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# Of the thousands of specimens of meteorites found on Earth and known

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Of the thousands of specimens of meteorites found on Earth and known  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 09 Oct 2019, 02:01
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 301, Date : 31-Aug-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details

Of the thousands of specimens of meteorites found on Earth and known to science, only about 100 are igneous; that is. they have undergone melting by volcanic action at some time since the planets were first formed. These igneous meteorites are known as achondrites because they lack chondrules— small stony spherules found in the thousands of meteorites (called "chondrites") composed primarily of unaltered minerals that condensed from dust and gas at the origin of the solar system. Achondrites are the only known samples of volcanic rocks originating outside the Earth-Moon system. Most are thought to have been dislodged by interbody impact from asteroids, with diameters of from 10 to 500 kilometers. in solar orbit between Mars and 15, Jupiter.

Shergottites. the name given to three anomalous achondrites so far discovered on Earth, present scientists with a genuine enigma. Shergottites crystallized from molten rock less than 1.1 billion years ago (some 3.5 billion years later than typical achondrites) and were presumably ejected into space when an object impacted on a body similar in chemical composition to Earth. While most meteorites appear to derive from comparatively small bodies, shergottites exhibit properties that indicate that their source was a large planet, conceivably Mars. In order to account for such an unlikely source, some unusual factor must be invoked, because the impact needed to accelerate a fragment of rock to escape the gravitational field of a body even as small as the Moon is so great that no meteorites of lunar origin have been discovered.

While some scientists speculate that shergottites derive from lo (a volcanically active moon of Jupiter), recent measurements suggest that since Io's surface is rich in sulfur and sodium, the chemical composition of its volcanic products would probably be unlike that of the shergottites. Moreover, any fragments dislodged from lo by interbody impact would be unlikely to escape the gravitational pull of Jupiter.

The only other logical source of shergottites is Mars. Space-probe photographs indicate the existence of giant volcanoes on the Martian surface. From the small number of impact craters that appear on Martian lava flows, one can estimate that the planet was volcanically 5) active as recently as a half-billion years ago—and may be active today. The great objection to the Martian origin of shergottites is the absence of lunar meteorites on Earth. An impact capable of ejecting a fragment of the Martian surface into an Earth-intersecting orbit is even less probable than such an event on the Moon, in view of the Moon's smaller size and closer proximity to Earth. A recent study suggests, however, that permafrost ices below the surface of Mars may have altered the effects of impact on it. If the ices had been rapidly vaporized by an impacting object, the expanding gases might have helped the ejected fragments reach escape velocity. Finally, analyses performed by space probes show a remarkable chemical similarity between Martian soil and the Shergottites.

Spoiler: :: OA
A

1. The passage implies which of the following about shergottites?

I. They are products of volcanic activity.
II. They derive from a planet larger than Earth.
III. They come from a planetary body with a chemical composition similar to that of lo.

(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) I and II only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III

Spoiler: :: OA
C

2. According to the passage. a meteorite discovered on Earth is unlikely to have come from a large planet for which of the following reasons?

(A) There are fewer large planets in the solar system than there are asteroids.
(B) Most large planets have been volcanically inactive for more than a billion years.
(C) The gravitational pull of a large planet would probably prohibit fragments from escaping its orbit.
(D) There are no chondrites occurring naturally on Earth and probably none on other large planets.
(E) Interbody impact is much rarer on large than on small planets because of the density of the atmosphere on large planets.

Spoiler: :: OA
B

3. The passage suggests that the age of shergottites is probably

(A) still entirely undetermined
(B) less than that of most other achondrites.
(D) the same as that of typical achondrites
(E) greater than that of the Earth

Spoiler: :: OA
C

4. According to the passage, the presence of chondrules in a meteorite indicates that the meteorite

(A) has probably come from Mars
(B) is older than the solar system itself
(C) has not been melted since the solar system formed
(D) is certainly less than 4 billion years old
(E) is a small fragment of an asteroid

Spoiler: :: OA
E

5. The passage provides information to answer which of the following questions?

(A) What is the precise age of the solar system?
(B) How did shergottites get their name?
(C) What are the chemical properties shared by shergottites and Martian soils?
(D) How volcanically active is the planet Jupiter?
(E) What is a major feature of the Martian surface?

