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One of the most useful social conventions is money

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One of the most useful social conventions is money  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jul 2017, 04:57
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One of the most useful social conventions is money, whose universality across societies is matched only by language. Unlike language, which is rooted in an innate ability, money is an artificial, human invention. Hence, it seems probable that the invention of money occurred independently in more than one society.

The argument’s conclusion is properly drawn if which one of the following is assumed?

(A) Some societies have been geographically isolated enough not to have been influenced by any other society.

(B) Language emerged independently in different societies at different times in human history.

(C) Universal features of human society that are not inventions are rooted in innate abilities.

(D) If money were not useful, it would not be so widespread.

(E) No human society that adopted the convention of money has since abandoned it.

Source: LSAT
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Re: One of the most useful social conventions is money  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jul 2017, 05:09
In order to make conclusion valid, what writer has assumed
Conclusion is "invention of money occurred independently in more than one society"

ganand wrote:
One of the most useful social conventions is money, whose universality across societies is matched only by language. Unlike language, which is rooted in an innate ability, money is an artificial, human invention. Hence, it seems probable that the invention of money occurred independently in more than one society.

The argument’s conclusion is properly drawn if which one of the following is assumed?

(A) Some societies have been geographically isolated enough not to have been influenced by any other society. --->right option clearly says that "some" societies are geographically isolated that other societies have no influence---argument already has said that money is invented by human thus it proves that those isolated societies must have invented money independently"

(B) Language emerged independently in different societies at different times in human history. [We arn't concerned about language, if language emerged independently, it has no effect on conclusion"

(C) Universal features of human society that are not inventions are rooted in innate abilities. [are we concerned about universal features that are NOT invented?"] wrong-out of scope

(D) If money were not useful, it would not be so widespread. [useful of money doesnt prove either its invention occur independently or not"] wrong out of scope

(E) No human society that adopted the convention of money has since abandoned it.[out of scope]
Source: LSAT

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Re: One of the most useful social conventions is money  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jul 2017, 09:26
ganand wrote:
One of the most useful social conventions is money, whose universality across societies is matched only by language. Unlike language, which is rooted in an innate ability, money is an artificial, human invention. Hence, it seems probable that the invention of money occurred independently in more than one society.

The argument’s conclusion is properly drawn if which one of the following is assumed?

(A) Some societies have been geographically isolated enough not to have been influenced by any other society.

(B) Language emerged independently in different societies at different times in human history.

(C) Universal features of human society that are not inventions are rooted in innate abilities.

(D) If money were not useful, it would not be so widespread.

(E) No human society that adopted the convention of money has since abandoned it.

Source: LSAT


I will go with answer A.

That is the only choice that provides an extra premise that is essential for the conclusion to be definitive. Moreover negating it hurts the conclusion.
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Re: One of the most useful social conventions is money  [#permalink]

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New post 30 May 2020, 04:55
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The correct answer is option A.

Approach:
1. Identify the conclusion
2. Frame the falsification question (under what condition is the conclusion not true? - this will help us find those assumptions made by the author in making the claim)
3. Identify Falsification Conditions (i.e conditions under which the conclusion does not hold true/will break)
4. Framing assumptions (by negating the above conditions - identifying the conditions under which a conclusion will break helps us to identify the assumptions the author has made to ensure the conclusion does not break).

Passage Analysis
- Money is one of the most useful social conventions
- Along with Language, it is the most universal of all conventions. i.e. it is present in all societies
- Unlike language, which is rooted in an innate ability (i.e. language evolved naturally), money is an artificial invention made by human beings
- Conclusion: it seems probable that the invention of money occurred independently in more than one society

Question Stem
Find the assumption

Pre-Thinking
Conclusion: The invention of money probably occurred independently in more than one society
Falsification Question: In what scenario would the invention of money probably not have occurred independently in more than one society?
Given that:
1. Money and language are universal social conventions
2. While language is innately developed, money is a human invention
Falsification Condition: What if the societies are interconnected, so the invention of money in one society led to it being adopted in all other societies? In such a case, definitely, we cannot say that the invention of money occurred independently in more than one society. It may have occurred in one society, and the other societies adopted the invention. Hence, this condition will definitely break the conclusion
Assumption: Some (at least one) societies have been isolated (not connected) such that they cannot adopt/be influenced by conventions in other societies

Option Choice Analysis

(A) Some societies have been geographically isolated enough not to have been influenced by any other society.
Exactly what we arrived at. Correct answer. You can verify this by negating the assumption.
Negation: No society is isolated enough to not have been influenced by any other society. This means that money could have been invented in some society and be adopted by other societies. This will definitely break the conclusion that invention of money occurred independently in more than one society.
The negated assumption breaks the conclusion. Hence, it is the correct answer.

(B) Language emerged independently in different societies at different times in human history.
The conclusion is specific to whether money emerged independently. Language emerging independently or not has no impact on this conclusion.

(C) Universal features of human society that are not inventions are rooted in innate abilities.
So what? this only tells us that features that are not inventions are rooted in innate abilities (example: language). But our conclusion is about money (which is an invention - nor rooted in innate ability). This option has no actual impact on our conclusion, which is about money. Other features of society are not relevant.

(D) If money were not useful, it would not be so widespread.
This does not mean in any way that money was invented independently in more than one society. Money could have spread to all societies from one society, because its very useful, or money could have evolved independently in multiple societies, because each of these societies understood the usefulness of money and invented them independently. Both cases are possible. Hence this cannot be the correct assumption.

(E) No human society that adopted the convention of money has since abandoned it.
Irrelevant to the argument here.

Hope this helps.
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Re: One of the most useful social conventions is money   [#permalink] 30 May 2020, 04:55

One of the most useful social conventions is money

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