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# Pedanius Dioscorides, a first-century physician and botanist,

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Pedanius Dioscorides, a first-century physician and botanist,  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 16 Mar 2018, 08:47
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Pedanius Dioscorides, a first-century physician and botanist, presented detailed information about medicinal materials and practices in his five-volume book De Materia Medica, a compilation of all medicine after Hippocrates and summarizing as well new experiments that Dioscorides was himself working on.

(A) a compilation of all medicine after Hippocrates and summarizing as well
(B) a compilation of all medicine following Hippocrates and also summarizing
(C) a compilation of all medical knowledge since Hippocrates as well as a summary of
(D) compiling all medicine from Hippocrates forward and also a summary of
(E) compiling all the medicine done since Hippocrates as well as his own summary of

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Originally posted by devikeerthansr on 13 Jan 2018, 13:58.
Last edited by generis on 16 Mar 2018, 08:47, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Pedanius Dioscorides, a first-century physician and botanist,  [#permalink]

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13 Jan 2018, 15:03
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devikeerthansr wrote:
Pedanius Dioscorides, a first-century physician and botanist, presented detailed information about medicinal materials and practices in his five-volume book De Materia Medica, a compilation of all medicine after Hippocrates and summarizing as well new experiments that Dioscorides was himself working on.

a.a compilation of all medicine after Hippocrates and summarizing as well
b.a compilation of all medicine following Hippocrates and also summarizing
c.a compilation of all medical knowledge since Hippocrates as well as a summary of
d.compiling all medicine from Hippocrates forward and also a summary of
e.compiling all the medicine done since Hippocrates as well as his own summary of

A - Wrong verb-ing modifier - summarizing and incorrect as well.
B - same as A
C - Correct
D&E - incorrect modifier compiling
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Re: Pedanius Dioscorides, a first-century physician and botanist,  [#permalink]

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14 Mar 2018, 06:17
a compilation of all medicine after Hippocrates and summarizing as well new experiments that Dioscorides was himself working on.
||ism error
only (C) corrects this { X as well as Y}

c)a compilation of all medical knowledge since Hippocrates as well as a summary of
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Re: Pedanius Dioscorides, a first-century physician and botanist,  [#permalink]

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16 Mar 2018, 05:34
Pedanius Dioscorides, a first-century physician and botanist, presented detailed information about medicinal materials and practices in his five-volume book De Materia Medica, a compilation of all medicine after Hippocrates and summarizing as well new experiments that Dioscorides was himself working on.

a.a compilation of all medicine after Hippocrates and summarizing as well
b.a compilation of all medicine following Hippocrates and also summarizing
c.a compilation of all medical knowledge since Hippocrates as well as a summary of
d.compiling all medicine from Hippocrates forward and also a summary of
e.compiling all the medicine done since Hippocrates as well as his own summary of

For D and E, you have an clause before it meaning, the -ing form can modify it grammatically. Also, for D, X and Y look parallel. So what is wrong the modifier?

Also, for B, why would you reject it? X and Y are both in the -ING form and thus parallel.

On what grounds are those answers rejected?
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Pedanius Dioscorides, a first-century physician and botanist,  [#permalink]

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16 Mar 2018, 11:47
devikeerthansr wrote:
Pedanius Dioscorides, a first-century physician and botanist, presented detailed information about medicinal materials and practices in his five-volume book De Materia Medica, a compilation of all medicine after Hippocrates and summarizing as well new experiments that Dioscorides was himself working on.

(A) a compilation of all medicine after Hippocrates and summarizing as well
Compilation is not parallel with summarizing.
• Medicine cannot be compiled in the way this sentence intends. Medical knowledge can be compiled.
VOCABULARY: The verb "to compile" refers to information, data, scores, computing, etc.
• Redundant: X . . . and Y as well.

