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Older United States automobiles have been identified as contributing

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Older United States automobiles have been identified as contributing [#permalink]

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Older United States automobiles have been identified as contributing disproportionately to global air pollution. The requirement in many jurisdictions that automobiles pass emission-control inspections has had the effect of taking many such automobiles out of service in the United States, as they fail inspection and their owners opt to buy newer automobiles. Thus the burden of pollution such older United States automobiles contribute to the global atmosphere will be gradually reduced over the next decade.

Which one of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

(A) It is impossible to separate the air of one country or jurisdiction from that of others.

(B) When automobiles that are now new become older, they will, because of a design change, cause less air pollution than older automobiles do now.

(C) There is a thriving market for used older Untied States automobiles that are exported to regions that have no emission-control regulations.

(D) The number of jurisdictions in the United States requiring automobiles to pass emission-control inspections is no longer increasing.

(E) Even if all the older automobiles in the United States were retired from service, air pollution from United States automobiles could still increase if the total number of automobiles in use should increase significantly.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Older United States automobiles have been identified as contributing [#permalink]

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New post 15 Apr 2017, 08:22
Why is option E incorrect? I picked E as I was confused between C and E. Help me get it.

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Re: Older United States automobiles have been identified as contributing [#permalink]

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New post 15 Apr 2017, 13:07
yogesh610 wrote:
Why is option E incorrect? I picked E as I was confused between C and E. Help me get it.

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While E certainly will weaken the argument 'if' the number of new automobiles is much greater, the sentence in which option E is conveyed makes it more of an assumption. While C provides a certain scenario of what is happening. Therefore the answer is C.

Hope this helps!

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Re: Older United States automobiles have been identified as contributing [#permalink]

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New post 18 Apr 2017, 04:10
Question Type: Weaken

Conclusion: Thus the burden of pollution such older United States automobiles contribute to the global atmosphere will be gradually reduced over the next decade.

In short we need to prove that Pollution such older automobiles contribute will not be reduced over next decade.

(A) It is impossible to separate the air of one country or jurisdiction from that of others. Out of scope

(B) When automobiles that are now new become older, they will, because of a design change, cause less air pollution than older automobiles do now.
Talks about the pollution that will be caused by new automobiles in future and compares the pollution caused by them to now older automobiles. This does not weaken the argument.

(C) There is a thriving market for used older Untied States automobiles that are exported to regions that have no emission-control regulations.
This option clearly states that if there is thriving market for the used old automobiles in the regions where there are no regulations then these automobiles will continue to contribute to the air pollution and thus the pollution will not be reduced in the next decade. This option clearly weakens our argument.

(D) The number of jurisdictions in the United States requiring automobiles to pass emission-control inspections is no longer increasing. Does not weaken the argument. In fact has no effect on the argument.

(E) Even if all the older automobiles in the United States were retired from service, air pollution from United States automobiles could still increase if the total number of
automobiles in use should increase significantly.
This is a good trap answer. IMO, the argument here is only concerned about the pollution caused by older automobiles as mentioned in the premise of the argument. This option says that the air pollution from United States automobiles could increase if the number of automobiles in use increase. If this is true then the air pollution in US is definitely going to increase but this does not weaken the argument because the increased pollution will be attributable to the new or perhaps the existing cars but not to the old cars the argument talked about. We somehow need to prove that the pollution caused by old automobiles will not be reduced or increased over the next decade.So we can eliminate this choice.

Hope it helps
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Re: Older United States automobiles have been identified as contributing [#permalink]

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New post 15 Dec 2017, 21:53
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vikasp99 wrote:
Older United States automobiles have been identified as contributing disproportionately to global air pollution. The requirement in many jurisdictions that automobiles pass emission-control inspections has had the effect of taking many such automobiles out of service in the United States, as they fail inspection and their owners opt to buy newer automobiles. Thus the burden of pollution such older United States automobiles contribute to the global atmosphere will be gradually reduced over the next decade.

Which one of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

(A) It is impossible to separate the air of one country or jurisdiction from that of others.

(B) When automobiles that are now new become older, they will, because of a design change, cause less air pollution than older automobiles do now.

(C) There is a thriving market for used older Untied States automobiles that are exported to regions that have no emission-control regulations.

(D) The number of jurisdictions in the United States requiring automobiles to pass emission-control inspections is no longer increasing.

(E) Even if all the older automobiles in the United States were retired from service, air pollution from United States automobiles could still increase if the total number of automobiles in use should increase significantly.


-Many jurisdictions require cars to pass emissions
-This has caused cars that fail inspection to get off the road while owners buy newer cars
-The burden of pollution of older U.S. cars will be gradually reduced over the next decade

This argument is assuming that the older vehicles, while taken off the road in jurisdictions with such emissions standards, are NOT going elsewhere. The stimulus only said that "many" jurisdictions are requiring these emissions tests - this doesn't tell us much! Perhaps "many" is only 5% of the U.S. while this argument is talking about the entire "burden of pollution" of older U.S. vehicles. With that said, it is important to note that we actually don't care too much about the newer vehicles. Why? Because the conclusion is strictly talking about "older United States automobiles." Therefore, knowing that "newer U.S. automobiles are terrible for the environment and will result in our demise" would actually do us no good for the purposes of this argument.

(A) So? Does this say anything about older U.S. cars? Nope.

(B) This actually might strengthen the argument, if anything, by showing that newer cars will be better for the environment always. However, this still doesn't say anything about older cars and that is what we need.

(C) Yes! If there is a "thriving market" of people waiting to buy these older U.S. cars then we can safely question that the burden of pollution will be reduced. If anything, the burden of pollution would stay roughly the same BECAUSE do not actually seem to be ceasing existence. They are still going to be driven! Thus, the pollution in the global atmosphere should be about the same as it was before.

(D) Tricky! However, this doesn't really do too much. This seems to say that the number of jurisdictions are staying the same. Without making any additional assumptions, this seems to neither strengthen nor weaken the argument. If the same jurisdictions are going to be requiring the test - and no more - then why would we question the conclusion that the older U.S. automobiles will be contributing less pollution to the globe? It seems fairly reasonable. HOWEVER, if this answer choice had actually said that the number of jurisdictions were "sharply decreasing" then you might be onto something here...

(E) This might weaken but the problem is that we would have to make another assumption to make this so. We would have to assume that the "total number of automobiles in use" actually do "increase significantly." This is something we know nothing about so I would be hesitant to pick this answer! We have no idea how many cars will be on the road.
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Re: Older United States automobiles have been identified as contributing   [#permalink] 15 Dec 2017, 21:53
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