, the efforts of past Hollywood producers.

E) Native to the grassy plains of central North America, wild bison today find themselves in unusual and diverse places such as San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island, due to wildlife protection efforts or, like the latter case, the efforts of past Hollywood producers.

OFFICIAL EXPLANATION
My annotations are in colored typeface.

• Option A is correct: the introductory phrase native to the grassy plains correctly modifies the noun wild bison.

• Choices B and C can be eliminated because they use like San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island rather than
such as San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island; the phrase gives examples, so the proper idiom is such as.

• Choices D and E incorrectly use like the latter case at the end of the sentence. The sentence is comparing an action to another action
(due to wildlife protection and [due to] the efforts), so the word as should be used.

The correct phrase is as in the latter case, so eliminate D and E

• Answer A is correct.

COMMENTS

The OE is good.

• Using "splits" may be ideal for this question.

Using "splits" is explained by GMATNinja , HERE and by Manhattan Prep HERE.

• Suppose that the entire sentence is too long or complicated to spot the splits.

In that case, stripping the sentence can help a lot.
Eliminate "fluff." You may also want to rename items with variables and bracket the issues in question.

Native to the grassy plains of central North America, wild bison today find themselves in unusual and diverse places such as San Francisco's Golden Gate Park X and Catalina Island Y, due to Ps wildlife protection efforts or, [as in??] the latter case Y, the efforts of Qs past Hollywood producers.

Bison today find themselves in unusual and diverse places such as X and Y, due to P's efforts (with respect to X) or, [as in] Y's case],
due to the efforts of Qs.

When option A seems correct, I have to scan the other answers to see what is at issue (what to put in my brackets with question marks).
I shortened the sentence.
I initially left such as and as in alone, but after scanning the options, I knew which phrases were key.
I went back to the shortened sentence and inserted the square brackets.

With practice, you will condense further, rephrase, and write on the scratch pad a sentence such as
Bison are found now in odd places [such as??] X and Y, due to P's efforts or, [as in the case of] Y, the efforts of Qs.

The sentence intends to convey that wild bison residing in strange places live there because people have made efforts to put the bison there.
The sentence uses two examples to make the point.
Finally, the sentence highlights a rather unusual group, former Hollywood producers, whose efforts relocated the wild bison to Catalina Island.
We would expect "wildlife protection" to be relocating the bison. Hollywood producers? Not so much.

I have included some material on noun-adjective modifiers because
wildlife protection efforts contains two such modifiers.

• This sentence means
Due to wildlife protection efforts, wild bison now live in San Francisco's Golden Gate Park.
Similarly, due to efforts of former Hollywood producers, wild bison now also live on Catalina Island.

Wildlife protection efforts made it possible for wild bison to live in Golden Gate Park.
Just as in the case of Golden Gate Park in which efforts = action was taken, so too on Catalina Island did efforts = action was taken

• NOUNS as noun modifiers

-- "wildlife protection" is a phrase composed of two nouns that modifies yet another noun.
The two nouns in that phrase are both noun modifiers, discussed here.
. . wildlife . . . .+ . . . . .protection . . . . . .+ efforts
noun-adjective + noun-adjective modifier + modified noun

In English, nouns can function as adjectives: a race car. A sports car.

If I write New York hospital workers, I am talking about workers who are a group of people who work in hospitals that are in New York.

In this case, wildlife protection refers to people who made efforts to protect wildlife (in some kind of organization or ecological initiative.)

It's okay that the second modifier says efforts OF former Hollywood producers.
Not ideal, but okay.
Yes, the phrase could say former Hollywood producers' efforts.
That phrase is clumsy because too many descriptors, including a possessive, precede the noun.
Tracking on "efforts" is easier if the phrasing stands as-is.

What about the other phrase?
The "noun as noun-adjective" modifiers work better than a rearrangement.
This phrase is weird: the efforts of wildlife protection
This one is not very helpful because it doesn't mention protection: the efforts of The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

If we have to choose between correct grammar (AS in) and perfect style, choose grammar.

What do we do with "due to"? Nothing. The phrase is in every option.
Because due to is not a decision point, do not spend more than five seconds on the phrase.

Our resident graphics specialist provides interesting and helpful visual aids.

