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On August 22, 1939, Adolf Hitler summoned his top military generals to

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On August 22, 1939, Adolf Hitler summoned his top military generals to  [#permalink]

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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 9 New, Date : 05-FEB-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


On August 22, 1939, Adolf Hitler summoned his top military generals to Obersalzberg, where he delivered a speech explaining his plans for war, first with Poland, then with the rest of Europe. Despite resistance from those both inside and outside Germany, Hitler felt exceedingly confident that he could defy the will of the international community and conquer vast amounts of land. In his speech at Obersalzberg, he laid out numerous factors he believed would contribute to the success of his war plans.

Chief among Hitler's sources of confidence in Germany's brazen war plans was German military quickness. Hitler said, "Our strength lies in our quickness." On the advice of Colonel-General von Brauchitsch, Hitler believed Poland could be captured in a few weeks, an astonishingly short amount of time given the recent history of trench warfare and the long history of protracted European military engagements that resulted in minimal land gains and high casualty counts.

Hitler's confidence in the ability of the German military to inflict considerable brutality further strengthened his determination to pursue an exceedingly ambitious plan of territorial aggrandizement. He said, "I shall shoot everyone who utters one word of criticism" and noted that "the goal to be obtained in the war is not that of reaching certain lines but of physically demolishing the opponent."In this vein, Hitler ordered his military to "be hard, be without mercy, [and] act more quickly and brutally than others…for it scares the others off." Hitler believed that enemies, not used to this type of brutality, would surrender quickly.

In addition to speed and brutality, Hitler believed that, in the end, history would overlook his inhumane conduct. To support this view, which turned out to be anything but prescient, Hitler invoked a pollyannaish view of Asian leader Genghis Kahn. In Hitler's eyes, Kahn "sent millions of women and children into death knowingly and with a light heart," yet "history sees in him only the great founder of States."

Although Hitler brimmed with confidence and experienced initial yet widely-expected success in Poland and then in Denmark, he overlooked important considerations. In many ways, Hitler made the same mistake Napoleon Bonaparte made years earlier. Hitler believed he could advance further and conquer Britain, yet, like Napoleon, Hitler did not adequately foresee the insurmountable barrier posed by Britain's island status. Despite the damage inflicted at the hands of the German Luftwaffe during the Battle of Britain (1940), British forces eventually won this important battle. Nevertheless, Hitler pressed on and, in an even more fateful decision that carried echoes of a Napoleonic tactical misstep, invaded the USSR where his forces suffered the decisive defeat of World War II at Stalingrad in 1943. In the end, Hitler's reputation in history proved to be as brutal and decisive as the battle plans and philosophy he announced at Obersalzberg.

Q.1 According to the passage, Hitler's confidence in his military strategy stemmed from its:

A) Surprise invasions
B) Emphasis on unconventional warfare
C) Reliance on air supremacy
D) Swift brutality
E) Napoleonic overtones


Q. 2 The author of the passage is primarily concerned with explaining:

A) The logistics of Hitler's war strategy and the mechanics of its failure
B) The philosophy of Hitler's war strategy and the world's reaction
C) Why Hitler believed his war plans would succeed and why they eventually failed
D) Hitler's plans and their failure with an eye to pre-1900 history
E) Explaining the source of Hitler's brutality and the reasons for its failure


Q. 3 Which of the following best characterizes the author's view of the relationship between Hitler and Napolean?

A) Governed with similar styles
B) Fought military conflicts with similar ideologies
C) In general, shared a legacy as overly ambitious leaders
D) At a high-level, some similarities in military missteps existed
E) Both suffered final defeats by impetuously charging east


Q. 4 According to the passage, what best describes the author's understanding of why Hitler's military campaign eventually failed?