Spoiler: :: OA
D

6. It can be inferred from the passage that each of the following is a consideration in determining whether a particular planet is a possible source of shergottites that have been discovered on Earth EXCEPT the

(A) planet's size
(B) planet's distance from Earth
(C) strength of the planet's field of gravity
(D) proximity of the planet to its moons
(E) chemical composition of the planet's surface

Spoiler: :: OA
B

7. It can be inferred from the passage that most meteorites found on Earth contain which of the following?

(A) Crystals
(B) Chondrules
(C) Metals
(D) Sodium
(E) Sulfur

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Originally posted by carcass on 10 Feb 2019, 07:17.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 09 Oct 2019, 02:01, edited 2 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (871).
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Re: Of the thousands of specimens of meteorites found on Earth and known  [#permalink]

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13 Mar 2019, 21:27
Quote:
para summary :
para 1: Intro to Achon (difference between Accon and other meteos)

para 2 : intro to S
opening the topic of source of s :
mars possible
factors affecting source : gravitational pull

para 3 : not IO

pra 4 : why possibly mars !!! (author says mars = logical source ...please note the tone of author= positive to mars)

Primary purpose : intoduce Achons and evaluate various specualtions about the sources of S (a type of Achpon)

Quote:
The passage implies which of the following about shergottites?

I. They are products of volcanic activity.
- S= type of Achon ..Achon = vocanic avtivity formed ...CORRECT

II. They derive from a planet larger than Earth.
- "While most meteorites appear to derive from comparatively small bodies, shergottites exhibit properties that indicate that their source was a large planet, conceivably Mars."
here we are told that S derive from a alrger planet and possibly mars...but do we know FROM THE PASSAGE that the earth is smaller than mars?? in the last para too we are only discussing likelihood of Mars being a apossible source and in comaprison to some points of earth we are NOWHERE given thatS formed froma a planet LARGER THAN EARTH... we cannot say if S did not form from earth and S forms from larger planets , Earth is not larger ....we cannot say this... It is not necessary that S should form from all large planets..maybe S formed from a aplanet similar in size or from a smaller planet

III. They come from a planetary body with a chemical composition similar to that of lo.
- "similar to that of IO " this has been refuted by author

(A) I only
correct

(B) II only
(C) I and II only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III

Quote:
According to the passage, the presence of chondrules in a meteorite indicates that the meteorite

approach : find "chodrules" everywhere in the passage ..please find evrywhere becasue many time para 1 detail about an element is later refuted in some other para and thus we may fall into the trap !!

"These igneous meteorites are known as achondrites because they lack chondrules— small stony spherules found in the thousands of meteorites (called "chondrites") composed primarily of unaltered minerals that condensed from dust and gas at the origin of the solar system"

(A) has probably come from Mars
- NOPE

(B) is older than the solar system itself
- NO idea

(C) has not been melted since the solar system formed
- "unaltered minerals " implies that were not melted

(D) is certainly less than 4 billion years old
- we are given info about Achondri...cannot deduce info abiut Chrnodule

(E) is a small fragment of an asteroid
- it actually is a meteorite but are meteorites asteriods no idea

Quote:
It can be inferred from the passage that each of the following is a consideration in determining whether a particular planet is a possible source of shergottites that have been discovered on Earth EXCEPT the

Approahc : open ended

(A) planet's size
- "While most meteorites appear to derive from comparatively small bodies, shergottites exhibit properties that indicate that their source was a large planet,"

(B) planet's distance from Earth
- "The great objection to the Martian origin of shergottites is the absence of lunar meteorites on Earth. An impact capable of ejecting a fragment of the Martian surface into an Earth-intersecting orbit is even less probable than such an event on the Moon, in view of the Moon's smaller size and closer proximity to Earth. "

C) strength of the planet's field of gravity
- "because the impact needed to accelerate a fragment of rock to escape the gravitational field of a body even as small as the Moon is so great that no meteorites of lunar origin have been discovered."