Both answers are excellent, each in its own way. GKomoku and KanishkM - Kudos to both!
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Re: Native to the grassy plains of central North America, wild bison today  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jan 2019, 10:39
sayantanc2k how like in option E is wrong and as in option Ais correct?
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Re: Native to the grassy plains of central North America, wild bison today  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Feb 2019, 07:13
1
generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 81 Sentence Correction (SC1)


For SC butler Questions Click Here


Native to the grassy plains of central North America, wild bison today find themselves in unusual and diverse places such as San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island, due to wildlife protection efforts or, as in the latter case, the efforts of past Hollywood producers.

A) Native to the grassy plains of central North America, wild bison today find themselves in unusual and diverse places such as San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island, due to wildlife protection efforts or, as in the latter case, the efforts of past Hollywood producers.

B) Native to the grassy plains of central North America, the wild bison today finds itself in unusual and diverse places like San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island due to wildlife protection efforts or, as in the latter case, the efforts of past Hollywood producers.

C) The wild bison, native to the grassy plains of central North America, today finds itself in unusual and diverse places like San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island due to wildlife protection efforts or, as in the latter case, the efforts of past Hollywood producers.

D) Wild bison, native tot he grassy plains of central North America, today find themselves in unusual and diverse places such as San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island due to wildlife protection efforts or, like the latter case, the efforts of past Hollywood producers.

E) Native to the grassy plains of central North America, wild bison today find themselves in unusual and diverse places such as San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island, due to wildlife protection efforts or, like the latter case, the efforts of past Hollywood producers.

OFFICIAL EXPLANATION
My annotations are in colored typeface.

• Option A is correct: the introductory phrase native to the grassy plains correctly modifies the noun wild bison.

• Choices B and C can be eliminated because they use like San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island rather than
such as San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island; the phrase gives examples, so the proper idiom is such as.

• Choices D and E incorrectly use like the latter case at the end of the sentence. The sentence is comparing an action to another action
(due to wildlife protection and [due to] the efforts), so the word as should be used.

The correct phrase is as in the latter case, so eliminate D and E

• Answer A is correct.

COMMENTS

The OE is good.

• Using "splits" may be ideal for this question.

Using "splits" is explained by GMATNinja , HERE and by Manhattan Prep HERE.

• Suppose that the entire sentence is too long or complicated to spot the splits.

In that case, stripping the sentence can help a lot.
Eliminate "fluff." You may also want to rename items with variables and bracket the issues in question.

Native to the grassy plains of central North America, wild bison today find themselves in unusual and diverse places such as San Francisco's Golden Gate Park X and Catalina Island Y, due to Ps wildlife protection efforts or, [as in??] the latter case Y, the efforts of Qs past Hollywood producers.

Bison today find themselves in unusual and diverse places such as X and Y, due to P's efforts (with respect to X) or, [as in] Y's case],
due to the efforts of Qs.

When option A seems correct, I have to scan the other answers to see what is at issue (what to put in my brackets with question marks).
I shortened the sentence.
I initially left such as and as in alone, but after scanning the options, I knew which phrases were key.
I went back to the shortened sentence and inserted the square brackets.

With practice, you will condense further, rephrase, and write on the scratch pad a sentence such as
Bison are found now in odd places [such as??] X and Y, due to P's efforts or, [as in the case of] Y, the efforts of Qs.

The sentence intends to convey that wild bison residing in strange places live there because people have made efforts to put the bison there.
The sentence uses two examples to make the point.
Finally, the sentence highlights a rather unusual group, former Hollywood producers, whose efforts relocated the wild bison to Catalina Island.
We would expect "wildlife protection" to be relocating the bison. Hollywood producers? Not so much.

I have included some material on noun-adjective modifiers because
wildlife protection efforts contains two such modifiers.

• This sentence means
Due to wildlife protection efforts, wild bison now live in San Francisco's Golden Gate Park.
Similarly, due to efforts of former Hollywood producers, wild bison now also live on Catalina Island.

Wildlife protection efforts made it possible for wild bison to live in Golden Gate Park.
Just as in the case of Golden Gate Park in which efforts = action was taken, so too on Catalina Island did efforts = action was taken

• NOUNS as noun modifiers

-- "wildlife protection" is a phrase composed of two nouns that modifies yet another noun.
The two nouns in that phrase are both noun modifiers, discussed here.
. . wildlife . . . .+ . . . . .protection . . . . . .+ efforts
noun-adjective + noun-adjective modifier + modified noun

In English, nouns can function as adjectives: a race car. A sports car.

If I write New York hospital workers, I am talking about workers who are a group of people who work in hospitals that are in New York.

In this case, wildlife protection refers to people who made efforts to protect wildlife (in some kind of organization or ecological initiative.)