A) Failed to demoralize opponents
B) Overlooked important tactical and geographic considerations
C) Underestimated international resolve
D) Fell behind technological advancements of European enemies
E) Failed to consolidate initial military and land gains


Q. 5According to the passage, Hitler's confidence in the war plans announced at Obersalzberg stemmed from all of the following EXCEPT:

A) The speed of the German military
B) The brutality of the German military
C) The plan to stifle dissent
D) The belief that instilling fear weakened enemies
E) The history of overlooking European military brutalit


Q. 6 According to the passage, why did Hitler believe he could conquer Poland in a few weeks?

A) The inaction of European neighbors
B) The example of Napoleon
C) The philosophy of Genghis Kahn
D) The counsel of a military general
E) The small size of Poland


Q. 7 According to the passage, which of the following represents the chronological unfolding of events?

A) Generals summoned to Obersalzberg; Invaded Poland; Invaded Denmark; the Battle of Britain; Battle at Stalingrad
B) Generals summoned to Obersalzberg; Invaded Denmark; Invaded Poland; the Battle of Britain; Battle at Stalingrad
C) Generals summoned to Obersalzberg; Invaded Denmark; Invaded Poland; Battle at Stalingrad; the Battle of Britain
D) Generals summoned to Obersalzberg; Invaded Poland; Invaded Denmark; Battle at Stalingrad; the Battle of Britain
E) Generals summoned to Obersalzberg; the Battle of Britain; Invaded Poland; Invaded Denmark; Battle at Stalingrad



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Difficulty Level: 600

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Originally posted by SajjadAhmad on 11 Feb 2017, 09:26.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 05 Feb 2019, 08:24, edited 4 times in total.
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Re: On August 22, 1939, Adolf Hitler summoned his top military generals to  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Feb 2019, 06:00
Official Explanation


1. According to the passage, Hitler's confidence in his military strategy stemmed from its:

Explanation

Beginning in the second paragraph, the author explains why Hitler felt confident in his military strategy:

2nd Paragraph: "Chief among Hitler's sources of confidence in Germany's brazen war plans was German military quickness. Hitler said, 'Our strength lies in our quickness.'"
3rd Paragraph: The military's ability "to inflict considerable brutality"
4th Paragraph: History would overlook brutality

Aggregating together the points from above, we can conclude that Hitler's confidence in his military strategy came from: (1) speed (2) brutality.

A. The passage contradicts this, mentioning that the invasion of Poland was "widely-expected". Further, there is a difference between quickness (which the article discusses as a source of confidence) and surprise (which the article does not discuss).

B. The passage never mentions unconventional warfare. Moreover, with references to Napoleon Bonaparte and Genghis Kahn, it can be inferred that Hitler's plans are not too unconventional.
C. The passage never states this as a source of confidence. The only mention to air supremacy is the Battle of Britain, which Hitler lost.
D. This summarizes the two main sources of confidence.
E. This is the author's comparison, not one mentioned by Hitler as a source of confidence.

ANSWER: D


2. The author of the passage is primarily concerned with explaining:

Explanation

In order to understand the main thrust of the passage, examine the logical flow and main points of the passage.

1st Paragraph: Introduction
2nd Paragraph: Hitler's Sources of Confidence
3rd Paragraph: Hitler's Sources of Confidence
4th Paragraph: Hitler's Sources of Confidence
5th Paragraph: Brief Explanation of Hitler's Failure

A. The author did not address logistics such as troop numbers, weaponry, or intelligence.
B. The passage never discussed the world's reaction.
C. This encapsulates the author's main points and line of argument.
D. Hitler's plans are not discussed. Instead, the article focuses on why Hitler believed he would win. Further, the author never related pre-1900 history with Hitler's plans (the reference to Kahn pertained to Hitler's confidence, not his plans).
E. The author describes Hitler's brutality as a source of Hitler's confidence. The article does not discuss the sources of the brutality itself. In other words, the article focuses on much more than Hitler's brutality (e.g., his military speed). The brutality is only one example to make a larger point: why Hitler believed he would win.