(D) proximity of the planet to its moons
- CORRECT "proximity to earth is mentioned not the proximitity of SOure planet(possible mars) from the source's moon

(E) chemical composition of the planet's surface
- "While some scientists speculate that shergottites derive from lo (a volcanically active moon of Jupiter), recent measurements suggest that since Io's surface is rich in sulfur and sodium, the chemical composition of its volcanic products would probably be unlike that of the shergottites."
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Re: Of the thousands of specimens of meteorites found on Earth and known  [#permalink]

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31 Aug 2019, 21:46
1
All correct in 12 mins, including 5 mins 30 seconds to read.
Para 1- achondrites- igneous meteorites, only known samples of volcanic rocks originating outside the Earth-Moon system
Para 2- Shergottites present scientists with a genuine enigma, exhibit properties that indicate that their source was a large planet, conceivably Mars
Para 3- Shergottites from lo? any fragments dislodged from lo by interbody impact would be unlikely to escape the gravitational pull of Jupiter.
Para 4- From mars? Objection and support

1. The passage implies which of the following about shergottites?

I. They are products of volcanic activity. - Achondrites are the only known samples of volcanic rocks, Shergottites- three anomalous achondrites
II. They derive from a planet larger than Earth. - incorrect, shergottites exhibit properties that indicate that their source was a large planet, conceivably Mars
III. They come from a planetary body with a chemical composition similar to that of lo. - incorrect, were presumably ejected into space when an object impacted on a body similar in chemical composition to Earth

(A) I only - Correct

2. According to the passage. a meteorite discovered on Earth is unlikely to have come from a large planet for which of the following reasons?
(C) The gravitational pull of a large planet would probably prohibit fragments from escaping its orbit. - Correct,
In order to account for such an unlikely source, some unusual factor must be invoked, because the impact needed to accelerate a fragment of rock to escape the gravitational field of a body even as small as the Moon is so great that no meteorites of lunar origin have been discovered.

3. The passage suggests that the age of shergottites is probably
(B) less than that of most other achondrites.
Shergottites crystallized from molten rock less than 1.1 billion years ago (some 3.5 billion years later than typical achondrites)

4. According to the passage, the presence of chondrules in a meteorite indicates that the meteorite

(C) has not been melted since the solar system formed - Correct, (called "chondrites") composed primarily of unaltered minerals that condensed from dust and gas at the origin of the solar system

5. The passage provides information to answer which of the following questions?
(E) What is a major feature of the Martian surface?
From the small number of impact craters that appear on Martian lava flows, one can estimate that the planet was volcanically 5) active as recently as a half-billion years ago—and may be active today

6. It can be inferred from the passage that each of the following is a consideration in determining whether a particular planet is a possible source of shergottites that have been discovered on Earth EXCEPT the
(A) planet's size - incorrect, shergottites exhibit properties that indicate that their source was a large planet
(B) planet's distance from Earth - incorrect, An impact capable of ejecting a fragment of the Martian surface into an Earth-intersecting orbit is even less probable than such an event on the Moon, in view of the Moon's smaller size and closer proximity to Earth.
(C) strength of the planet's field of gravity - incorrect, because the impact needed to accelerate a fragment of rock to escape the gravitational field of a body even as small as the Moon is so great that no meteorites of lunar origin have been discovered.
(D) proximity of the planet to its moons - Correct,
(E) chemical composition of the planet's surface - incorrect, were presumably ejected into space when an object impacted on a body similar in chemical composition to Earth

7. It can be inferred from the passage that most meteorites found on Earth contain which of the following?
(B) Chondrules
Of the thousands of specimens of meteorites found on Earth and known to science, only about 100 are igneous; that is. they have undergone melting by volcanic action at some time since the planets were first formed. These igneous meteorites are known as achondrites because they lack chondrules— small stony spherules found in the thousands of meteorites (called "chondrites") composed primarily of unaltered minerals that condensed from dust and gas at the origin of the solar system
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Re: Of the thousands of specimens of meteorites found on Earth and known  [#permalink]

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01 Sep 2019, 21:55
Para 1 Summary – Meteorites specimen in earth discussed and of them achondrites are around 100 in numbers and why they are called so. However achondrites are samples of volcanic rocks that originated outside Earth-Moon system.

Para 2 Summary – Scientists are confused because of Shergottites since they crystallized recently compared to typical achondrites and ejected in space when object chemically similar to Earth. Also, normally, meteorites derive from small bodes typically but shergottites come from large planets. Here again the conundrum continues since escaping large planets’ gravitational pull require an impact of that scale – fact that lunar meteorites have not been discovered added to dilemma.