It's okay that the second modifier says efforts OF former Hollywood producers.
Not ideal, but okay.
Yes, the phrase could say former Hollywood producers' efforts.
That phrase is clumsy because too many descriptors, including a possessive, precede the noun.
Tracking on "efforts" is easier if the phrasing stands as-is.

What about the other phrase?
The "noun as noun-adjective" modifiers work better than a rearrangement.
This phrase is weird: the efforts of wildlife protection
This one is not very helpful because it doesn't mention protection: the efforts of The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

If we have to choose between correct grammar (AS in) and perfect style, choose grammar.

What do we do with "due to"? Nothing. The phrase is in every option.
Because due to is not a decision point, do not spend more than five seconds on the phrase.

Our resident graphics specialist provides interesting and helpful visual aids.

Both answers are excellent, each in its own way. GKomoku and KanishkM - Kudos to both!


A) Native to the grassy plains of central North America, wild bison today find themselves in unusual and diverse places such as San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island, due to wildlife protection efforts or, as in the latter case, the efforts of past Hollywood producers. -- isn't the use of 'due to' incorrect here?
Due to should modify a noun or a noun phrase.

Due to has been used in all the options

In my opinion 'because of' should be used instead of 'due to' in this case.

AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , MagooshExpert , GMATGuruNY , VeritasPrepBrian , MartyTargetTestPrep , DmitryFarber , VeritasKarishma , generis , other experts - please enlighten
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Re: Native to the grassy plains of central North America, wild bison today  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Feb 2019, 11:11
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Skywalker18 wrote:
(A) Native to the grassy plains of central North America, wild bison today find themselves in unusual and diverse places such as San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island, due to wildlife protection efforts or, as in the latter case, the efforts of past Hollywood producers. -- isn't the use of 'due to' incorrect here?

Due to should modify a noun or a noun phrase.

Due to has been used in all the options

In my opinion 'because of' should be used instead of 'due to' in this case.

Yes, in formal English, "due to" is used to introduce adjectival modifiers and "because of" is used to introduce adverbial modifiers.

In this case, "due to" is incorrectly, or at least suboptimally, used to introduce the modifier "due to wildlife protection efforts ...," which adverbially modifies "wild bison find themselves ..."

It would be better to use "because of."
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Re: Native to the grassy plains of central North America, wild bison today  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Feb 2019, 11:24
Skywalker18 wrote:

A) Native to the grassy plains of central North America, wild bison today find themselves in unusual and diverse places such as San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island, due to wildlife protection efforts or, as in the latter case, the efforts of past Hollywood producers. -- isn't the use of 'due to' incorrect here?
Due to should modify a noun or a noun phrase.

Due to has been used in all the options

In my opinion 'because of' should be used instead of 'due to' in this case.

generis

Skywalker18 , good catch. I missed the error; I was asleep at the wheel.

I'll add just one detail to MartyTargetTestPrep 's characteristically excellent answer.

"Because of" almost always means "as a result of."
The phrase can "modify" the verb in the clause.
The phrase can explain, for example, why the bison find themselves in new places.
The bison find themselves in place X and place Y because of efforts by . . .

Due to is followed by the noun phrase "efforts of," a phrasing that seems to satisfy the first part of your rule.
But another concept is important.
"Due to" is an adjective that cannot be used to explain the action or event (the verb) in the clause.

This sentence would be correct:
Wild bison today find themselves in unusual places such as Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island;
the animals' relocation is due to wildlife protection efforts or, as in the latter case, the efforts of past Hollywood producers.
-- In that example, due to modifies the noun relocation.

Nice catch! +1
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Re: Native to the grassy plains of central North America, wild bison today  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Feb 2019, 11:37
1
generis wrote:
I'll add just one detail to MartyTargetTestPrep 's characteristically excellent answer.

"Because of" almost always means "as a result of."
The phrase can "modify" the verb in the clause.
The phrase can explain, for example, why the bison find themselves in new places.
The bison find themselves in place X and place Y because of efforts by . . .

I'll add another detail then. :)

"due to" generally means, "caused by."

So, we could replace "due to" in generis's example with "caused by."

Wild bison today find themselves in unusual places such as Golden Gate Park and Catalina Island;
the animals' relocation is caused by (due to) wildlife protection efforts or, as in the latter case, the efforts of past Hollywood producers.

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Re: Native to the grassy plains of central North America, wild bison today   [#permalink] 06 Feb 2019, 11:37
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Native to the grassy plains of central North America, wild bison today

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