ANSWER: C


3. Which of the following best characterizes the author's view of the relationship between Hitler and Napolean?

Explanation

The passage of interest is:

"In many ways, Hitler made the same mistake Napoleon Bonaparte made years earlier. Hitler believed he could conquer Britain, yet, like Napoleon, Hitler did not adequately foresee the insurmountable barrier posed by Britain's island status....Hitler pressed on and, in an even more fateful decision that carried echoes of a Napoleonic tactical misstep, invaded the USSR"

A. The author makes no mention of governing styles, focusing instead on military matters.
B. The author's comparison focuses on military tactics and decisions to attack certain regions--not ideologies or motivations.
C. The passage never mentions Napolean's legacy so it is impossible to ascertain the author's view on this issue.
D. This answer matches the author's assertion (shown in the quote above) that both Napolean and Hitler made mistakes in dealing with Britain.
E. The passage never mentions Napoleon suffering a final defeat in the east. Instead, it only mentions that Hitler's decision to head east had "echoes of a Napoleonic misstep". Based upon the passage, we have no way of knowing that Napolean suffered a defeat in the east.

ANSWER: D


4. According to the passage, what best describes the author's understanding of why Hitler's military campaign eventually failed?

Explanation

The part of the passage that is of special interest is:

"he overlooked important considerations.... Hitler believed he could advance further and conquer Britain, yet, like Napoleon, Hitler did not adequately foresee the insurmountable barrier posed by Britain's island status. ... Hitler pressed on and, in an even more fateful decision that carried echoes of a Napoleonic tactical misstep, invaded the USSR where his forces suffered the decisive defeat of World War II"

This passage indicates that Hitler made mistakes in overlooking geographical considerations (i.e., "Britain's island status") and tactical considerations (i.e., "echoes of a Napoleonic tactical misstep").

A. The passage never states that Hitler failed to demoralize his opponents. Although Hitler's losses over England and in the USSR likely caused Hitler to fail in demoralizing his opponents, this is a consequence of losing not an explanation for why Hitler's military campaign failed in the first place.
B. This answer matches the author's explanation, given in the final paragraph.
C. The passage does not mention international resolve. Although Hitler's losses over England and in the USSR likely strengthened international resolve, this is a consequence of losing not an explanation for why Hitler's military campaign failed in the first place.
D. Technological advancements on the part of either Hitler's forces or those of his enemies are never mentioned.
E. The passage never speaks of whether Hitler consolidated his gains and there is not enough evidence to make any type of inference.

ANSWER: B


5. According to the passage, Hitler's confidence in the war plans announced at Obersalzberg stemmed from all of the following EXCEPT:

Explanation

A. This was a source of confidence: "Chief among Hitler’s sources of confidence in Germany's brazen war plans was German military quickness"

B. This was a source of confidence: "Hitler's confidence in the ability of the German military to inflict considerable brutality"

C. This was a source of confidence: "I shall shoot everyone who utters one word of criticism"

D. This was a source of confidence: "be hard, be without mercy, [and] act more quickly and brutally than others…for it scares the others off"

E. The passage never mentions that history overlooked the brutality of a European military. Instead, the passage cites Hitler's recollection of history's positive outlook on "Asian leader Genghis Kahn".

ANSWER: E


6. According to the passage, why did Hitler believe he could conquer Poland in a few weeks?

Explanation

The portion of the passage that is relevant is:

"On the advice of Colonel-General von Brauchitsch, Hitler believed Poland could be captured in a few weeks"

A. Hitler never mentions this as a reason he believed he could conquer Poland.
B. The author (not Hitler) brings up Napoleon.
C. The actions of Genghis Kahn gave Hitler confidence that history would view him in a positive light--not that he could conquer Poland.
D. This matches the relevant section from the passage.
E. The passage never indicates that Hitler believed he could conquer Poland because of its small size.

ANSWER: D


7. According to the passage, which of the following represents the chronological unfolding of events?

Explanation

By piecing together the dates of events given in the article and by inferring from the logical flow of the article, we can reassemble the timeline of events as they unfolded in history.