(B) a compilation of all medicine following Hippocrates and also summarizing
Parallelism: Identical to A's problems
• Medicine / medical knowledge: Identical to A's problems
• Construction is suspicious but not fatal**: X . . . and also Y

(C) a compilation of all medical knowledge since Hippocrates as well as a summary of
CORRECT

(D) compiling all medicine from Hippocrates forward and also a summary of
Parallelism: Compiling is not parallel with summary
• Medicine / medical knowledge: Identical to problems in A and B
• Construction is suspicious but not fatally so: X . . . and also Y

This idiom is wrong: "from Hippocrates forward."
The correct idiom is "from that time forward." (Similar to "from this day forward.")
History moves forward from a time, not from a person.

(E) compiling all the medicine done since Hippocrates as well as his own summary of
Parallelism: Identical to D's problem.
• S/V is not idiomatic: medicine is not "done," and certainly not in this context.
The meaning should convey "medical knowledge since Hippocrates['time]"
• Pronoun phrase redundancy: "his own." The last part of the prompt already tells us "was himself working on."

For D and E, you have an clause before it meaning, the -ing form can modify it grammatically. Also, for D, X and Y look parallel. So what is wrong the modifier?

Also, for B, why would you reject it? X and Y are both in the -ING form and thus parallel.

On what grounds are those answers rejected?

albertziade , see my explanations above.

In B, which words, X and Y, seem parallel to you?

With respect to D and E, I address your modifier question below.
The decisive issues, however, are parallelism and redundancy.

Parallelism and redundancy

GMAT writers love to test parallelism.

Only Answer C contains the correct parallelism, and there is no redundancy

A) Noun (compilation) X . . . Present Participle (summarizing)(Verb-ING) Y as well

B) Noun (compilation) X . . . and also Present Participle (summarizing)(Verb-ING) Y

C) Noun (compilation) X . . . as well as Noun (summary) Y

D) Present Participle(compiling)(Verb-ING) . . . and also Noun (summary) Y

E) Present Participle (compiling)(Verb-ING) . . . as well as . . . Noun (summary) Y

For D and E, you have an clause before it meaning, the -ing form can modify it grammatically. So what is wrong [with] the modifier?

I assume that you mean "it" as an acceptable pronoun for the book, such that "compiling" could modify the book?

Here is the sentence I think you imagine:

Pedanius Dioscorides, a first-century physician and botanist, presented detailed information about medicinal materials and practices in his five-volume book De Materia Medica, compiling all medical knowledge since Hippocrates as well as summarizing new experiments that Dioscorides was himself working on.

Does "compiling all medical knowledge . . ." modify the book, or the author?
If this sentence replaced C, and the other answers remained the same, you would choose this one.
Compiling and summarizing are parallel.
No redundancy, either.

If you have to choose between your hypothetical sentence and C, as happens sometimes on very hard questions?
Choose C. A person cannot be a compilation or a summary.
In Answer C, the nouns make it clear that the modifying phrase (after . . . "Medica") modifies the book

Hope that helps.

**and also
Some official explanations say that "and also" is wrong. The phrase is not automatically wrong.
That phrase should arouse a little suspicion, but it should not be the basis upon which you eliminate an answer.
If an incorrect answer contains "and also," there will be another reason that the answer is incorrect.

Use this guideline: find another reason to eliminate the answer.

There are a few answers in official materials from the last 8 years in which and also is in the correct answer. The construction is not very predictable.

One construction that IS predictably okay occurs when a person has done two things that cannot be done simultaneously.
Correct: My neighbor mowed her lawn today and also washed the outside of her windows.

Other uses of and also are not as predictable, but may still be correct. I would not worry about why.
The OEs are not consistent.
I would just remember the guideline.
If you see "and also," be a little suspicious and look for another error.
If there are no other errors, and the other four options do have errors, choose the option that uses "and also" and has no errors.

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Pedanius Dioscorides, a first-century physician and botanist,   [#permalink] 16 Mar 2018, 11:47
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# Pedanius Dioscorides, a first-century physician and botanist,

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