Para 3 Summary – Speculation of scientists does not hold true due to chemical properties of Jupiter’s moon, lo and shergottites differ not to mention that Jupiter’s pull would have made escape difficult.

Para 4 Summary – Finally, author talks Mars which seems to be the logical source of shergottites. Mars has a volcanic surface which adds to the theory but absence of lunar meteorite on earth negates it since moon is closer to earth. A recent study suggests that the permafrost ice on mars surface might have vaporized due to impact and thus expanding gases might have helped ejecting the fragments of any impact.

1. The passage implies which of the following about shergottites?
Marked C the wrong answer. Para 1 support the act mentioned in point I here. And II goes of scope while III goes in opposite direction of what passage mentioned.
I. They are products of volcanic activity.
II. They derive from a planet larger than Earth.
III. They come from a planetary body with a chemical composition similar to that of lo.

(A) I only – CORRECT.
(B) II only
(C) I and II only – WRONG.
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III

2. According to the passage. a meteorite discovered on Earth is unlikely to have come from a large planet for which of the following reasons?

(A) There are fewer large planets in the solar system than there are asteroids. WRONG. Irrelevant.
(B) Most large planets have been volcanically inactive for more than a billion years. – WRONG. Out of scope.
(C) The gravitational pull of a large planet would probably prohibit fragments from escaping its orbit. – CORRECT. Para 2 supports the fact.
(D) There are no chondrites occurring naturally on Earth and probably none on other large planets. – WRONG. Other large planets is out of scope.
(E) Interbody impact is much rarer on large than on small planets because of the density of the atmosphere on large planets. – WRONG. Comparison is out of scope.

3. The passage suggests that the age of shergottites is probably

(A) still entirely undetermined
(B) less than that of most other achondrites. – CORRECT. Para 2 lne “some 3.5 billion years later than typical achondrites” support this.
(D) the same as that of typical achondrites
(E) greater than that of the Earth

4. According to the passage, the presence of chondrules in a meteorite indicates that the meteorite
Marked E after POE. Left with C and E eliminated C with an understanding that it can’t be proven.
(A) has probably come from Mars – WRONG.
(B) is older than the solar system itself – WRONG. Irrelevant.
(C) has not been melted since the solar system formed – CORRECT.
(D) is certainly less than 4 billion years old – WRONG. Irrelevant.
(E) is a small fragment of an asteroid – WRONG.

5. The passage provides information to answer which of the following questions?

(A) What is the precise age of the solar system? – WRONG. Not discussed.
(B) How did shergottites get their name? – WRONG. Not discussed.
(C) What are the chemical properties shared by shergottites and Martian soils? – WRONG. Only reference given nothing about details provided in para 4.
(D) How volcanically active is the planet Jupiter? – WRONG. Not discussed.
(E) What is a major feature of the Martian surface? – CORRECT. Para 4 is all about Mars.

6. It can be inferred from the passage that each of the following is a consideration in determining whether a particular planet is a possible source of shergottites that have been discovered on Earth EXCEPT the
Marked B which is wrong. Between B and D chose B since passage mentions Achondrites samples of volcanic rocks originate outside the Earth-Moon system (as per para 1).
(A) planet's size – WRONG. Given in passage.
(B) planet's distance from Earth
(C) strength of the planet's field of gravity – WRONG. Given in passage.
(D) proximity of the planet to its moons
(E) chemical composition of the planet's surface – WRONG. Given in passage.

7. It can be inferred from the passage that most meteorites found on Earth contain which of the following?
Marked A thinking that its crystals of Mars’s permafrost ice. As per para 4 chemical similarity between Martian soil and the Shergottites is high so a wrong inference on my part.
(A) Crystals – WRONG.
(B) Chondrules – CORRECT.
(C) Metals – WRONG.
(D) Sodium – WRONG.
(E) Sulfur – WRONG.

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Re: Of the thousands of specimens of meteorites found on Earth and known  [#permalink]

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02 Sep 2019, 06:11
Dear Skywalker18

Could you please confirm why option E in question number 4 is incorrect?

Does it because In Passage it is mentioned as meteorites and in answer it is mentioned as asteriod?
Re: Of the thousands of specimens of meteorites found on Earth and known   [#permalink] 02 Sep 2019, 06:11