Dates Mentioned in the Passage

August 22, 1939 - Generals summoned to Obersalzberg
1940 - the Battle of Britain
1943 - Stalingrad

Logical inferences from the passage:

"Although Hitler brimmed with confidence and experienced initial yet widely-expected success in Poland and then in Denmark, he overlooked important considerations. In many ways, Hitler made the same mistake Napoleon Bonaparte made years earlier. Hitler believed he could advance further and conquer Britain". This places the Battle of Britain after the invasions of Poland and Denmark. The phrase "and then in Denmark" places the invasion of Denmark after the invasion of Poland.

Combine Dates and Logical Inferences:

August 22, 1939 - Generals summoned to Obersalzberg
Unknown Date - Invasion of Poland
Unknown Date - Invasion of Denmark
1940 - the Battle of Britain
1943 - Stalingrad

A. This correctly orders the sequential chronology of events.
B. the phrase "widely-expected success in Poland and then in Denmark" indicated Hitler invaded Poland before Denmark
C. the phrase "widely-expected success in Poland and then in Denmark" indicated Hitler invaded Poland before Denmark
D. the Battle at Stalingrad (1943) occurred after the Battle of Britain (1940)
E. the Battle of Britain occurred after Hitler invaded Poland

ANSWER: A


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Re: On August 22, 1939, Adolf Hitler summoned his top military generals to  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Feb 2019, 08:33
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Re: On August 22, 1939, Adolf Hitler summoned his top military generals to  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Feb 2019, 15:30
1
Q.1 According to the passage, Hitler's confidence in his military strategy stemmed from its: - that's a detail question, answer will be in the passage.

A) Surprise invasions - out of scope
B) Emphasis on unconventional warfare - out of scope
C) Reliance on air supremacy - out of scope
D) Swift brutality - given in 3rd para
E) Napoleonic overtones - Inconsistent

Q. 2 The author of the passage is primarily concerned with explaining: - Main idea question

A) The logistics of Hitler's war strategy and the mechanics of its failure - Inconsistent. No mechanics is mentioned
B) The philosophy of Hitler's war strategy and the world's reaction - Inconsistent, No reaction of the world is mentioned
C) Why Hitler believed his war plans would succeed and why they eventually failed - that's the summary
D) Hitler's plans and their failure with an eye to pre-1900 history - Inconsistent, None is mentioned
E) Explaining the source of Hitler's brutality and the reasons for its failure - Inconsistent, source was not the failure, strategy was.

Q. 3 Which of the following best characterizes the author's view of the relationship between Hitler and Napolean? - Inference question

A) Governed with similar styles - out of scope.
B) Fought military conflicts with similar ideologies - out of scope
C) In general, shared a legacy as overly ambitious leaders - out of scope
D) At a high-level, some similarities in military missteps existed -"Hitler pressed on and, in an even more fateful decision that carried echoes of a Napoleonic tactical misstep", This sentence explains it.
E) Both suffered final defeats by impetuously charging east - Partial scope, Nothing is told about the Napolean.

Q. 4 According to the passage, what best describes the author's understanding of why Hitler's military campaign eventually failed? detail question

A) Failed to demoralize opponents - out of scope
B) Overlooked important tactical and geographic considerations - stated in last para
C) Underestimated international resolve - out of scope
D) Fell behind technological advancements of European enemies - out of scope
E) Failed to consolidate initial military and land gains - out of scope

Q. 5 According to the passage, Hitler's confidence in the war plans announced at Obersalzberg stemmed from all of the following EXCEPT: - detail question

A) The speed of the German military - stated in the passage
B) The brutality of the German military - stated in the passage
C) The plan to stifle dissent - stated in the passage
D) The belief that instilling fear weakened enemies - stated in the passage
E) The history of overlooking European military brutality - not stated

Q. 6 According to the passage, why did Hitler believe he could conquer Poland in a few weeks? - detail question

A) The inaction of European neighbors - out of scope
B) The example of Napoleon - out of scope
C) The philosophy of Genghis Kahn - out of scope
D) The counsel of a military general - stated in 2nd para
E) The small size of Poland - out of scope

Q. 7 According to the passage, which of the following represents the chronological unfolding of events?

A) Generals summoned to Obersalzberg; Invaded Poland; Invaded Denmark; the Battle of Britain; Battle at Stalingrad - represents the order
B) Generals summoned to Obersalzberg; Invaded Denmark; Invaded Poland; the Battle of Britain; Battle at Stalingrad - not in order
C) Generals summoned to Obersalzberg; Invaded Denmark; Invaded Poland; Battle at Stalingrad; the Battle of Britain - not in order
D) Generals summoned to Obersalzberg; Invaded Poland; Invaded Denmark; Battle at Stalingrad; the Battle of Britain - not in order
E) Generals summoned to Obersalzberg; the Battle of Britain; Invaded Poland; Invaded Denmark; Battle at Stalingrad - not in order
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On August 22, 1939, Adolf Hitler summoned his top military generals to  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Feb 2019, 15:40
1
Q.1 According to the passage, Hitler's confidence in his military strategy stemmed from its:

A) Surprise invasions
B) Emphasis on unconventional warfare
C) Reliance on air supremacy
D) Swift brutality - Correct - straight forward info available in 2nd para
E) Napoleonic overtones

Q. 2 The author of the passage is primarily concerned with explaining:

A) The logistics of Hitler's war strategy and the mechanics of its failure
B) The philosophy of Hitler's war strategy and the world's reaction
C) Why Hitler believed his war plans would succeed and why they eventually failed - Correct - passage starts with Hitlers aggressive plan, followed by his confidence in his approach that would bring victory, then details about history of brutal Ghengis Khan finally ends with Hitlers defeat in britain and USSR
D) Hitler's plans and their failure with an eye to pre-1900 history
E) Explaining the source of Hitler's brutality and the reasons for its failure

Q. 3 Which of the following best characterizes the author's view of the relationship between Hitler and Napolean?

A) Governed with similar styles -way of governing is not given in passage
B
) Fought military conflicts with similar ideologies - Not supported by passage
C) In general, shared a legacy as overly ambitious leaders
D) At a high-level, some similarities in military missteps existed - correct - straight forward info available from last para
E) Both suffered final defeats by impetuously charging east - trap - Britain is at north and not East

Q. 4 According to the passage, what best describes the author's understanding of why Hitler's military campaign eventually failed?

A) Failed to demoralize opponents
B) Overlooked important tactical and geographic considerations - correct - straight forward info available from last para
C) Underestimated international resolve
D) Fell behind technological advancements of European enemies
E) Failed to consolidate initial military and land gains

Q. 5According to the passage, Hitler's confidence in the war plans announced at Obersalzberg stemmed from all of the following EXCEPT:

A) The speed of the German military - Given in 2nd para
B) The brutality of the German military - Given in 2nd para
C) The plan to stifle dissent - Given in 3rd para
D) The belief that instilling fear weakened enemies - Given in 3rd para
E) The history of overlooking European military brutalit - correct - not supported by passage

Q. 6 According to the passage, why did Hitler believe he could conquer Poland in a few weeks?

A) The inaction of European neighbors
B) The example of Napoleon
C) The philosophy of Genghis Kahn
D) The counsel of a military general - Correct - straight forward info available from 2nd para
E) The small size of Poland

Q. 7 According to the passage, which of the following represents the chronological unfolding of events?

A) Generals summoned to Obersalzberg; Invaded Poland; Invaded Denmark; the Battle of Britain; Battle at Stalingrad - correct - follows the chronology stated in passage
B) Generals summoned to Obersalzberg; Invaded Denmark; Invaded Poland; the Battle of Britain; Battle at Stalingrad
C) Generals summoned to Obersalzberg; Invaded Denmark; Invaded Poland; Battle at Stalingrad; the Battle of Britain
D) Generals summoned to Obersalzberg; Invaded Poland; Invaded Denmark; Battle at Stalingrad; the Battle of Britain
E) Generals summoned to Obersalzberg; the Battle of Britain; Invaded Poland; Invaded Denmark; Battle at Stalingrad
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On August 22, 1939, Adolf Hitler summoned his top military generals to   [#permalink] 06 Feb 2019, 15:40
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On August 22, 1939, Adolf Hitler summoned his top military generals to

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